Olympic Edition 2010

### International Olympic Academy: 10th Joint International Session for Presidents or Directors of National Olympic Academies and Officials of National Olympic Committees

#### Table of Contents

1. [President’s Forward – Dr. Thomas P. Rosandich](#forward)
2. [Introduction to the International Olympic Academy – Anne Kent Rush, Editor](/article/introduction-international-olympic-academy)
3. [National Olympic Academies – National Olympic Committees Parallel Paths, Intertwined Paths – Mr. Isidoros Kouvelos](/article/national-olympic-academies-national-olympic-committees-parallel-paths-intertwined-paths)
4. [The National Olympic Committee: Its Role and Position at the Dawn of the 21st Century – Mr. Giannis Papadogiannakis](/article/national-olympic-committee-its-role-and-position-dawn-21st-century)
5. [The Place and Role of Olympism in Higher Education – Prof. Dr. Antonin Rychtecky](/article/place-and-role-olympism-higher-education)
6. [The Institutional Framework for the Development of Olympic Education and the Role of the National Olympic Academy – Mr. Alexandre Mestre](/article/institutional-framework-development-olympic-education-and-role-national-olympic-academy)
7. [How to Spread and Develop Joint International Programs about Olympic Education: Cultural and Communication Problems – Mr. Henry Tandau](/article/how-spread-and-develop-joint-international-programs-about-olympic-education-cultural-and-com)
8. [The Position of the Athlete in the Social Structure of Ancient Greece – Prof. Mark Golden](/article/position-athlete-social-structure-ancient-greece)
9. [The Use of Sport Art for the Development of Olympic Education: Passing the Visual Torch – Dr. Thomas P. Rosandich](/article/use-sport-art-development-olympic-education-passing-visual-torch)
10. [Closing Address and Olympic Anthem – Mr. Isidoros Kouvelos](http://thesportjournal.org/article/closing-address)
11. [IOA Master’s Degree Program Specifications](/article/international-olympic-academy-masters-degree-program-specifications)
12. [Olympic Values Education Programme (OVEP) Progress Report: 2005-2010](/article/olympic-values-education-programme-ovep-progress-report-2005-2010)


#### President’s Forward

This special issue of the Academy’s _Sport Journal_ is dedicated to the International Olympic Academy (IOA) and its worldwide programs.

This past May, I delivered a presentation in Greece at the International Olympic Academy for the 10th Joint International Session for Presidents or Directors of National Olympic Academies and Officials of National Olympic Committees. My presentation topic was the use of Olympic posters as a reflection of the role of sport art in Olympic culture. Dignitaries from around the world gave presentations on the issues vital to education in Olympism. Special emphasis was placed on challenges in collaboration among the National Olympic Academies, the National Olympic Committees, and the IOA.

Located in historic Olympia, south of Athens on the Peloponnese Peninsula, the IOA functions as an international Academic Centre for Olympic Studies and is an exceptional new resource for students around the globe. Operated jointly by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the Greek government, the IOA offers a wide variety of research studies and educational programs aimed at spreading the vision of Olympism.

As President, founder and CEO of the United States Sports Academy, and as a member of the International Olympic Committee’s Commission on Culture and Education, I share the IOA’s vision of Olympism. During my visit, I met with Isidros Kouvelos, President of the IOA; with Professor Konstantino Georgiadis, IOA Honorary Dean; and with Professor Dionyssis Gangas, IOA Director. We discussed the IOA, its projects, and the impressive, new master’s degree program: Olympic Studies, Olympic Education, and Organization and Management of Olympic Events.

Students at the IOA use _The Sport Journal_ as reference material for their work more than any other journal. With more than 500,000 unique visitors per year, _The Sport Journal_ is the most read journal in the world.

Since these pieces, the bases of live presentations by experts from a variety of academic disciplines, are hereby introduced to a wide, general audience, _The Sport Journal_ has relaxed its standard rule requiring entries to adhere to American Psychological Association style. This _Olympic Edition_ offers the presentations given by Olympic scholars at the May 2010 session in Greece.

Dr. Thomas P. Rosandich
President and CEO
United States Sports Academy

Experimental and Numerical Study of the Flow Past the Olympic Class K-1 Flat Water Racing Kayak at Steady Speed

### Abstract

The present work is concerned with the study of the hydrodynamic performance of an Olympic class “K-1” flat water racing Kayak. The evaluation of the hydrodynamic resistance of the vessel is of major importance since it is directly related to the human power required to sustain a specific speed. In this respect, experiments in calm water and regular waves were conducted at various speeds past the particular boat at the towing tank of the Laboratory for Ship and Marine Hydrodynamics (LSMH) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The calm water tests were performed in the range of speeds from 0.25 to 5m/s and useful conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of the wave formation on the non-dimensional resistance coefficients. Experiments in regular waves were carried out for two characteristic speeds and showed an increase of the hydrodynamic resistance of about 11%. Furthermore, systematic numerical tests using advanced computer codes developed at LSMHE have been performed in order to investigate whether Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools can be applied with confidence for predicting the calm water resistance of similar vessels. The scope of this part of the investigation is related to a rapid and cost-effective optimization of the shape of the boat. The computed results for the total resistance were in satisfactory agreement with the measurements, thus forming a basis for further investigation and deeper understanding of the athlete-boat interaction, especially for high performance and competition boats.

Under this study, every coach may form the way his athlete paddles, taking into consideration the hydrodynamic resistance during a canoe – kayak race with or without head waves. Additionally, this investigation is important for the canoe – kayak boat manufacturers since they can improve the boat shapes using existing CFD tools and taking into account the resistance increase due to waves.

**Key words:** racing-kayak, resistance, experiments, potential, RANS

### Introduction

The scope of the present work is to investigate the hydrodynamic behavior of an Olympic class K-1 Flat Water Racing Kayak boat at steady forward speed. In a first approximation, the complicated roll and yaw motion of the boat caused by the rower is simplified by regarding only the forward component including free heave and trim. The athlete is in any case replaced by a constant weight about his/her mean centre of gravity. The study includes both experimental and numerical tests. Basically, the aim of the experimental program was to measure the total resistance of the Kayak, covering a speed range of 0.25 to 5.15 m/s, at the towing tank of the Laboratory for Ship and Marine Hydrodynamics (LSMH) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The tests took place during the last week of January 2009. First, experiments were carried out in calm water at various speeds. Similar tests have also been performed by towing tanks past other types of vessels, e.g. (3). Next, the particular boat was tested at two characteristic speeds in low regular waves which were produced by the wave generator of the tank. These tests were made in order to assess the increase of the hydrodynamic resistance and the corresponding power which is required to sustain the particular speeds.

On the other hand, the dramatic development of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides a valuable alternative for evaluating the hydrodynamic behavior of floating bodies. Many research groups have developed advanced computer codes which numerically solve the flow field around complicated geometries. So far, most of the applications are concerned with flows about ships and try to overcome the problem of extrapolating the towing tank measurements to full scale. However, this is not the case in the particular study because the real vessel is tested in the towing tank and, therefore, the experiments predict accurately its hydrodynamic behavior. The main reason for performing CFD tests is to evaluate the codes that have been developed at the LSMH in order to use them in a future optimization procedure regarding the shape of the boat. The application of reliable CFD tools requires substantially less cost than constructing various models and testing them in a towing tank, since the most favorable shapes can be detected numerically and then a limited number of experiments has to be carried out. In the present investigation two methods have been examined to calculate the boat resistance at steady forward speed; a non-linear potential flow solver as well as a Reynold’s Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver. Both of them are applied for the first time past the Kayak boat and useful conclusions are drawn.

### Methods

#### Experimental Procedures

All the experiments were performed in the towing tank of the LMSH. The dimensions of the towing tank are 91 m (effective length), 4.56 m (width), and 3.00 m (depth). The towing tank is equipped with a running carriage that can achieve a maximum speed of 5.2 m/s. The tank is also equipped with a wave generating paddle (wave maker), located at one end of the flume. At the opposite end there is a properly shaped inclined shore, for the absorption of the waves. The wave making facilities can produce both harmonic and pseudorandom waves, in the frequency range from 0.3 to 1.4 Hz. The corresponding significant wave height can reach the level of 25 cm.

The hull provided by Pan-Hellenic Kayak and Canoe Trainers Association (PA.SY.P.K-C) was an Olympic class flat water racing Kayak, K-1 category, which refers to a single-seat boat, having the athlete paddling in a seated position. The weight category of the boat is M (medium), corresponding to an athlete’s weight in the range of 70 to 80 kg.

Minor alterations on the internal structure of the model were applied prior to the measurements, in order to accommodate the measuring equipment. This work was supervised by the personnel of PA.SY.P.K-C.

Both experimental and numerical tests were carried out with the boat having a displacement of Δ=86.8 kg (condition A). This is the sum of the bare hull weight with the added fixtures (11.8 kg) and the mean athlete’s weight, the last taken as 75 kg for the present study. The longitudinal position of the center of gravity (LCG) was chosen at the middle of the athlete’s seat. For the experiments, the rod of the resistance dynamometer was mounted on the hull at this location. The mounting was done using a heave rod – pitch bearing assembly, which allows for the vertical motions and trim angles (heave and pitch responses) of the boat.

The resistance measurements were performed for speeds in the range from 0.25 to 5.15 m/s, for the case of calm water and for two speeds (2.5 and 5.0 m/s) for the case of harmonic waves, (5). All the tests were performed in fresh water, at a temperature of 15 oC.

The boat resistance, the rise of the center of gravity (c.g.), the dynamic trim and the towing speed of the model were recorded during the runs on calm water. In this investigation, trim is defined as the signed rotation about the transverse axis passing through the c.g. and is considered positive when the bow of the kayak sinks. In addition, for the case of harmonic waves, the wave elevation was measured using wave probes.

#### Data Analysis

In order to investigate whether CFD tools can be applied with confidence to predict the calm water resistance of similar vessels under the scope of hull optimization, systematic numerical tests were carried out by applying the non-linear potential flow solver (7,8), as well as the RANS solver (6,8), both developed at LSMH.

The potential method is based on constant source quadrilateral panels that cover the wetted surface of the boat and the real free-surface (Figure 1). The latter is found by an iterative procedure which, after convergence, leads to the satisfaction of both the well known free surface conditions: the kinematic and the dynamic. The potential flow predicts the wave making component CW, whereas the total resistance coefficient CT is calculated by adding the corresponding 1957 International Towing Tank Conference (ITTC’57) value for the skin friction coefficient CF.

![Quadrilateral panels on the hull and water surface for the potential calculations.](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/figure-1.jpg “Quadrilateral panels on the hull and water surface for the potential calculations.”)
**Figure 1** Quadrilateral panels on the hull and water surface for the potential calculations.

Naturally, this procedure suffers from the potential flow drawbacks, i.e. the predicted wave pattern near and after the stern does not include any viscous effects. Besides, the so called form-resistance component including the skin friction alteration due to the shape of the hull and the viscous pressure component cannot be taken into account. These shortcomings disappear when the RANS equations are solved numerically. The latter, however, requires substantially higher computing power and time since a three-dimensional grid discretisation is required, Figure 2.

The employed method uses an H-O type numerical grid which is adjusted to the free-surface as the solution proceeds (6). To account for turbulence effects, the well known k-ε model with wall functions (2) is adopted.

![Numerical H-O type grid for the RANS calculations.](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/figure-2.jpg “Numerical H-O type grid for the RANS calculations.”)
**Figure 2** Numerical H-O type grid for the RANS calculations.

### Results

#### Calm water experiments

Calm water resistance tests were done for the speed range of 0.25 to 5.15 m/s. The experimental results concerning the calm water resistance, the CG rise, the dynamic trim and the towing speed of the kayak are presented in Table 1. The corresponding graphs for the resistance, dynamic trim and CG rise are presented in Figs. 3 to 5, respectively.

As observed in Fig. 4, the dynamic trim is negligible in the range of speeds 0-2.5 m/s while it increases rapidly after it, resulting in an increase of the draft at the stern and a raise of the bow. The CG –rise, Fig. 5, is always negative resulting in an increase of the mean vessel’s draft which presents a peak about the speed of 3.5 m/s. This behavior could be associated with the dynamic trim change and shows that the behavior of the boat is very sensitive with respect to the speed.

![Total Resistance](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/figure-3.gif “Total Resistance”)
**Figure 3** Total Resistance

![Dynamic Trim](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/figure-4.gif “Dynamic Trim”)
**Figure 4** Dynamic Trim

![C.G. Rise](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/figure-5.gif “C.G. Rise”)
**Figure 5** C.G. Rise

In order to study the usual Froude decomposition of the total resistance coefficient versus speed, the relation between the total resistance coefficient (CT) and the Froude number (Fn) is, firstly, depicted in Figure 6. These parameters are defined by the following relations:

![Formula 1](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/formula-1.gif)

![Formula 2](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/formula-2.gif)

where VS stands for the speed, g is the gravitational acceleration, L the waterline length, RT the total resistance, ρ the water density and WS the wetted surface.

In the calculation of the total resistance coefficient, the wetted surface used was the one calculated by means of the potential method. The variation total resistance coefficient vs. Fn, presented in Fig.6, shows that it is influenced strongly by the wave formation. The main hump is located in the region of Fn 0.4÷0.45, i.e. it is moved to the left with respect to the predicted one by the linear wave theory (about 0.5) (4). However, the prismatic hump is missing while a “hollow” appears about Fn=0.3 which is moved to the right with respect to the predicted one by the linear wave theory (about 0.24), while the higher values at the low Fn show a dominant effect of skin friction.

![Total resistance coefficient.](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/figure-6.gif “Total resistance coefficient.”)
**Figure 6** Total resistance coefficient.

According to the standard Froude approach, the total resistance coefficient can be decomposed into the friction (CF) and the residual (CR) components as:

![Formula 3](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/formula-3.gif)

The friction coefficient (CF) can be calculated by the ITTC’57 formula as:

![Formula 4](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/formula-4.gif)

where

![Formula 5](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/formula-5.gif)

represents the corresponding Reynolds number, L is the immersed waterline length and ν the kinematic viscosity.

Furthermore, the residual resistance may be regarded as equal to the so-called wave-making resistance CW, i.e. CR ≈ CW. The three coefficients with respect to the Froude number are presented in Table 2. The negative or very low values of CR at the lower Froude numbers show that the skin friction formula rather over-predicts CF and, therefore, an extended laminar region may cover the front part of the vessel. It should be noted here that no turbulence stimulators were applied since the real hull was tested. The slender form of this hull should result in a thin boundary layer region over the major part of the wetted surface, thus permitting the existence of a laminar zone especially at low speeds, which in any case is favorable because it leads to a reduction of the total resistance.

The residual resistance coefficient, plotted vs. Fn in Fig. 7, shows similar trends with Fig. 6 and influences accordingly the total coefficient. CR is comparable to CF after Fn=0.3, but in any case is lower than that, implying that skin friction plays an important role for the total resistance. This trend is due to the very slender form of the particular boat which was designed to produce low waves, as far as possible.

![Wave, Pressure and Residual resistance coefficients.](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/figure-7.gif “Wave, Pressure and Residual resistance coefficients.”)
**Figure 7** Wave, Pressure and Residual resistance coefficients.

#### Potential results

In order to validate the use of the non-linear potential solver (7) for the examined type of vessel, systematic numerical tests were conducted for the same speed range as the experiments.

The solver has been developed at the LSMH and solves the wave problem by covering the hull and the free-surface with quadrilateral panels. The hull geometry is represented by the conformal mapping approach which exhibits the advantage of a fast and effective reconstruction of panels as the free-surface changes. A special feature of the code is the calculation of the free-surface by combining an integral with a differential method. The total number of panels used was 12,000 while the trim angle as well as the dynamic rise of the c.g., were calculated numerically. The potential results of the examined cases are shown in Table 3. Essentially the method predicts only the wave resistance component CW, while CF is derived under the ITTC’57 skin friction approximation. The predicted CW is compared to the measured one in Fig. 7. Evidently it exhibits the same variations, but it is lower than the experimental in the whole range of Fn. This is an expected behavior according to the aforementioned shortcomings. The potential theory predicts higher waves at the stern region, resulting in increased pressures underneath the stern that in turn lead to a reduction of the total wave resistance. However, the total resistance coefficient appears closer to the experimental in Fig. 6 where the skin friction was added. This is reflected also to the calculation of the total resistance (which is the meaningful quantity) in Fig. 3, where the calculated results are in satisfactory agreement with the measurements up to the speed of 3.5 m/s (~7%) while deviations increase at higher speeds.

#### RANS results

In order to explore the possibility of obtaining better results at high speeds with RANS computations, three test cases were examined, corresponding to the speeds of 3, 4 and 5m/s. The relevant code has also been developed at the LSMH and, unlike other methods, uses the concept of orthogonal curvilinear co-ordinates to solve the viscous flow equations. This feature is beneficial for obtaining effectively converged solutions. The free-surface is calculated iteratively by applying a surface-tracking method that has been developed for the first time in (6).

In any case the grid size had 2.65 million grid points. To reduce the computation cost as well as the uncertainties related with the longitudinal position of the center of gravity, the trim angle of the vessel was taken from the experiments while it was assumed free to heave. The results acquired via the RANS solver are shown in Table 4. First, it is important to notice that the calculated skin friction coefficient CF is in very good agreement with the empirical ITTC’57 formula in Table 2, which justifies the relevant assumption when the potential method is adopted. The calculated values of the total resistance coefficients are presented in Table 4. Evidently, the total resistance is predicted with satisfactory agreement with respect to the experimental values for the examined speeds. The larger deviation at the highest speed may be a result of the extended wave breaking which was observed during the experiments in this case, which cannot be simulated numerically. The deviations percent of the calculated vs. the experimental total resistance is depicted in Table 5 for both methods, where the superiority of the RANS approach is obvious at high speeds.

The calculated wave patterns about the boat by the RANS computations are plotted in Figs. 8 to 10 for the speeds of 3.0 m/s, 4.0 m/s and 5.0 m/s, respectively. The full lines represent wave crests while the dashed lines correspond to wave troughs. These plots show a regular formation which is similar to the real one observed during the experiments.

![Water surface elevation contour, RANS solver, VS =2.995 m/s.](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/figure-8.jpg “Water surface elevation contour, RANS solver, VS =2.995 m/s.”)
**Figure 8** Water surface elevation contour, RANS solver, VS =2.995 m/s.

(Full lines: wave crests, dashed lines: wave troughs)

![Water surface elevation contour, RANS solver, VS =3.989 m/s.](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/figure-9.jpg “Water surface elevation contour, RANS solver, VS =3.989 m/s.”)
**Figure 9** Water surface elevation contour, RANS solver, VS =3.989 m/s.

(Full lines: wave crests, dashed lines: wave troughs)

![Water surface elevation contour, RANS solver, VS=5.153 m/s.](/files/volume-13-number-4/1/figure-10.jpg “Water surface elevation contour, RANS solver, VS=5.153 m/s.”)
**Figure 10** Water surface elevation contour, RANS solver, VS=5.153 m/s.

(Full lines: wave crests, dashed lines: wave troughs)

#### Experimental tests in regular waves

The tests in regular waves were done at the speed of 2.5 m/s for wave frequencies of 0.3 Hz, 0.5 Hz, 0.7 Hz, and 0.9 Hz and at the speed of 5.0 m/s for wave frequencies of 0.3 Hz and 0.5 Hz (5).

During the tests, the following responses were measured:

– C.G. rise
– Pitch
– Added resistance
– Wave Height

The experimental results for these tests are presented in Table 6. Based on the recorded time histories of the boat responses, the Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) in heave (at the CG position) and in pitch motion were calculated and presented also in this Table, together with the measured values of wave amplitude and mean added resistance.

The non-dimensional RAO values were calculated using the following formulae:

– RAOHEAVE = ξ0 / ζ0
– RAOPITCH = θ / (k ξ0)

Where:

– ξ0 : heave response amplitude
– ζ0 : wave amplitude
– θ : pitch amplitude [rad]
– k : wave number (k=2π/λ)
– λ : wave length

The most important result is the resistance increase presented in the last column of Table 6. It can be concluded that the added resistance is negligible for wave lengths much larger than the boat length (low frequency range, examined frequency 0.3 Hz) and can reach values from 7 to 12% for faster waves (examined frequencies 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 Hz) and for both wave heights. This resistance increase reflects directly on the power required by the athlete.

### Discussion

The measured total resistance coefficient shows a minimum about the vessel speed of 1.5m/s and a maximum at 3.0 m/s. These values appear as a result of the interactions of the generated wave systems about the boat. In addition, the Froude decomposition of the total resistance coefficient demonstrates that skin friction is higher than the residuary component at all speeds, while at low speeds the appearance of laminar flow regions about the bow is rather possible. Wave breaking was also observed at speeds above 3.5 m/s.

The performance of the boat subjected to low amplitude heading harmonic waves was also investigated. The main conclusion is that short waves (high frequencies) may increase the boat resistance and, therefore, the required human power by almost 10%.

The applications of the employed CFD approaches have shown that the computation of the total resistance by applying a non-linear potential flow code in conjunction with the ITTC’57 skin friction formula is in good agreement with the measured one for speeds up to 3.5 m/s. Above this level, viscous effects are dominant and RANS methods have to be employed to obtain accurate results. However, in the usual range of speeds of the particular vessel, the potential approach may produce reliable results and, therefore, can be involved in optimization procedures concerning the hull geometry.

The current investigation has been based on the fruitful collaboration of three research groups, i.e. the Laboratory for Ship and Marine hydrodynamics of NTUA, the Pan-Hellenic Canoe – Kayak Trainers Association, and the Department of Physical Education and Sport Science of the University of Athens. The groups combined their efforts for the first time, and the data acquired can form a basis for further investigation and deeper understanding of the athlete-boat interaction, especially for high performance and high competitive boats, like the case at hand. The research will be continued toward the hull optimization of the boat as well as the experimental study of the effect of the yaw and roll motions by designing the proper experimental apparatus. The numerical tools will be further developed to simulate these motions as well as to take into account the unsteady influence of waves.

### Conclusions

The systematic numerical experiments have shown that both potential and RANS methods can be applied in order to calculate the calm water resistance of a flat water racing kayak. The potential solver provided results in good qualitative agreement with the experiments and, therefore, can be involved in optimization procedures concerning the hull geometry. The RANS solver gave very accurate predictions for the total resistance and therefore can be used with confidence for predicting the resistance of vessels of similar geometry.

### Applications in Sport

In the last several years we have seen a tremendous rise in new technologies (construction materials, e.g. carbon fiber) (1) which in their way affect the increasing improvement of results in canoe – kayak. The main factor for the accomplishment of better times in canoeing is the hydrodynamic resistance of the boat’s hull. With this study, every coach may develop the way his athlete paddles, taking into consideration the hydrodynamic resistance which is observed depending on the waves appearing during a canoe – kayak race.

Additionally, this study is very important for the canoe – kayak boat manufacturers, since they can achieve the making of more improved boat hulls, taking into account the hydrodynamic resistance appearing under different types of waves.

### Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the personnel of LSMH and particularly Mr. I. Trachanas who has carried out the measurements in the Towing Tank as well as Mr. D. Triperinas, Ms. D. Damala and Mr. G Katsaounis for designing the experiments and interpreting the results.

The authors would also like to thank Lloyd’s Register Educational Trust (LRET), since Mr. Polyzos’ Phd studies are supported by LRET.

The Lloyd’s Register Educational Trust (LRET) is an independent charity working to achieve advances in transportation, science, engineering and technology education, training and research worldwide for the benefit of all.

### Tables

#### Table 1
Experimental results for the calm water resistance tests, condition: Δ=86.8 Κp.

Speed Froude Number Total Resistance (Rr) Dynamic Trim (+) by bow, (-) by stern C.G. Rise
m/s Kp deg em
0.244 0.035 0.011 -0.029 -0.063
0.499 0.071 0.078 -0.025 -0.163
1.003 0.142 0.311 -0.007 -0.027
1.502 0.213 0.669 0.007 -0.122
2.005 0.284 1.179 0.002 -0.317
2.500 0.354 1.896 -0.043 -0.629
2.995 0.425 2.854 -0.361 -1.163
3.493 0.495 3.963 -0.628 -1.362
3.989 0.565 5.085 -0.799 -1.195
4.494 0.637 6.318 -0.866 -0.846
5.153 0.730 7.902 -0.947 -0.602

#### Table 2
Experimental results for the calm water resistance tests.

Speed Froude Number Total Resistance (Rr) Total Resistance Coefficient (CF) Frictional Resistance Coefficient (CT) Residual Resistance Coefficient
m/s Nt (ITTC’57) (CR)
0.244 0.035 0.105 2.226E-03 4.606>-03 -2.380E-03
0.499 0.071 0.761 3.889E-03 3.971E-03 -8.194E-05
1.003 0.142 3.054 3.827E-03 3.470E-03 3.568E-04
1.502 0.213 6.556 3.644E-03 3.222E-03 4.216E-04
2.005 0.284 11.558 3.561E-03 3.061E-03 4.997E-04
2.500 0.354 18.588 3.651E-03 2.946E-03 7.050E-04
2.995 0.425 27.988 3.776E-03 2.856E-03 9.200E-04
3.493 0.495 38.862 3.872E-03 2.783E-03 1.089E-03
3.989 0.565 49.867 3.815E-03 2.722E-03 1.093E-03
4.494 0.637 61.952 3.710E-03 2.670E-03 1.040E-03
5.153 0.730 77.487 3.488E-03 2.611E-03 8.770E-04

#### Table 3
Numerical results for the calm water resistance tests, potential method.

Speed Froude Number Dynamic Trim (+) by bow, (-) by stern C.G. Rise Wave Resistance Coefficient (CW) Frictional Resistance Coefficient (CF) (ITTC’57) Total Resistance Coefficient (CT) Total Resistance (RT)
m/s deg cm Nt
0.244 0.035 -0.001 0.036 3.743E-04 4.606E-03 4.980E-03 0.235
0.499 0.071 0.001 0.022 1.305E-04 3.971E-03 4.102E-03 0.802
1.003 0.142 0.008 -0.008 6.468E-05 3.470E-03 3.535E-03 2.921
1.502 0.213 0.014 -0.112 1.079E-04 3.222E-03 3.330E-03 5.991
2.005 0.284 -0.032 -0.285 4.473E-04 3.061E-03 3.508E-03 11.388
2.500 0.354 -0.072 -0.462 4.288E-04 2.946E-03 3.375E-03 17.182
2.995 0.425 -0.352 -0.808 8.456E-04 2.856E-03 3.702E-03 27.437
3.493 0.495 -0.528 -0.761 8.367E-04 2.783E-03 3.620E-03 36.330
3.989 0.565 -0.665 -0.739 7.948E-04 2.722E-03 3.517E-03 45.974
4.494 0.637 -0.709 -0.626 6.733E-04 2.670E-03 3.343E-03 55.825
5.153 0.730 -0.828 -0.597 5.797E-04 2.611E-03 3.190E-03 70.881

#### Table 4
Numerical results for the calm water resistance tests, RANS method.

Speed Froude Number Pressure Resistance Coefficient (CP) Frictional Resistance Roefficient (CF) Total Resistance Coefficient (CT) Total Resistance (RT)
m/s Nt
2.995 0.425 9.001E-04 2.852E-03 3.752E-03 28.118
3.989 0.565 1.076E-03 2.717E-03 3.792E-03 50.266
5.153 0.730 7.825E-04 2.594E-03 3.376E-03 75.084

#### Table 5
Experimental results for the calm water resistance tests.

Speed Froude Number Deviation in Total Resistance δRT (%)
m/s Potential RANS
0.244 0.035 -123.76
0.499 0.071 -5.46
1.003 0.142 7.63
1.502 0.213 8.61
2.005 0.284 1.47
2.500 0.354 7.56
2.995 0.425 1.97 -0.46
3.493 0.495 6.52
3.989 0.565 7.81 -0.80
4.494 0.637 9.89
5.153 0.730 8.52 3.10

#### Table 6
Experimental results for the tests in regular waves.

Speed Wave Frequency Wave Amplitude RAO Heave RAO Pitch Added Resistance Resistance Increase
m/s Hz cm Kp %
2.5 0.3 5.9 0.936 1.111 0.016 0.8
2.5 0.5 5.3 0.565 0.598 0.157 8.3
2.5 0.7 5.3 0.139 0.053 0.132 7.0
2.5 0.9 4.8 0.042 0.018 0.221 11.7
5.0 0.3 5.8 1.045 1.164 0.139 1.9
5.0 0.5 5.2 1.000 0.780 0.873 11.6

### References

Diafas, V. (2007). The sport of Canoe-Kayak and its Olympic categories: vol.1Flatwater Canoe-Kayak, University of Athens

Launder, B. E., Spalding, D. B. (1974). The numerical computation of turbulent flows. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 3, 269-289.

Lazauskas, L., Winters, J., Tuck, E. O. (1997) Hydrodynamic Drag of Small Sea Kayaks. Retrieved from <http://www.cyberiad.net/library/kayaks/skmag/skmag.htm>

Newman, J. N. (1997). Marine Hydrodynamics. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London England: The MIT press, ISBN 0-262-14026-8.

Triperinas, D. V., Damala, D., Katsaounis, G. (2009) Report No. NAL 303 F 2009, Laboratory for Ship and Marine Hydrodynamics, NTUA.

Tzabiras, G. D. (2004). Resistance and Self-propulsion simulations for a Series-60, CB=0.6 hull at model and full scale. Ship Technology Research, 51, 21-34.

Tzabiras, G. D. (2008). A method for predicting the influence of an additive bulb on ship resistance. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Hydrodynamics, 53-60.

Tzabiras, G. D., Kontogiannis, K. (2010). An integrated method for predicting the hydrodynamic resistance of low-Cb ships. Computer-Aided Design Journal, Accepted for publication.

### Corresponding Author
Mr. Stylianos Polyzos
Laboratory for Ship and Marine Hydrodynamics
9 Heroon Polytechniou str. NTUA Campus, Zografos 15773, Greece
<spolyzos@mail.ntua.gr>
0030-2107721104

### Author Bios

George Tzabiras is a Professor and Head of the Laboratory for Ship and Marine Hydrodynamics at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA).

Stylianos Polyzos and Konstantina Sfakianaki are Phd Candidates at the Laboratory for Ship and Marine Hydrodynamics.

Athanasios D. Villiotis and Konstantinos Chrisikopoulos are members of the Pan-Hellenic Canoe – Kayak Trainers Association

Vassilios Diafas and Sokratis Kaloupsis are Professors at the University of Athens, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Faculty of water sports

Preparation for an International Sport Event: The Promotional Strategies of 2009 Kaohsiung World Games

### Abstract
This investigation presented administrative and marketing-related information on Kaohsiung City’s preparation for the 2009 World Games. The presented information was allocated through an extensive literature review on secondary sources, personal interviews, and observations from fall of 2008 to summer of 2009. Promotional strategies and activities, projected financial and sales data, reports on constructions, and issues and challenges related to the Games were further analyzed. The study further discussed the “not-for-profit” approach that was practiced by many East Asian Countries to gain international recognition and promote patriotism while hosting a major sport event.

### Introduction
The International World Games Association (IWGA), which currently includes 33 international sports federations, has been holding its competitions every four years since 1981 (24). The World Games is considered one of the largest sport competitions, other than the Olympic Games (7). The City of Kaohsiung was fortunate to be awarded the opportunity to host the World Games after a competitive bidding process (11,25). The 2009 World Games were held in the largest port city of Taiwan, Kaohsiung, from July 16 to July 26, 2009. Past literature has shown that hosting a gigantic international sport competition has provided a golden opportunity for the hosting country to demonstrate power and wealth, to boost economics and tourism, to increase publicity and media exposure, and to improve the hosting cities’ infrastructure (10,12-14,33). In addition, an enormous amount of national pride is often associated with the host countries when they host mega-events such as the Olympic Games or Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup (1,14,29,39). For the aforementioned reasons, the administrators and citizens of Kaohsiung City sincerely hoped that the city could realize economic benefits from the 2009 World Games.

The Mayor and citizens of Kaohsiung City believed the 2009 World Games was a main event that would launch Kaohsiung to the center of the world stage (21). According to Tsai’s comments on the city government’s approach (37), the World Games was a perfect opportunity for the Kaohsiung residents to reaffirm their identity and loyalty toward the city. The potential economic profits and benefits brought by the events could also help the central government reevaluate the importance and development of the city. With the support of Kaohsiung citizens and volunteers, the Kaohsiung Games was described as the most successful World Games by the IWGA President, Ron Froehlich (16,18). In this investigation, the researchers went beyond the scope of a case study by presenting administrative and marketing-related information on how Kaohsiung City prepared for its first-ever major international sport event. The collected information and analyzed results may serve two specific purposes. First, the collected information can be valuable for the city to plan its bidding proposal for 2012 University Games. Second, the information may also provide great insights for other Taiwanese cities in preparing for any future international major sport events (i.e., the 2009 Deaflympic Games in Taipei and bidding for the 2010 World University Games).

#### Background History and Facts about the World Games
When the IWGA was formed in 1980, it had 12 international sport federations as charter members (7). The 2009 Kaohsiung World Games was the IWGA’s 8th competition and included 31 different sports. Since 1981, the number of participants in the World Games has increased from approximately 1500 to approximately 3400 in 2005 (7,24). Prior to the 2009 Kaohsiung World Games, it was estimated that the city would host more than 4,500 athletes, coaches, and staff. Athletes competed in 31 different sports which were divided into six categories, artistic and dance, ball sports, martial arts, precision sports, strength sports, and trend sports (24). In general, the seven previous World Games were all financed through a virtual company or foundation established by the government of the hosting countries (35). The hosting city was also responsible for covering the lodging, transportation, and dinner costs for all of the participants (34).

Building the venues for competitions was considered the most difficult challenge in preparing for the World Games. Kaohsiung City started two major constructions as early as 2004 (9). The Main Stadium of the Kaohsiung World Games was designed by the famous Japanese architect, Toyo Ito. It has a capacity of 40,000 seats and 15,000 standing spaces (9). The total construction cost of the stadium was estimated around $150-million USDs (31). The construction of the Kaohsiung Arena costs about $20-million USDs. The central government supported about 10% of the total construction cost (7). The arena has a 16,000-person seating capacity. The DC Construction company holds the right of business operation for the next 50 years. The Kaohsiung City Government will retain the operational right thereafter. For the infrastructural preparation, the Kaohsiung City planned to complete two tracks of the Metro Rapid Transit System (MRTS), both Red and Orange Lines, in 2009 prior to the opening ceremony of the World Games (11). Apparently, both systems were completed on time.

#### Preparations Completed by the National and Local Government
As soon as Kaohsiung City was awarded the opportunity to host the 2009 World Games, the former Mayor Hsieh Chang-ting announced three programs to transform Kaohsiung into a “City of Health” (25). It was Mr. Hsieh’s most lofty ambition to utilize the World Games to further develop the city and promote its competitiveness by becoming the largest trading seaport in Southeast Asia.

The information on organization of the Kaohsiung Organizing Committee (KOC) was obtained through personal conversation with Ms. Hus, the CEO of KOC. KOC was commissioned by the Kaohsiung City Government to plan and organize the 2009 World Games. In order to complete the required tasks for the game operation, the KOC formed nine divisions to handle the businesses. They were: (1) Administration, (2) Treasury, (3) Sport Competition, (4) City Development, (5) Supportive Division, (6) Marketing and Public Relations, (7) Culture and Tourism, (8) Information Technology, and (9) Safety (27). There were 26 full-time employees in the KOC. The leadership positions of the KOC include a President, a Sport Director, three Deputy CEOs, an Assistant Coordinator, two Executive Secretaries and a Chair of Divisions. In addition, the Kaohsiung City Government further assigned 43 people (including the CEO) and 14 non-committee staff members to support the KOC. Several visiting teams were also sent to Beijing to observe the practices of the Chinese Government in preparing for the 2008 Olympic Games (22).

#### Economic Benefits and Profits for Hosting Major International Sport Events
Past literature has documented how host cities of major sport events (i.e., Super Bowl, National Basketball Association (NBA) All-Stars Games, and Olympic Games) reaped direct and indirect profits from gate receipts, tourism, and television (TV) fees. To name a few examples: (1) visitors of the 2006 Super Bowl spent as much as $180 million during their trips and the total economic impact of the event was estimated to exceed $300 million (32); (2) the 2007 NBA All-Stars Game drew more than 25,000 out-of-town visitors, generating non-gaming revenue of $26.7 million (32); and (3) $400 million in TV rights and $200 million sponsorship fees were at stake in the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Games (4). The National Broadcast Company paid broadcasting rights fees of $793 million and $894 million for the 2004 and 2008 Summer Olympic Games (14). The Chinese government announced its operating profit for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games at $146 million(5).

To the contrary, there were reports and studies that rejected the notion of international sport events, such as the Olympic Games, generating any profit at all. It is extremely difficult to calculate the financial merits of any particular Olympic Games, due to expensive construction and many, varying costs(15). It is estimated that costs for hosting the 2012 event could run more than $3 billion USDs. Sydney and Athens spent $3.4 billion and13 billion, respectively, on the Summer Games. With these huge costs, it is hard to perceive how profits can be made(15). In fact, host countries did not make money at all prior to the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games (3,4). The Los Angeles Games were able to turn the Olympics into a gold mine, netting $200 million, by introducing aggressive commercializing strategies and minimizing the construction costs (3). Cities such as Barcelona, Athens, Beijing and London would spend far more money than the U.S. host cities to build new facilities and develop their community, so the profits severely dwindle (2). Local residents seldom benefit from the profits. According to Sports economist Philip Porter, who studies the effect of large sporting events on communities, it’s not unusual for cities to make less than has been projected (4).

Most economists agree that economic impact of major sport events are often calculated from three areas (5). They are direct financial impacts, indirect financial impacts and intangible. Although most of the host cities may not prosper from the profit gains, cities such as Lillehammer, Norway, and Nagano, Japan have enjoyed worldwide attention by hosting the winter Olympics. Mayors of hosting cities clearly understand that the spectacle will promote national pride and justify local development (15). Burton and O’Reilly (5) warned against focusing solely on cost and profits as the criteria for evaluating the impact of the events. They want people to consider the intangible benefits of the Atlanta Games. Although the Atlanta Games only broke even financially, Atlanta has subsequently become a bigger, better, and more respected global city.

The Kaohsiung City Government is standing on a crossroads facing an uncertain future. Based on the aforementioned paragraphs, the city has clearly spent a huge amount of money to prepare for the World Games, and anticipates huge economic profits and intangible benefits. Will the city’s investment turn out to be a prosperous return? The researchers sincerely hope the results of this study will provide preliminary findings to this difficult question.

### Methods
The information on construction costs and spending on community development was gathered through a series of reviews of secondary sources and online articles prior to March of 2009. The findings related to this topic have mainly been presented in the Introduction. In order to obtain the marketing related information, promotional strategies, and projected financial data of the 2009 World Games, the researchers conducted interviews with the Chief Executive Officer, Marketing Director of the KOC, and two city councilmen. Seven specific questions given to the interviewees to obtain qualitative and statistical information are listed in Table 1.

The interviewees received the questions at the beginning of 2009. The researchers received all of the interviewees’ responses in early March of 2009. Answers were received via e-mail and phone calls. Information on stadium construction and promotional strategies released by the city government and press from 2005 to 2008 was extensively reviewed and analyzed in the month of February, 2009. The researchers categorized the collected information into two aspects: (1) public relations and promotional activities associated with the game, and (2) sales and other marketing related data.

### Results
Based on the results of interviews and search on the secondary sources, the researchers obtained the following marketing and public relations related information. The information was analyzed and categorized based on their two aspects.

#### Promotional Strategies and Public Relations Activities
To promote the World Games to Kaohsiung residents and countrymen of Taiwan, both local and national governments put great effort into creating many, varied activities. Special design competitions were held to solicit ideas for the official logo and mascot. Mr. Lin Hung-he won the (approximately) $13,000 USDs grand-prize as his design was chosen as the official logo (35). The former interim Mayor, Yeh Chu-lian also revealed the official mascot, Water Spirit, during her short tenure (35,38). Nearly $20,000 USDs was spent to reward the winners for naming the official mascot (38). To educate the fans and residents about the World Games the Kaohsiung Education Bureau established the World Games Education Program which involved all of the elementary and secondary schools. Students at each school were assigned to study a specific sport. They became familiar with the rules, history, and star athletes of their assigned sport. These students also received complimentary tickets to the games to cheer for the athletes (20). Other promotional activities for the World Games included: (1) a special float for the Independence Parade on October 13, 2003, (2) the announcement of national sport heroes, Chi-Cheng and baseball star of the Yankees, Wang Chien-ming to be the event spokespersons, (3) a poster contest, and (4) sport movie festivals (24,26,40).

The Taiwanese government publicized the news of hosting the World Games to many of its treaty nations. Delegates traveled more than half a world away to South America to express appreciation for the support and friendship provided by treaty nations (25). Former President Chen Shui-bian also promised to invite the Army parachute troopers to perform during the opening ceremony of the World Games(19).

On May 20, 2009 with the inauguration of the Main Stadium, a special concert was held in the Main Stadium of the World Games. The Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, the Vienna State Opera Choir, the National Experimental Chorus, the National Sun Yat-sen University Music Department Women’s Chorus and the Kaohsiung Medical University Singers worked together to perform Tchaikovsky’s ‘1812 Overture’ and Beethoven’s ‘Ode to Joy’. More than 40,000 people attended the concert (6). The Kaohsiung Metro Rapid Transit System also proved its capability to handle a high volume of passengers during the peak hours. During the competition period, fireworks shows, expositions, and food fairs were held every night at the True Love Harbor, one of the most popular tourist attractions in the city (6).

#### Sales and Marketing-Related Data

Table 2 lists the major sponsors of the 2009 World Games. A total of 40 sponsors and partners are further classified into three levels. About 80% of the total sponsors and partners were domestic business organizations. The amount of contribution from each level of sponsors and partners was not available for disclosure.

Public Television Service of Taiwan televised selected events. However, no fee amount for the TV rights has been disclosed. Most media coverage and exposure came mainly relied from the Internet. The KOC also collaborated with AllGenki.net to sell event tickets. Spectators purchased the tickets in one of the 4,800 7-11 stores in Taiwan by using the I-bon system, or at the event sites. The information on ticket prices was released in March 2009, and tickets were available for sale in April 2009. According to the news report, revenues for the gate receipts exceeded $2-million USDs (8).

For the sale of licensing merchandise, the official mascot, “Water Spirit”, was used as the main icon to create a series of subsidiary products.  These products were produced by Cheerful Fashion Goods CO., LTD., a company devoted to cultivating young Taiwanese designers who design products based on traditional Taiwanese culture.  The World Games licensing merchandise included polo shirts and t-shirts with color choices, recyclable chopsticks, flip-flops, key chains, passport holders, purses, shopping bags, coffee mugs, caps, and poker cards. The price of these souvenirs generally ranged from $4 to $30 USDs.

Prior to the event, an optimistic estimation (over 5,000) was given regarding the number of potential participants. According to the news report, the total number of participants from 131 countries indeed exceeded 5,000 (8). Because the Kaohsiung World Games was held during the summer time, which is the “hot” season for the city’s tourism, it was difficult to estimate the actual number of foreign visitors who arrived strictly due to the World Games. However, some economists estimated the number of the foreign visitors would reach between 30,000 and 50,000 people (31). The World Games was also predicted to bring in business worth $30 million USDs to Kaohsiung City. It was thought that the event could have a great impact on the price of real estate, estimating that the price of a house near the Main Stadium could expect a 30% increase in value (31). Based on the researchers’ personal observations, this prediction has been realized in some areas near the MRT stations adjacent to the stadium.

### Discussion and Conclusions
Past literature has in-depth discussions of economic impact and financial gains for international sport events. The data of sponsorship deals, TV rights fees, and gate receipts for past events such as FIFA Tournament or Olympic Games are available for the public to browse (1-2,17,30,36,41-42). It seems logical that scholars in Western societies, with the strong influence of capitalism, would focus more on financial (or economic) related information of the events. Clearly, there was a series of pre-game promotional and cultural activities sponsored by the KOC to increase the residents’ awareness of the World Games. However, all of the interviewees failed to provide valuable financial data on TV rights fee and sponsorship incomes. They seemed to have a vague idea or no interest at all regarding the topics of potential economic impact or projected revenues of the Kaohsiung World Games. There was also no available data on revenue generation through merchandise sales. More attention was devoted to issues related to the possible boycott by the Chinese team, the potential outbreak of H1N1 influenza, and cultural festivals sponsored by the city.

Financial information related to the Kaohsiung World Games, other than the spending in promotional activities and construction costs, was difficult to retrieve. A report had indicated the revenues in ticket sales exceeded $2 million USDs (8), but this is a small amount compared to the construction costs of nearly $170 million USDs. Based on the KOC CEO Ms. Hsu’s explanation, Kaohsiung City has taken a “not-for-profit” approach to recruiting volunteers and sponsors. This seems to be a common approach used by many of the East Asian countries to host major sport events. This implies that the local government is willing to absorb the operational cost, even if revenues fail to cover expenses. As long as the country receives recognition and media attention, it is seen as worthwhile to spend a huge amount of money for hosting the event. Thus, it is not difficult to understand why the Taipei city would promise to offer free admission to all spectators of the Deaflympic Games. Although the KOC outsources the ticket and merchandise sales to AllGenki.net and Cheerful Fashion Goods CO respectively, potential revenues through TV rights and ticket sales are not clearly discussed and emphasized. Apparently the previous seven World Games were all financed by a virtual company established by the governments of the hosting countries; however, none of the previous hosts has spent so much money in trying to advertise their country and the events.

In Kaohsiung’s case, the researchers would actually like to see a more commercialized approach to allocating funding. This would mean less spending of tax dollars for the games (35), and more involvement of the private sectors in advertising, donations, and sponsorships. There is no advantage to putting the city in debt in hosting an event that shows no promise in bringing profits.

Prior to the opening ceremony of the World Games, the Taiwanese government had monitored politically-related issues closely.

The patriotic acts of the Taiwanese residents and the Chinese government’s unfriendly political actions were considered to be critical issues during the competition period (28). Although it is common to witness political activists taking actions during a gigantic international sport event (i.e., Olympic Games) to express their ideologies (14), for a new event host such as Taiwan, any unexpected political activity during the event would negatively affect the reputation and image of the nation and future business opportunities brought by foreign enterprise. The Chinese team eventually boycotted the Opening Ceremony, but the KOC adhered strictly to the Olympic operational model to prevent any further political disruption (23,34). From the political perspective, the Kaohsiung World Games can be considered a great success. From the economic standpoint, it seems the city is not clearly standing on the “winning” side.

### Practical Applications in Sport
Based on the aforementioned discussions, the researchers would recommend the following to the City of Kaohsiung and other sport organizing committees for planning the future events:

1. Future sport organizing committees should develop a strategic plan to solicit more well-known international and domestic business franchises/industries to sponsor the event. In this case, the KOC had done a great job in recruiting a variety of sponsors according to their nature of business and functionality to satisfy the needs of the events. However, the KOC did not provide enough onsite opportunities for the sponsors to actively interact with the spectators. A future strategic plan for targeting sponsors should cover how to execute “activation” activities effectively and utilize complimentary tickets for hospitality. The committees need to provide clear incentives and business opportunities for the sponsors, so the sponsors can be convinced to invest their capitals and manpower. More complimentary tickets could be offered to the sponsors to enhance the level of hospitality.
2. The sport organizing committees should closely collaborate with the governmental agencies (i.e., city government, Sport Affairs Council, and Bureau of Tourism) to aggregate accurate financial reports (especially on the revenues of broadcasting rights and ticket sales and costs of construction) of the events. The collected information will be beneficial to the planning and bidding of future events. It also acts to show accountability to the public, by making the figures of total spending transparent. Without a clear income figure on broadcasting rights and sponsorship deals, it is hard to imagine how the organizing committee could make any profits.
3. For any developing countries wishing to achieve political stardom rapidly, bidding to host a mega-international sport event seems to be a good alternative. Evidently, China and South Africa both greatly increased their political visibility by hosting the 2008 Olympic Games and 2010 FIFA World Cup. The City of Kaohsiung should be actively involved in bidding on a moderate-scale for continental and international sport competitions, such as East-Asian Games, Asian Games, World University Games and special track-and-field invitationals. This will help Taiwan increase its political visibility and learn to handle its political conflict with China peacefully. Having these events in Kaohsiung will also maximize the opportunities for the use of existing facilities and boost potential tourism.

### Tables

#### Table 1. The List of Interview Questions
Q1. Who are the primary sponsors of the World Games? (If the numbers are available, please specify the amounts of contributions for each level of sponsors.)

Q2. Which television network will televise the World Games? What is the estimated amount of the TV right fee?

Q3. How are tickets sold to the general public? How many types of tickets are available? What are the prices of all different types of tickets?

Q4. What are the major types of the World Games licensed merchandise along with their prices?

Q5. What are the projected revenues that the World Games may bring to the city?

Q6. What is the estimated number of the visitors during the period of World Games competitions?

Q7. How many full-time staff members are recruited by the city to prepare for the World Games?

#### Table 2. Major Sponsors of the 2009 World Games

Level Company
Level A (n=11) Official Partners China Airline, 7-11, Chunghwa Telecom, Carrefour, China Steel Company Group, Taipower, China Petroleum Company Corporation, Marina, Tissot, Volkswagen, Coca-Cola
Level B (n=7) Partners SECOM, Banana Chippy, Wei Mon Industry, China Postal, Kaohsiung Medical University & Hospital, Heineken, Real Estate Development Association of Kaohsiung
Level C (n=22) Sponsors Taiwan High Speed Rail, Taiwan Sugar Corporation, Giant, SYM, PXmart, Greenoil, Fish888, Starbucks, ShinKong Life, Hellocar, Hamilton Sunscreen, Dole, New Zealand Kiwifruit, Nitto Denko, Sundance, Bank of Kaohsiung, Sakura, Tong-yang, Cold Stone Creamery, Bros Sports, White Flowers

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### Corresponding Author
Steve Chen
208C Combs Business Building, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351
<s.chen@morehead-st.edu>
606-783-2433 (office)
606-780-8173

The price of NFL fandom: An exploratory study of the past, present, and future purchasing power of NFL fans

### Abstract

Concerns regarding gentrification of sports and the loss of middle-income fans have increased throughout the years, as ticket prices have continued to increase well beyond the rate of inflation for professional sports. This research focused on the changes in purchasing power for fans wishing to attend live games in the National Football League from 1991 to 2009 and then made subsequent forecasts for purchasing power 10 years into the future, should current pricing trends continue unabated. The Fan Cost Index (FCI) was utilized to compare purchasing power over time. Results showed that average FCI price for the league increased by 75% beyond inflation from 1991 to 2009. Purchasing power for fans from all the teams in the study diminished in some fashion from 1991 to 2009. However, eight of the 24 teams in the study severely reduced fan purchasing power, including a 50% or more reduction in the number of tickets alone. If pricing trends continue, the league could experience decreased attendance, particularly from fans in the lower income brackets.

**Key words:** purchasing power, FCI, gentrification, NFL, ticket prices

### Introduction

Research on ticket prices, as one of many motivational factors in attending professional sporting events, has been analyzed in sport-marketing studies since Noll’s (13) seminal work identifying significant factors that determine attendance (2,8,13). Sport economists have utilized ticket pricing data to analyze both elasticity of demand and profit-maximizing behavior of organizations (1,3,16). Conversely, few studies involving ticket prices have examined the financial impact of those pricing decisions on the fans attending sporting events. Concern by both the media and academicians regarding the gentrification of professional sports has increased as ticket prices have continued to climb at rates that outpace increases in ordinary household incomes (11).

#### Fan Cost Index

Team Marketing Report created the Fan Cost Index (FCI) to reflect the average cost for a family of four to attend a sporting event. While not without its detractors (many of whom would claim that a family can attend games at a fraction of the cost presented by the FCI), the FCI has provided the most comprehensive pricing data set of professional sport franchises for the last two decades (17). The FCI goods and services “basket” includes the cost of four average-priced tickets, two draft beers, four soft drinks, four hot dogs, two caps, two programs, and parking for one vehicle. All four professional sport leagues have increased prices of their goods and services in the FCI basket considerably from 1991 to 2009. The NFL has outpaced the other professional leagues in FCI increases since 2000. The NFL league average FCI went from $151.55 in 1991 to $278.37 in 2000 to $412.64 in 2009 (17).

#### Economic Disconnect of Sport Fans

The increase in cost to attend live sporting events for all professional sports has received both academic and media attention. The primary focus of this attention has been centered on the argument that all but the wealthiest fans are being priced out of the live sporting event experience. One common question raised in these arguments is whether the long-term health of professional sports leagues is sacrificed for short-term financial gains, as gentrification of sports could lead to a decline in interest among lower and middle class youths who never had the opportunity to attended games during their childhood (5).

In an analysis of Major League Baseball fans, Dortch (6) suggested that in the future Major League Baseball would face a disconnect with younger fans as the demographics of America change. The eventual aging and loss of the baby-boom generation will require Major League Baseball to replace the extremely large baby-boomer fan base with younger fans, many of whom did not grow up attending many baseball games. Dortch highlighted the significance of higher household income as it related to the higher probability of a person attending a sporting event compared to ten years prior. While the focus of the article was on Major League Baseball, it addressed all four major professional sports leagues, as they all face gentrification resulting from the focus on courting more fans who are affluent. The findings of the research illustrated the importance of the baby-boomers on attendance through 2010, with the warning that the generation following the baby boomers might not assume their role when it comes to attending sporting events.

Howard (10) examined the difference in cost for a family of four to attend an NFL game in 1957 compared to attending an NFL game in 1997. The $12.50 it cost in 1957 ($71.40 in 1997 dollars) would cover less than a third (28%) of the $257.00 cost in 1997. Howard emphasized concern for the problematic trend of corporate spectators becoming a large proportion of the attendees at sporting events. The concern has become that corporate spectators do not use their personal funds to gain access and therefore lack the same “emotional commitment and loyalty” (p. 86). Howard also argued corporate spectators were a major cause for the large number of no-shows by ticket holders.

One professional league affected by steep ticket price increases since 1989 was the English Premier League. Premier League fans experienced 600% increases in ticket prices since 1989 and fans under the age of 24 attending games decreased from approximately 25% in 1992 to a league wide average of only 9% in 2006 (5).

#### Purpose of the Study

The primary purpose of this study was to examine the change in purchasing power of NFL fans since the first publication of the Fan Cost Index (FCI) in 1991. The NFL was selected because the league average FCI is currently the highest of the big four leagues and has increased the most since the creation of the FCI. Further, the NFL is America’s favorite sports league, according to annual polls, and has been growing in popularity over the last 23 years (9). This study also intended to forecast future FCI prices based on past pricing trends in order to illustrate future purchasing power losses if sport marketers and executives continue applying the same pricing patterns in the future.

### Method

The study identified the change over time in the amount of goods and services a family would receive when applying the 1991 FCI to future years, controlling for inflation. The study utilized 19 years of price changes for each FCI component to pinpoint yearly price changes and to forecast prices 10 years into the future to project loss of purchasing power. In order to allow for comparison of prices over time, all monetary figures were converted into constant 2008 dollars using the Bureau of Labor Statistics Consumer Price Index (CPI) and CPI conversion tables on estimated future CPIs through 2019 (14).

### Sample and Procedure

The study investigated the changes in purchasing power of NFL fans over a 19-year period (1991 through 2009). The components of each team’s FCI were used to represent a basket of goods and services. Once all monetary figures were converted into 2008 dollars, the 1991 FCI for each NFL team was identified and used as the baseline basket of goods and services (4 tickets, 4 Hot Dogs, 4 Soft Drinks, 2 Beers, 1 Parking, 2 Programs, and 2 Caps) (17).

Team Marketing Report’s (17) pricing data was collected utilizing every NFL Fan Cost Index report from 1991 to 2009. The NFL experienced both franchise relocations and team expansions between 1991 and 2009. Therefore, the study was limited to NFL teams that remained in the same market throughout this period. Each FCI component was then calculated into single unit prices (a single ticket, hot dog, beer, soft drink, parking space, program, and cap) and all beverage components were standardized to account for changes in serving sizes (soft drinks and beer were converted into per-ounce prices to account for some teams changing beverage cup sizes through the years).

Establishing each component’s average annual price change required calculating each year’s price change percentage. Then the geometric means of the annual price changes were calculated to determine the average annual price change for each FCI component for all NFL teams in the study. This allowed for the forecasting of the price of each FCI component for the future years of 2010 to 2019.

To determine the change in purchasing power of goods and services for fans of each team from 1991 to 2009, the inflation-adjusted cost of the 1991 FCI was used to determine the quantity of goods and services that could still be purchased in 2009 and into the future. For example, the NFL average 1991 FCI was $149. Once adjusted into 2008 dollars, the NFL average FCI for 1991 equals $236. The $236 figure was then used to determine the change in purchasing power over the years. All percent changes, then, are beyond the rate of inflation and all stated dollar figures are in 2008 dollars, which allows for a true “apples to apples” comparison over time.

For purposes of predicting the goods and services that could be purchased in 2019 with the same total expenditure, it was necessary to prioritize items to purchase. The highest priority was given to purchasing as many tickets as possible, to a maximum of four. The second priority, if money remained, was to purchase a parking space. Beyond that, the purchase of food was prioritized (hot dogs, followed by soft drinks and then beer). Finally, if money remained, it was allocated to programs and then caps. There was effort made to relate the purchase of food to a likely amount consumed based on the number of tickets purchased. However, the ultimate goal was to find a combination of goods and services with a total cost within a range of plus or minus $2 from the original 1991 cost for the complete FCI.

### Results

The data set included 24 NFL teams that remained in the same market from 1991 to 2009, along with Team Marketing Report’s calculated NFL average for all NFL teams. The NFL average FCI increased $176 from $236 in 1991 to $412 in 2009 (in 2008 dollars), representing a 75% price increase beyond inflation from 1991 to 2009 (Table 1).

The Dallas Cowboys had the largest change in FCI with an increase of 163% beyond inflation since 1991 (from $291 in 1991 to $764 in 2009). Seven of the 24 teams in the study had FCI increases of 100% or more beyond inflation (Dallas, San Diego, New England, Kansas City, New York Jets, Indianapolis, and New York Giants). Only four teams had FCI increases less than 50% beyond inflation (Philadelphia, Arizona, Buffalo, and San Francisco).

The second purpose of the study was to forecast future FCI prices to extrapolate future pricing conditions for fans if pricing trends continue. The NFL average FCI is projected to increase another 165% beyond inflation, to $626 by 2019 (Table 2). If trends continue, Dallas and New England are each projected to have 2019 FCIs over $1,000 (again, in 2008 dollars). Six additional teams are projected to be charging over $800 for all the components in the Fan Cost Index in 2019.

The NFL teams in the study with the highest and lowest changes in purchasing power were the Dallas Cowboys and the San Francisco 49ers (Table 3). In 1991, the cost adjusted for inflation was $291 for a family attending a Dallas game and paying for everything in the FCI basket. In 2009, the purchasing power of fans attending Dallas games had decreased to the point that the $291 would only allow the family to purchase one ticket to the game. By 2019, if past pricing trends continue, the Dallas Cowboys family of four will not be able to purchase any tickets to the Dallas Cowboys games with the money available from the adjusted 1991 FCI.

On the other end of the spectrum, the $312 it cost a San Francisco 49ers family to purchase a full basket of game day goods and services in 1991 would still be enough to purchase 4 tickets to a game in 2009. While the family of 49ers fans has lost purchasing power (they would no longer be able to purchase most of the product extensions; only parking and 1 soft drink), all four family members would still be able to attend the game. The forecast for 2019 suggested that the 49ers family would still be able to purchase three tickets, and minimal extensions.

For NFL fans who could afford the complete FCI in 1991, it was desirable to determine the tangible losses of goods and services from 1991 to 2009 (Table 4). In almost every case, the family would have to leave one or more family members out of the experience. For those who could still afford all the tickets, there was still a diminishment in the overall experience, as defined by loss of parking, food, programs, and caps.

Overall, seven teams in the study had their fans’ purchasing power decrease to the point they could only afford two of the original four tickets (Table 4). Thirteen teams had fan purchasing power decrease enough to reduce their FCI basket by one ticket. Beyond just access to the game, there was a loss of purchasing power for product extensions included in the original FCI basket (Table 4). For example, an average San Diego family could only afford to pay for two members of the family to attend the game and pay for parking and two hot dogs, but nothing else in the FCI basket. However, three NFL teams in the study had their fans’ purchasing power remain high enough to maintain the original level of four tickets to the game.

If pricing trends continue into 2019, the purchasing power of families will continue to diminish (Table 5). The findings show that the aforementioned Cowboys family would be the only team in the study that would have the price of a single ticket higher than the total inflation adjusted price of the FCI basket in 1991. Twelve teams would have fans experience price increases to the point that their families of four would only be able to purchase one ticket and varying amounts of product extensions. Nine teams would have fans experience price increase to the point that their families of four would only be able to purchase two tickets with varying amounts of product extensions.

### Discussion

The findings revealed a wide variance in the changes in purchasing power between NFL teams. Fans of the Dallas Cowboys have seen their purchasing power diminished severely with the completion of Cowboys Stadium. Cowboys fans experienced an 89.9% increase in average ticket prices from 2008 to 2009 as the team moved into the new stadium. The move increased Dallas’s overall Fan Cost Index by 74.2% between 2008 and 2009 (7). However, the new stadium alone did not cause the entire reduction in purchasing power fans have experienced since 1991. The Cowboys had several drastic increases in ticket prices in years prior to the opening of the new stadium, including a 25% increase in 2005 and another 27% increase in 2007 (17). As a result of price increases since 1991, the Cowboys were the only NFL team in the study to see a drop in purchasing power to the point where only one of the original four family members can experience the game live for a comparable cost. Conversely, three NFL teams (Buffalo, Philadelphia, and San Francisco) have managed to control prices closer to the rate of inflation, allowing purchasing power to remain relatively strong for fans.

Burton and Howard (4) argued that the large percentage of weekly income it would take for average fans to attend a sporting event in the late 1990s, was putting professional sports “beyond the reach of a vast majority of the general population” (p.42). However, the problem is worse today for many fans as Scarborough (15) research data showed 45% of avid NFL fans with household incomes of $50,000 or less. Therefore, a Dallas Cowboys family with a household income of $40,000 a year, who wanted to attend one game in 2009 and purchase the complete FCI basket, would have to spend an entire 40 hours worth of gross salary to afford the FCI. When considering net salary, it would take perhaps a week and a half of work to pay for the full FCI for a single Cowboys game.

### Conclusion

While all the teams and markets differ, the league as a whole should be mindful that the combination of the aging baby boomer population and the impact of increased ticket prices might alter the long-term health of the league if younger and lower- and middle-class fans continue to be relegated to their couches. In such an environment, tomorrow’s generation of fans could be raised strictly as consumers of the televised product. Loss of fans due to increased prices, and concern that this could happen to the NFL, should not be discounted. Conn’s (5) depiction of the erosion of younger fans in the England’s Premier League because of the extreme rise in ticket prices illustrated the consequences of pricing out younger less affluent fans. Such losses of a generation of fans should concern all professional sports leagues. It is possible to lose a large segment of spectators because they only watched the games on television and never had the chance to experience the fan culture located within the stadium. It is possible that in the future NFL teams could see similar losses should pricing trends continue, along with the ever-increasing entertainment alternatives that could siphon off the fans who have not had the live-game experience.

Avid fans have limited options to react to the price increases of NFL teams: 1) they can stop attending games altogether and become media-only fans; 2) they can devote considerably more discretionary income to maintain access to the sport they love, if they want the same game-day experience as in the past; or 3) they can dedicate money to tickets, to get a few family members into the game, but limit or omit the product extensions, which could alter the game day experience.

### Applications in Sport

If sport marketers applied Mullin, Hardy, and Sutton’s (12) Frequency Escalator to the current marketing practices of many NFL teams, it would appear that many teams are thoughtlessly rushing to push “corporate spectators” up the escalator. Unfortunately, they are knocking down and even pushing off the avid fans with lower incomes who have fought so desperately through the years to stay on the escalator by sacrificing more and more of their income every year.

Sport marketers and executives from all professional leagues need to continually monitor both the changing demographics of their fan base and the impact future pricing decisions have on all of their fans. Decision makers using only basic supply and demand pricing practices with the goal of yielding additional revenue in the short-term rarely account for consequences those decisions have on long-term goals and success. These short-term decisions could have a profound impact on the size of the fan base in the future. This could drastically influence the size of the return on investment if the owner wants to sell the team in the future.

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###Table 1. Price Difference of the NFL Fan Cost Index from 1991 to 2009

Team 1991 FCI 2009 FCI 1991-2009 Difference 1991-2009 % Change
Dallas (2) $291 (1) $767 + $473 (1) +163%
San Diego (24) $197 (1) $764 + $473 (1) +163%
New England (5) $271 (2) $601 + $330 (3) +122%
Kansas City (21) $202 (7) $449 + $247 (4) +122%
NY Jets (14) $227 (5) $480 + $253 (5) +111%
Indianapolis (19) $219 (6) $455 + $236 (6) +108%
NY Giants (11) $240 (4) $486 + $246 (7) +103%
Detroit (23) $198 (17) $384 + $186 (8) +94%
Green Bay (22) $202 (19) $380 + $178 (9) +88%
Chicago (6) $271 (3) $505 + $234 (10) +86%
Tampa Bay (18) $221 (11) $402 (11) $402 (11) +82%
Denver (13) $231 (10) $413 + $182 (12) +79%
NFL Avg. (Avg.) $236 (Avg.) $412 + $176 (Avg.) +75%
Cincinnati (15) $227 (12) $397 + $170 (13) +75%
Minnesota (17) $225 (15) $390 + $165 (14) +73%
Atlanta (16) $226 (16) $389 + $163 (15) +72%
New Orleans (20) $215 (23) $356 + $141 (16) +66%
Seattle (10) $244 (18) $381 + $137 (17) +56%
Miami (12) $236 (21) $369 + $133 (18) +56%
Washington (3) $287 (8) $445 + $158 (19) +55%
Pittsburgh (8) $261 (13) $395 + $134 (20) +51%
Philadelphia (4) $279 (14) $390 + $111 (21) +40%
Arizona (7) $264 (22) $367 + $103 (22) +39%
Buffalo (9) $251 (24) $306 + $55 (23) +22%
San Francisco (1) $312 (20) $379 + $67 (24) +21%

###Table 2. Projected Price Difference of the NFL Fan Cost Index from 1991 to 2019

Team 1991 FCI 2019 FCI 1991-2019 Difference 1991-2019 % Change
Dallas $291 $1,620 +$1,329 +456.70%
San Diego $197 $795 +$598 +303.55%
New England $271 $1,053 +$782 +288.56%
Kansas City $202 $783 +$581 +287.62%
Tampa Bay $221 $843 +$622 +281.45%
Indianapolis $219 $795 +$576 +263.01%
NY Jets $227 $817 +$590 +259.91%
NY Giants $240 $806 +$566 +235.83%
Green Bay $202 $648 +$446 +220.79%
Detroit $198 $632 +$434 +219.19%
Chicago $271 $811 +$540 +199.26%
Denver $231 $648 +$417 +180.52%
NFL Avg. $236 $626 +$390 +165.25%
Atlanta $226 $593 +$367 +162.39%
Seattle $244 $638 +$394 +161.48%
Minnesota $225 $587 +$362 +160.89%
New Orleans $215 $521 +$306 +142.33%
Cincinnati $227 $526 +$299 +131.72%
Washington $287 $644 +$357 +124.39%
Miami $236 $521 +$285 +120.76%
Pittsburgh $261 $552 +$291 +111.49%
Philadelphia $279 $526 +$247 +88.53%
Arizona $264 $477 +$213 +80.68%
Buffalo $251 $432 +$181 +72.11%
San Francisco $312 $469 +$157 +50.32%

###Table 3. Comparison of the Highest and Lowest Team Difference in the Game Day Basket of Goods and Services from 1991 to 2019

Dallas Cowboys (Highest) San Francisco 49’s (Lowest)
1991 2009 2019 1991 2009 2019
$291 $291 $291 $312 $312 $312
4 Tickets 1 Ticket 0 Tickets * 4 Tickets 4 Tickets 3 Tickets
1 Parking 1 Parking * Parking 1 Parking 1 Parking 1 Parking
4 Hot Dogs 5 Hot Dogs * Hot Dogs 4 Hot Dogs 0 Hot Dogs 1 Hot Dog
4 Soft Drinks 5 Soft Drinks * Soft Drinks 4 Soft Drinks 1 Soft Drink 1 Soft Drink
2 Beers 2 Beers * Beers 2 Beers 0 Beers 0 Beers
2 Programs 2 Programs * Programs 2 Programs 0 Programs 0 Programs
2 Caps 2 Caps * Caps 2 Caps 0 Caps 0 Caps

_* Dallas fans will no longer be able to afford a single ticket to a game using the original FCI amount of $291, therefore they would not have access to purchase the product extensions_

###Table 4. Difference in the Game Day Basket of Goods and Services from 1991 to 2009

Team 2009 4 Tickets 1 Parking 4 Hot Dogs 4 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 2 Programs 2 Caps
Dallas 2009 1 Tickets 1 Parking 5 Hot Dogs 5 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 2 Programs 2 Caps
New England 2009 2 Tickets 0 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 1 Programs 0 Caps
San Diego 2009 2 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 0 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Kansas City 2009 2 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
NY Jets 2009 2 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
NY Giants 2009 2 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 1 Programs 0 Caps
Indianapolis 2009 2 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 1 Programs 0 Caps
Tampa Bay 2009 2 Tickets 1 Parking 4 Hot Dogs 4 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Denver 2009 3 Tickets 0 Parking 0 Hot Dogs 0 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Detroit 2009 3 Tickets 0 Parking 0 Hot Dogs 0 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Atlanta 2009 3 Tickets 0 Parking 1 Hot Dogs 0 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Chicago 2009 3 Tickets 0 Parking 1 Hot Dogs 0 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Minnesota 2009 3 Tickets 0 Parking 1 Hot Dogs 0 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Cincinnati 2009 3 Tickets 0 Parking 1 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 1 Programs 0 Caps
Green Bay 2009 3 Tickets 0 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 0 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
New Orleans 2009 3 Tickets 1 Parking 0 Hot Dogs 0 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Washington 2009 3 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Seattle 2009 3 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Arizona 2009 3 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 2 Programs 1 Caps
Miami 2009 3 Tickets 1 Parking 3 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Pittsburgh 2009 3 Tickets 1 Parking 3 Hot Dogs 3 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 1 Programs 0 Caps
Philadelphia 2009 4 Tickets 0 Parking 0 Hot Dogs 0 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
San Francisco 2009 4 Tickets 1 Parking 0 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Buffalo 2009 4 Tickets 1 Parking 4 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps

###Table 5. Difference in the Game Day Basket of Goods and Services from 1991 to 2019

Team 2019 4 Tickets 1 Parking 4 Hot Dogs 4 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 2 Programs 2 Caps
Dallas 2019 0 Tickets * Parking * Hot Dogs * Soft Drinks * Beers * Programs * Caps
Indianapolis 2019 1 Tickets 0 Parking 1 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 1 Beers 2 Programs 1 Caps
Denver 2019 1 Tickets 0 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 1 Beers 1 Programs 0 Caps
Chicago 2019 1 Tickets 0 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 5 Beers 2 Programs 2 Caps
New England 2019 1 Tickets 0 Parking 3 Hot Dogs 4 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 2 Programs 2 Caps
Minnesota 2019 1 Tickets 1 Parking 0 Hot Dogs 0 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Kansas City 2019 1 Tickets 1 Parking 1 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Detroit 2019 1 Tickets 1 Parking 1 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 1 Beers 0 Programs 1 Caps
Tampa Bay 2019 1 Tickets 1 Parking 1 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 1 Beers 1 Programs 0 Caps
Green Bay 2019 1 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 1 Beers 1 Programs 1 Caps
NY Jets 2019 1 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 1 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
NY Giants 2019 1 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 1 Programs 2 Caps
San Diego 2019 1 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 1 Programs 1 Caps
New Orleans 2019 2 Tickets 0 Parking 0 Hot Dogs 0 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Seattle 2019 2 Tickets 0 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 1 Programs 0 Caps
Arizona 2019 2 Tickets 0 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 1 Beers 1 Programs 1 Caps
Washington 2019 2 Tickets 0 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 1 Programs 0 Caps
Philadelphia 2019 2 Tickets 0 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 3 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 2 Programs 0 Caps
Cincinnati 2019 2 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Pittsburgh 2019 2 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
Miami 2019 2 Tickets 1 Parking 2 Hot Dogs 2 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 1 Programs 0 Caps
Atlanta 2019 2 Tickets 1 Parking 3 Hot Dogs 3 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 1 Programs 1 Caps
Buffalo 2019 3 Tickets 0 Parking 3 Hot Dogs 3 Soft Drinks 2 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps
San Francisco 2019 3 Tickets 1 Parking 1 Hot Dogs 1 Soft Drinks 0 Beers 0 Programs 0 Caps

_* Dallas families will no longer be able to afford a single ticket to a game using the original FCI amount of $291, therefore they would not have access to purchase the product extensions_

### Corresponding Author
Jeffrey J. Fountain
H. Wayne Huizenga School of Business and Entrepreneurship
Nova Southeastern University
3301 College Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314
(954) 262-8129
<jeffjf@huizenga.nova.edu>

### Author Bios

Jeffrey J. Fountain and Peter S. Finley are both Assistant Professors of Sport and Recreation Management in the H. Wayne Huizenga School of Business and Entrepreneurship at Nova Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale Florida.

Relationship of Arm Span to the Effects of Prefatigue on Performance in the Bench Press

### Abstract
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of arm span on the acute effects of fatigue caused by maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) on performance in the bench press. Eight female collegiate track and field athletes involved in the throws events (shot put, discus, hammer, and javelin) volunteered for this investigation. Initial assessments included one-repetition maximums in the bench press (Pre Max 59.5±19.8kg) for each volunteer as well as basic anthropometric data including arm span. Volunteers reported twice for two treatments that included three maximal bench press attempts. The standard (STAND) treatment consisted only of the maximal attempts. The MVIC treatment consisted of a 30-second maximal voluntary isometric contraction prior to maximal attempts. General Linear Model analysis was performed to evaluate fixed effects (Treatment, Arm span) on maximum weight lifted. The model was significant (Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 3507.525, p<0.001) and revealed main effects for treatment (STAND 59.78±18.8kg vs. MVIC 52.32±11.5kg, p<0.001) and arm span (p<0.001), as well as a significant two-way interaction treatment*arm span (p<0.001). Post-Hoc analysis revealed that under the STAND treatment arm span was not a predictor of change in bench press performance; however under the MVIC treatment (F=16.255, p=0.007) arm span was a significant negative predictor of change in bench press performance (Beta = -0.855, p<0.001). Arm span is a simple measure that can quickly and easily be assessed; yet also a variable that can provide valuable information for coaches to consider before planning weight training for track and field throws athletes.

**Key Words:** Anthropometry, Strength, Athlete

### Introduction
Muscular strength is one essential component contributing to optimal athletic performance (4). The development of upper body strength typically involves high-resistance, low-repetition exercises using larger muscle masses to increase the maximal force generation by a muscle or muscle group. The ability of individuals to adapt positively to increasing training loads requires careful consideration of the volume and intensity of the exercises (1). Regardless of precise planning by the coach, an athlete’s physical limitations may prevent optimal adaptation, or physical gifts may instead promote adaptation (4).

A plethora of anecdotal evidence surrounds the effects of the length of the appendages of the human body on performance in the weight room. In particular in the bench press lift, many recreational lifters maintain that long arm length is detrimental to performance. The fact that lifters with longer arms must displace the bar further from the chest in order to complete the lift would seem to lend some credence to this anecdotal belief. However, recent work by Mayhew et al. (5) demonstrated that skeletal length was not a valid predictor for performance on the NFL-225 bench repetition test. In more recent work, Reynolds et al. (7) examined the relationship between more basic anthropometric measurements and performance in the bench press. In this study, Reynolds et al. recruited seventy subjects, 34 men and 36 women ranging in age from 18-69, and found that no anthropometric measurements were significant predictors on one repetition maximum (1-RM) performance.

Although previous results have not demonstrated a relationship between anthropometric measurements and 1-RM strength, results supporting differences in strength based on skeletal position have been witnessed. Murphy et al. (6) reported a significant correlation between isometric strength at 90 degrees of elbow flexion and 1-RM in the bench press exercise. Interestingly, the participants in this study demonstrated greater isometric strength at 120 degrees of elbow flexion, but this was not related to 1-RM strength. This angle (90 degrees) coincides to the ‘sticking point,’ the point of lowest force production, in the lift (3). It is intuitive that 1-RM strength in the bench press should correlate to the angle of lowest isometric force production. To complete a successful attempt, a lifter must move the weight through the ‘sticking point’ in order to achieve the elbow angle of 120 degrees, a point of greater isometric force production, and from there, finish the lift (3). Lifters who have longer arm spans will thus have a greater total distance to push the bar in order to reach the 120 degrees angle of elbow flexion. Thus, longer arm length could potentially be disadvantageous in the bench press lift.

Although previous research has not demonstrated this disadvantage (5), the Mayhew et al. investigation was descriptive in nature, predicting performance in one predetermined maximal set to failure. Past research evaluating the relationship between arm length and bench press strength has ignored how arm length may affect a total workout. Studies accounting for the potential effects of arm length during fatigue on the bench press are missing from the body of research. It is possible that effects of arm length do not manifest until the lifter is in a fatigued state. Thus, the purpose of the present investigation is to examine, in a very practical way, the effects of arm length on performance in the bench press while fatigued.

### Methods

#### Participants

The present investigation was presented to and approved by the local Institutional Review board for human subject usage. Eight apparently healthy college-aged (19.75yrs±1.2) female track and field athletes who compete in the throws events (shot put, hammer, javelin, discus) volunteered for this study (Table 1). The participants underwent a 1-RM test (Pre Max) for the bench press as prescribed by Baechle and Earle (2) as a normal part of practice and their coach reported their values (59.5kg±19.8).

Table 1. Descriptive Data of the Participants

Conditions Mean±SD
Age (yrs) 19.7±1.2
Height (cm) 171.5±8.7
Weight (kg) 94.7±29.9

*Descriptive data of the (n=8) female participants listed in mean±SD.*

#### Procedures

Participants recruited for the investigation underwent initial anthropometric testing including both height measurement via stadiometer (Health-o-Meter Inc., Bedford, OH.), weight via a balance beam scale (Health-o-Meter Inc., Bedford, OH.), and arm span measured from the farthest distance between finger tips with the arms held outstretched using a vinyl open reel tape measure. Arm span was determined in this manner because it was a simple and inexpensive method of performing an anthropometric assessment of the length of the arms that might also be assessed by a coach with relative ease. The experimental procedures were thoroughly explained to the participants prior the first session. Participants were also given a demonstration on the MVIC device. Grip width was also selected during the initial visit to limit the known effect of different grip widths on the bench press exercise (6). Following the initial visit, participants reported twice more for a total of 30 minutes per session.

##### MVIC induced fatigue

Fatigue was induced in the participants through a 30-second maximum voluntary contraction against a stationary bar set a height equal to 90 degrees of elbow flexion for the participant. The position of the bar was chosen to be approximately at the ‘sticking point’ in order to fatigue at a position critical to the successful completion of the lift. The MVIC device consisted of a standard power rack (York Barbell, York, PA.) with two sets of rails inserted, and a flat bench. A standard Olympic bar (York Barbell, York, PA.) was placed between the rails. The bar was supported from underneath by the lower rail and prevented from being lifted upward by the upper rail; the bar was thus held in a stationary position. The rails were adjustable in height, and the device was set to a point where the elbow of the participant was as close to 90 degrees as the adjustments on the device would allow. Participants were required to lay supine on the bench and press maximally against the Olympic bar for 30 seconds.

#### Experimental Design

The present investigation employed a within subjects design, with random assignment. The participants reported to the weight room on two separate occasions with 72 hours between visits. The sessions occurred at the same time as a normally scheduled team weightlifting session. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of two orders for treatment (STAND then MVIC, or MVIC then STAND).

##### Treatments

Each day began with a standard warm-up on the bench press. The first warm-up set consisted of 5 repetitions of a weight that represented 70% of the previously established one repetition maximum (1-RM). The second warm-up set of three repetitions was done with a weight that represented 80% of 1-RM. Following the warm-up on each day participants completed the protocol for one of two treatments. The first treatment was a standard (STAND) one repetition maximum determination on the bench press. The participants were instructed to attempt a total of three single repetition lifts to determine the maximum amount of weight that could be lifted on that day. The starting weight was set at a value that was approximately 2.25kg underneath the previously determined 1-RM. If the participant successfully completed the attempt they were allowed to increase the weight; if they failed at the attempt approximately 5kg was removed before the second attempt. The second treatment, pre-fatigue via maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), was identical to STAND except that immediately prior to each attempt the participants performed 30 seconds of MVIC against a stationary bar at approximately 90 degrees of elbow flexion. All participants completed all three attempts under both conditions. At least 3 minutes of recovery were allowed between attempts to reduce between lift fatigue effects (1,7).

#### Statistical Analyses

Prior to analysis all dependant variables were analyzed for normality. Paired samples t-tests were utilized to examine the differences between the two treatments so the degree of pre-fatigue can be determined. Generalized Estimation Equation analysis was utilized to examine the fixed effects of measured arm span on subsequent bench press performance. Any significant interaction effects were further explored via multiple regression analysis. Significance was set a priori at alpha ≥0.05.

### Results

Paired samples t-tests were used to determine the difference between treatments (MVIC vs. STAND). The MVIC treatment resulted in significantly lower performance on the 1-RM test (p=0.02, Table 2). General Linear Model analysis was performed to evaluate fixed effects (Treatment, Arm span) on maximum weight lifted in the bench press. The omnibus test for the model was significant (Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 3507.525, p<0.001). The analysis revealed main effects for treatment (STAND 59.78±18.8kg vs. MVIC 52.32±11.5kg, p<0.001) and arm span (p<0.001), as well as a significant two-way interaction treatment * arm span (p<0.001). Post-Hoc analysis via linear regression revealed that under the STAND treatment arm span was not a predictor of change in bench press performance as the ANOVA for the model was not significant (F-0.806, p=0.404); however, under the MVIC treatment (F=16.255, p=0.007) arm span was a significant negative predictor of change in bench press performance (Beta = -0.855, p<0.001) (Figure 1).

Table 2. Changes in 1-RM Strength by Treatment

Treatment 1RM post (kg) Change from PreMax Value
MVIC pre-fatigue 53.0±11.5 -6.51±8.56
STAND 60.9±18.8 1.43±2.99

*All values are listed ±SD. 1RM post MVIC and STAND are significantly different p=0.02. Change between MVIC and STAND treatment are significantly different p=0.02.*

### Discussion

Based upon these data it would appear that in a state of induced pre-fatigue, arm span is a significant predictor of 1-RM performance in the bench press for female collegiate track and field throwers. Though previous research has not demonstrated similar findings(5), these findings did not represent data obtained from fatigued subjects. It would appear plausible that the effects of arm span on the bench press may only become manifest in situations of fatigue.

Understanding fatigue is an important consideration for coaches. First, a majority of an athlete’s bench press workouts is a series of sets resulting in muscular fatigue. Secondly, weight-training sessions may occur after a practice has already taken place, ensuring muscular fatigue before the bench press workout begins. Post-exercise fatigue may limit the effectiveness of the resistance-training program as an adaptive physiologic stimulus for strength gains. Understanding how each athlete reacts to fatigue in a workout is imperative to designing a training program in order to achieve maximal strength.

Track and field throws coaches in particular must specifically understand how arm span will affect bench press workouts. Throws coaches often target athletes with longer arms for recruiting purposes; longer levers are advantageous for the discus and hammer events. Coaches training athletes with a greater arm span may have to change bench press protocol to account for a greater fatigue.

The present investigation was not without limitations. Firstly, the choice of measurement of arm span versus actual determination of skeletal lengths was made to increase the applicability of the findings to coaches, but is also a limiting factor. Secondly, the simulated method of fatigue chosen for practicality for the current investigation may not be completely representative of fatigue that occurs as the result of a weight room training session. Though not without limitation, the finding remains that arm span was a significant negative predictor of performance in the pre-fatigued condition.

Future research needs to establish the relationship between arm span and differences in muscle fatigability, and exercise training and prescription in order to optimize strength development in males and females.

### Conclusions

Arm span is a practical measure that can easily be assessed by any coach with access to a tape measure. Fitness professionals and coaches should be aware that in a fatigued state arm span is a negative predictor of performance in the bench press in female track and field throwers. Therefore, it is important for the coach to understand the individual differences among the athletes who are involved in the program; the amount of required recovery time may differ among individuals (4). Considerations for this can be suggested to professionals working with similar athletes including limiting the number of sets performed and focusing on quality of the lifts performed in order to allow for the associated fatigue.

The professional may also want to consider the optimization of the training volume for these athletes based upon the finding that arm span may affect performance in a multiple set lifting scheme. The coach can reduce the number of sets based upon arm span in order to compensate for the increased impact of fatigue that will likely occur for athletes with longer arm spans. For optimizing strength gains, exercise training and prescription to females should be modulated based upon arm span and related to: (1) resistance training to failure versus not to failure; and (2) the effects of a single set versus multiple sets.

### Applications in Sport

Coaches involved in events or sports (i.e. basketball and volleyball) where arm length is a determinant of athletic potential must recognize that these athletes might fatigue to a different degree during weight training than shorter-armed teammates or counterparts. Therefore, it is essential for the coach to understand the individual anthropometric differences among the athletes who are involved in the resistance training program because the amount of required recovery time may differ among individuals. Coaches need to understand this concept in order to get the full strength potential out of their athletes.

### References

Ambdessemed, D. (1999). Effects of recovery duration on muscular power and blood lactate during the bench press exercise. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 20(6), 368-373.

Baechle, T.R., & Earle, R.W. (2008). Essentials of strength training and conditioning (3rd ed.). Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Elliot, B.C., Wilson, G.J., & Graham, K.K. (1989). A biomechanical analysis of the sticking region in the bench press. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 21(4), 450-462.

Judge, L.W., & Burke, J. (2010). The effect of recovery time on strength performance following a high intensity bench press workout in males and females. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 5, 184-196.

Mayhew, J.L., Jacques, J.A., Ware, J.S., Chapman, P.P., Bemben, M.G., Ward, T.E., & Slovack, J.P. (2004). Anthropometric dimensions do not enhance one repetition maximum prediction from the NFL-225 test in college football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18(3), 572-582.

Murphy, A.J., Wilson, G.J., Pryor, J.F., Newton, R.U. (1995). Isometric assessment of muscular function: The effect of joint angle. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 11, 205-215.

Reynolds, J.M., Gordon, T.J., Robergs, R.A. (2006). Predictions of one repetition maximum strength from multiple repetition maximum testing and anthropometry. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(3), 584-592.

Wagner, L.L., Evans, S.A., Weir, J.P., Housh, T.J., Johnson, G.O. (1992). The effects of grip width on bench press performance. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 8(1), 1-10.

### Corresponding Author
Dr. David Bellar
Department of Kinesiology
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
225 Cajundome Blvd
Lafayette, LA 70506
<dmb1527@louisiana.edu>
(216) 374-2590

### Author Bios

David Bellar is an assistant professor and director of the human performance lab in the department of kinesiology at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Dr. Bellar has a background in coaching track and field athletes, and researching performance attributes within this population.

Lawrence Judge is an associate professor and coordinator of the graduate coaching program at Ball State University. Dr. Judge has a long-established background in coaching track and field athletes and an extensive research background in coaching behavior, moral issues, and competitiveness versus participation in athletics, specifically in youth sports.

Tiffany Patrick is an undergraduate student studying exercise science in the department of kinesiology at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

Erin Gilreath is a graduate assistant studying coaching/sports performance at Ball State University. Erin is the current American record holder in the hammer throw and a 2004 Olympian.