Crowd Management: Past and Contemporary Issues


Before the 2004 summer Olympic Games began, organizers contracted to
Contemporary Services Corporation (CSC), an American company, for crowd
management services. During the opening and closing ceremonies, personnel
helped spectators find their seats, gave general information on the stadium
and its features and helped exit the crowds when the ceremonies and events

Why do crowds need to be managed? The best reasons are the following:
Firstly, big gatherings of people raise the odds of a dangerous occurrence
happening. Secondly, individuals within a crowd always take for granted
that others have the responsibility. Thirdly, big crowds or gatherings
of people make changes in action slower and more complicated. Fourthly,
big crowds or gatherings of people make communications slower and more
complicated. And most importantly, big crowds of people raise the possible
number of victims (Marsden, A. W, 1998).

The definition of crowd management is every component of the game or
event from the design of the stadium or arena to the game itself and the
protection of the patrons from unforeseeable risk of harm from other individuals
or the actual facility itself. The main criteria for deciding if crowd
control procedures are sufficient and proper depend on the type of event,
threats of aggression, existence and sufficiency of the emergency plan,
expectation of crowd size and seating arrangement, known rivalries among
teams and schools, and the use of a security workforce and ushers (Facilities
and Event Management, n.d.). A competent crowd management plan has appropriate
signage, an effectual communication structure, services for various disabled
individuals, a properly trained and capable staff, and procedures and
policies for all possible instances (Facilities and Event Management,

This paper investigates crowd management issues in sports settings and
instances of failures. Crowd management has been an area of concern in
the sports domain ever since the Olympic Games began in Ancient Olympia
around 776 B.C., up until today with the NBA, Soccer games, Football,
games, etc. Facility management has the obligation to protect their patrons
and these managers must also have an effective crowd management plan in
order to protect the character and image of the team and facility. Historically,
managing and assisting crowds has been much more effective than trying
to control them. While this area of sport is often overlooked, it is a
top priority for facility managers and for the sport itself.

The author’s interest in the topic of crowd management grew from witnessing
the aggressive fans of an NBA game during the 2004 season when fans at
Auburn Hills, Michigan fought with several players of the Indiana Pacers.
Every year throughout the world in stadiums, arenas, and other sports
related areas, crowd rushes, fires, bombs, crowd crushes, heat exhaustion,
stage collapsing, overcrowding, and rioting result in thousands of deaths.
Facility managers face many difficulties when managing crowds of 10,000
or 100,000 people.

Some research points out how the individual regresses socially, behaviorally,
and psychologically when he or she is in a large crowd. A civilized person
may emerge into behavior bordering barbarous when in a crowd and some
theories propose that aggressiveness in individuals is an innate characteristic,
which we are born with and this makes aggressive behavior inevitable at
certain times. This is where proper crowd management techniques are involved.
By having a properly trained staff, sufficient signage, an effective and
efficient communication system, an effective ejection policy and a proper
alcohol management policy in place, the risk of aggression, injuries and
death can be reduced. Information on crowd management can be gathered
through various journals, Internet sites, and the EBSCO database.

Review of Literature

Historical Examples of Crowd Management Issues

Crowd management issues can be seen from the days of ancient Greece.
In Ancient Olympia, where the Olympic Games began, women were forbidden
to watch the Games or be in the general vicinity.

Pausanias recounts there is a mountain with high precipitous cliffs,
Typeum, from which any woman caught at the Olympic Games or even on
the other side of the Alpheius would have been cast down. No woman was
caught, except Callipateira, a widow disguised as a trainer. She brought
her son to compete at Olympia (Powell, John. T, 1994, p. 11).

Her son was victorious and Callipateira “jumped over the enclosure
in which trainers had to stay, revealing herself as a woman” (Powell,
John. T, 1994, p. 11). Olympic organizers realized that she was a woman,
however; they let her go without any fines because of the respect everyone
had for her son, her brothers, and her father, all of whom had won before
at the Olympics. “A law was then passed that for future celebrations
all trainers must strip before entering the arena” (Powell, John.
T, 1994, p. 11).

Sports facilities of the ancient world did not have the same problems
of modern days. Callipateira presented a problem for facility managers
of Ancient Olympia. Although keeping women out of Olympic sites may seem
absurd today, in Ancient Greece these Olympic sites were highly sacred
and only men were allowed in these holy areas. Having seen a woman in
an Olympic arena would have upset the large crowds in the ancient stadia
and arenas, from spectators to athletes. One problem for Ancient Olympic
facility managers was how to keep women out of Olympic sites. The solution
was to have a law passed that future Games must have all trainers strip
prior to entering the arena to verify their gender.

The Olympic Games lasted from 776 B.C. till the 4th century A.D. They
did not begin again until 1896 A.D. as organized sport was not as important
during the middle ages in Europe. Today’s facility managers must
also provide proactive solutions for different contemporary problems such
as refusing entry to drunk patrons, checking patrons for weapons and other
modern day problems.

Gender, Age, and Race as Predictors of Sports-Viewing Behavior of Sport Management Undergraduates


In what has traditionally been a white male-dominated industry,
there are a growing number of females and minorities assuming the position
of sport manager. This trend is attributed to increasing opportunities
for female and minority participation in sport organizations at various
levels. Such levels include recreational, interscholastic, collegiate,
and professional athletic involvement. It should be noted that coaching
and management opportunities are also increasing. The purpose of this
study was to determine which, if any, demographic variables of age, gender,
or race could significantly predict the frequency of viewing behaviors
of sport-related media for undergraduate sport management students. Based
upon the literature, credibility in a sport management role can be increased
through sport-related media consumption. Fifty-five students in the undergraduate
sport management program at a research extensive university in the Southeastern
United States participated in the study. The instrument, constructed by
the researchers, was a sixteen question survey. Using multiple linear
regression analyses, only one predictor, gender, was found to have a statistically
significant impact upon the frequency of viewing sport-related media (sport
networks). The predictors of age and race were not found to be significant.


“Print, radio, television, the Internet: When
it comes to Americans’ media consumption, it seems just about anything

Pamela Paul, Targeting Boomers

Due to changes in education as well as the ever-changing ethnic demographic
of America, entertainment interests have changed, particularly with sport
programming (Paul, 2003). The latest U.S. Census Report indicates there
are 38.8 million Hispanics living in America and have replaced African-Americans
as America’s largest racial minority. Numerous studies have been
conducted to address the parallel between demographics and media viewing
behaviors, however research results are still inconclusive (Jack, 1999).

Where much of the media in the past was consumed by males, the trend
is changing. In fact, women have significantly higher levels of television
exposure than their male counterparts (Besley & Shanahan, 2003). In
regard to sport programming, the number of female viewers (who watch television)
is substantial. Recent studies have indicated that women have an increasing
interest in sport events (Shachar & Emerson, 2000).

Women place more importance on personal gratification exemplified by
such things as a comfortable life, pleasure, and happiness, which in turn
is conducive to an increase in their television viewing habits. According
to McCarty & Shrum (1993), “females may perceive a certain amount
of fulfillment of personal gratification through television viewing”
(p. 92). Men on the other hand, do not find fulfillment of such values
as a comfortable life, etc. in watching television (McCarty & Shrum,
1993). Men tend to be more regular readers of newspapers than women (Besley
and Shanahan, 2003). Men have a tendency to obtain information (including
sports) from newspapers as it is a medium that is seen to produce the
most reliable information (Hudson, 2001).

In regard to age and media, research and surveys conducted by Neilsen
Media Research reveal that households headed by people between the ages
of thirty-five and fifty-four comprise 40 percent of all households (Paul,
2003). Furthermore, while much television is targeted to the youth market,
adults between the ages of thirty-five and sixty-four spend an average
of 248 minutes a day watching television. This is 22 minutes more a day,
on average, than adults eighteen to thirty-four (Paul, 2003). “In
general, television viewership increases with age” (p. 25).

The Baby Boomer generation is comprised of 78 million Americans (Paul,
2003). Considering this, many media outlets are consumed by them. “Radio
is more common to the Baby Boomer generation” (p. 26). For the younger
generation, “radio may seem old-school” (p. 26) and therefore
is not considered a substantial outlet for information.

Regarding the Internet, “adults ages 35 – 54 spend more time
online than any other demographic group” (Paul, 2003, p. 26). In
addition to this group being online, many go on the Internet more than
one time a day, with an average of 22.2 days per month versus an average
of 15.2 days per month for 18-24 year olds (Paul, 2003). Fifty-seven percent
of Baby Boomers have access at work, compared with 45 percent of all adults;
69 percent of Baby Boomers have access at home compared with 64 percent
of adults overall (Paul, 2003). Nevertheless, according to the DDB Life
Style Study, 74 percent of adults younger than Baby Boomers believe that
“the Internet is the best place to get information” (p. 26)
and sports is included in this mix.

In the case of print, a study conducted by the National Opinion Research
Center found that 75 percent of those who are aged 65 to 74 read the newspaper
on a daily basis, compared with 42 percent of the total population (Polyak,
2000). As far as television viewing is concerned, the same study found
that 33 percent of those 75 and older watch five or more hours of television
a day on a regular basis, which is more than any other age group (Polyak,

Much of the media is targeted toward youth. A study that analyzed surveys
and interviews from 8-17 year olds found that at least 61 percent of children
now have a television in their bedroom (Yin, 2004). Seventeen percent
of these children have their own personal computer (Yin, 2004). Regarding
sports and youth, extreme sports have produced the greatest gains in children’s
sport consumption. (American Demographics, 2001).

Young girls tend to favor sports in which other females participate.
Girls are twice as likely as boys to watch women’s basketball (American
Demographics, 2001). Eighty-eight percent of girls like watching the Olympics
with gymnastics and ice skating comprising 78 percent of girls’
interest (American Demographics, 2001). Interestingly, football and basketball
made the list of interest among girls with 68 percent and 67 percent respectively
(American Demographics, 2001).

In contrast, 89 percent of boys tend to be interested in football (American
Demographics, 2001). Twice as many boys as girls enjoy watching boxing
(American Demographics, 2001). Soccer is the one sport that appeared to
be relatively equal among boys and girls (American Demographics, 2001).

In regard to race and media, “people may work together during the
day, but at night they’re immersed in their own culture” (Weissman,
1999, p. 16). The different television habits among blacks and whites
continue to be vastly different. However, although differences in viewing
patterns continue among blacks and whites, the gap is closing. Sports
viewing appears to be a vehicle for closing this gap. Programs such as
Monday Night Football are shown to have similarities in viewing patterns
among racial groups (Weisman, 1996). In regard to television, blacks watch
40 percent more than whites, although this gap too is narrowing (Weisman,

As the Hispanic population in America is growing, it is particularly
important to note their media viewing patterns. Marketers have recently
taken interest in this ethnic group and the question remains whether English-or
Spanish-language programming provides the best vehicle for reaching Hispanics.
Studies indicate that many Hispanics prefer programs that reflect the
first language in which they learned to speak (Mogelonsky, 1995). Print
media are used less frequently by Hispanics. On average, they (Hispanics)
spend 36 minutes a day reading newspapers, while bilingual Hispanics only
devote about 12 minutes a day reading newspapers (Mogelonsky, 1995).

“The average Latino watches 58.6 hours of television per week,
which is 4.4 hours more than the typical non-Hispanic viewer” (Fetto,
2002, p. 14). It has been noted, according to research studies, that “Hispanics
are passionately devoted to their Spanish-language television networks”
(p. 14). However, Hispanics turn to English-language television for what
they cannot get in Spanish (Fetto, 2002). Many sports attract the greatest
number of Hispanic viewers to the six major English networks, “perhaps
because these programs are virtually nonexistent in the Spanish-language
stations” (p. 15).

While television continues to be the media of choice for Hispanics, newsmagazines
are becoming increasingly popular among this group (Fetto, 2002); however,
print has been traditionally viewed as a challenging medium (Hudson, 2001).
This is due, in part to the splintered audience of the American population,
and no single form of print media can reach everyone (Fetto, 2002).

The country of origin and media usage varies for Latinos. For example,
Cubans read, listen, and watch about 7.4 hours of media a day. Dominicans
spend 10.7 hours a day with media, followed by Central and South Americans
at 10.4 hours a day. Puerto Ricans spend 10.3 hours a day with media,
while Mexicans spend 9.2 hours (Mogelonsky, 1995). Interestingly, Central-American
Hispanics watch the most television, while Cubans spend the most time
reading print materials (Mogelonsky, 1995). Listening to the radio and
reading newspapers are the media of choice for Dominicans (Mogelonsky,

This study considers which, if any, demographic variables of age, gender,
and race significantly predict the frequency of viewing behaviors of sport-related
media among undergraduate sport management students. It is hypothesized
that the demographic variables are significant in predicting viewing behaviors.


Fifty-five students in the undergraduate sport management program at a
research extensive university in the Southeastern United States participated
in the study. The sample was made up of 15 females (27.3%) and 37 males
(67.3%). 83.6% were between the ages of 21-25. 30.9% were black, 65.5%
were white, and 3.6% were classified as other. 66.7% earned less than
$15,000 a year. Students were selected by the researchers as they were
representative of the sport management undergraduate program population.

The instrument, constructed by the researchers, was a sixteen question
survey. It was reviewed by a panel of experts for face validity. The approximate
time given to complete the survey was between 10 to 15 minutes. The content
questions addressed the students’ perceptions on: the importance
of reading and viewing sport-related media in obtaining future job roles
as sport administrators, whether prior or current knowledge of a sport
issue has enhanced academic performance, whether credibility is increased
among peers if they engage in consistent viewing or reading of sports
media, whether current knowledge of the athletic industry will assist
in making future business decisions, whether staying current on athletic
trends can potentially enhance business relationships, whether sports
media outlets are able to contribute to overall professionalism, and the
importance for peers to be knowledgeable on current athletic trends. In
addition, the survey was divided into two categories: 1. reading behaviors
of sport media, which addressed the amount of time spent on Internet resources,
journal articles, magazine articles, newspaper articles, and books. 2.
viewing behaviors of sport media, which addressed the amount of time spent
watching sport movies, sport networks, local sport coverage, and national
sport coverage.

The answers to these content questions were based on a five-point
Likert type scale, with a rating of one indicating strongly agree and
a rating of five indicating strongly disagree. The frequency of viewing
and reading behaviors were also based on a five-point Likert type scale,
with a rating of one indicating never and a rating of five indicating

The researchers assessed the internal reliability of the
survey. The resulting Cronbach’s alpha of .626 (after the variable “journal
article” was deleted from the survey) demonstrates that the survey
was acceptably reliable.

The researchers obtained approval from the university’s Institutional
Review Board. Students signed forms stating that their participation in
the study was voluntary. Permission from the students’ instructors
was also obtained. Students were given a survey to complete at the beginning
of class, after a brief description of the study. Ten to fifteen minutes
was given to complete the survey. No students required any type of accommodation
in completing the survey.

Prior to running the statistical analyses, the researchers
determined that the predictors of age, race, and gender should be recoded
as effect-coded variables since they are categorical.


Standard multiple linear regression analyses were conducted
to see which, if any, of the demographic variables could significantly
predict the frequency of viewing behaviors of sport-related media.

Thirty-six usable surveys were included in the statistical
analyses. The mean indicates that the participants on average view sport
networks approximately 4 times a week (Table 1).

Table 1

Sport Network Viewing
Mean Standard Deviation Sample Size
Sport Networks 4.41 .84 36

It was indicated that there was a significant correlation among gender
and sport networks with a p<.05. The Pearson Correlation is r=-.624.
The direction of this relationship indicates that females on average,
view fewer sport networks per week than males. Furthermore this r value
indicates a strong relationship between the two variables. No other variables
were significant with a p< .05 (Table 2).

Table 2

Correlations between demographics
Subscale 1 2 3 4
1. Sport Networks .000* .271 .073
2. Gender .297 .233
3. Age .451
4. Race
* p<.05

The multiple correlation coefficient (R) is .65 and the multiple coefficient
of determination (R squared) is .35. This indicates that 35.2% of the
variance is accounted for in the summary. The Durbin Watson statistic
is between 1.5 and 2.5, which suggest normality. The linear combination
of predictors are significant: F(4,35)=5.758, p<.05 (Table 3)

Table 3

Analysis of Variance for Gender
Source df F p
Gender 4 5.758 .001*
Within 31 .458
Total 35
* p<.05


The researchers investigated which, if any, of the demographic variables
of age, race, and gender significantly predicted the frequency of viewing
behaviors of sport-related media. The dependant variable, “frequency
of viewing behaviors” was comprised of six behaviors that were representative
of both reading and viewing behaviors of sport media. The behaviors included
sport networks, sport movies, Internet resources, books, newspaper articles,
and magazine articles. Only one behavior, “sport networks”
was found to have any statistical significance. As stated earlier, the
analysis found that only one predictor, “gender” was statistically
significant in predicting the frequency of viewing sport networks among
the sample.

The sample size was relatively small, thus increasing the likelihood
of a Type II error in determining that most predictors did not have a
significant effect on the frequency of viewing sport-related media. The
study targeted undergraduate sport management students at one southeastern
university, thus reducing the pool of participants. Future recommendations
would include expanding the sample size by targeting multiple universities
with similar undergraduate programs. Also, the sample size could be expanded
by targeting graduate students in sport management programs at other universities.

Furthermore, the sample was relatively homogeneous in nature; most participants
were between the ages of 21-25. Another consideration is that homogeneity
existed in regard to all of the participants being enrolled in a sport
management program; it can be assumed that an interest in sports is the
norm. The study could again be expanded by targeting other students in
programs that are non-sport related. Perhaps a comparative analysis could
be conducted to determine the differences in viewing behaviors of sport
management students and non-sport management students.

Regarding the survey, the breadth of questions could be expanded to increase
reliability as well as provide more meaningful insight to the study. The
use of focus groups could also be helpful in determining the researchers’
interest in the factors that contribute to viewing sport media.

The survey questionnaire also revealed that the juxtaposition of reading
and viewing sports-related media is conducive to credibility in the sports
industry. Research studies indicate that education is a factor in determining
the frequency of viewing media in general; it can be surmised that sport
managers are well-educated, thus increasing their engagement in consuming
sport-related media. Future studies could focus on the perceived credibility
of sport administrators who engage regularly in sport media consumption.


American Demographics (2001, October). Good sports-children’s interest
in sports vary.
Retrieved April 12, 2004, from American Demographics Web site:

Besley, J., & Shanahan, J. (2004). Skepticism about media effects
concerning the
environment: Examining Lomborg’s hypotheses. Society and Natural

Resources, 17, 861-880.

Fetto, J. (2003). Me gusta TV. American Demographics, 24(11). Retrieved
May 7, 2005
From EBSCO Business Source Elite Database.

Hudson, E.D., & Fitzgerald, M., (2001). Capturing audience requires
a dragnet.
American Demographics, 134(41). Retrieved May 1, 2005 from EBSCO Business

Source Elite Database.

Jack, C., (1999, September). Viewing motivations and implications in
the new media
environment: Postulation of a model of media orientations. American Education
Journalism Conference. 4(36). Retrieved April 12, 2005, from AEJMC archives
Web site:

McCarty, J., & Shrum, L.J., (1993). The role of personal values and
in predicting television viewing behavior: Implications for theory and

application. Journal of Advertising, 22(4). Retrieved May 1, 2005 from
Business Source Elite Database.

Mogelonsky, M., (1995). First language comes first. American Demographics,
Retrieved May 1, 2005 from EBSCO Business Source Elite Database.

Paul, P., (2003). Targeting boomers. American Demographics, 25(2). Retrieved
2005 from EBSCO Business Source Elite Database.

Polyak, I., (2000). The center of attention. American Demographics, 22(11).
May 1, 2005 from EBSCO Business Source Elite Database.

Shacher, R., & Emerson, J., (2000). Cast demographics, unobserved
segments, and
heterogeneous switching costs in a television viewing choice model.
Journal of Marketing Research, 37(2). Retrieved May 1, 2005 from EBSCO
Business Source Elite Database.

Weissman, R., (1999). Different strokes. American Demographics, 21(5).
May 1, 2005 from EBSCO Business Source Elite Database.

Yin, S., (2004). Kiddy clickers. American Demographics, 26(1). Retrieved
May 1,
2005 from EBSCO Business Source Elite Database.

The Future of Leisure, Recreation and Sport in Canada: A SWOT for Small Sized Enterprises


The leisure, recreation and sport industries in Canada, as has been the
case in most nations throughout the world, have been subject to globalization
and corporate influence. In recent years, the number of small sized leisure,
recreation and sport enterprises (i.e., family or individually owned sport
stores or health clubs) have drastically been reduced as large corporations
such as Play It Again Sports and Goodlife Fitness have cornered the Canadian
Market from coast to coast.

Although globalization and corporate influence may present some ease
to consumers, in the sense that standardization exists and there are no
surprises in respect to what you expect to purchase and what you actually
receive, the “quality of services” is subject to question.
When personal services such as leisure, recreation and sports become subject
to big corporations, focus on the individual consumer may become lost
in the shuffle as individual needs are often overlooked.

Despite recent globalization and corporate trends in Canada, the desire
to establish small enterprises continues to exist, particularly among
the young and immigrant populations. In 2000, David Foot reported that
the “millennium busters” are the largest cohort after baby
boomers in Canada, meaning that this population will enter the work force
in the next 10-15 years. Moreover, Statistics Canada reported in 2003
that immigration to Canada is the highest it has been in 70 years. What
does this growth in the number of young Canadians and immigrants mean
for the future of small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises
in Canada? Historically, many of Canada’s small enterprises have
been owned and operated by young Canadians and immigrants. If this continues
to be the case in the future, what will be the strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats for the existence of such enterprises?

The purpose of this study is to present the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities
and threats for the future for small sized leisure, recreation and sports
enterprises in Canada. To fulfill this purpose, this paper is divided
into three parts: (1) social trends in Canada, (2) small sized leisure,
recreation and sport enterprises in Canada, and (3) a SWOT for small sized
leisure, recreation and sport enterprises in Canada.

Social Trends in Canada

Recent trends in Canada indicate that: (1) Canada is an aging society
with the largest cohort – baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1966) entering
senior years, (2) Canadians are experiencing a good quality of life and
have a sound health care system thus living longer as mortality rates
have declined, (3) immigration has reached the highest level it has been
in the past 70 years (The Daily, 2003), (4) low fertility rates continue,
(5) a consistent growth of the young adult population is taking place,
and (6) the Canadian work force is aging (Chui, 1996).

Education trends revealed by Statistics Canada (1996) indicate that the
education level of Canadians is increasing as the number of Canadians
having completed university is greater than the number of Canadians with
less than grade 9 education. Moreover, more than 10% of Canadians have
graduated a university (Statistics Canada, 1996).

The early 2000s, as did the early 1990s, were difficult time periods
for the Canadian economy as Canadians faced an economic recession. Cutbacks
in government social programs took place and unemployment rates were high.
However, despite less discretionary income Canadians continued to spend
more on consumer goods and services. In the past decade for instance,
spending by Canadians on consumer goods and services jumped from $14,801
to $16,533. Yet, a portion of this spending was financed by credit as
the volume of consumer debt continued to increase in the 1990s (Williams,

Research by Crompton (2000) reveals that the general overall level of
health of Canadians is increasing with each generation. “Advances
in public health measures and sanitary control, pharmaceuticals and medical
technology in the 20th century have had a dramatic effect on the overall
level of health in Canada” (Crompton, 2000: 17). In fact, the World
Health Organization forecasts that the average lifespan of Canadians will
increase to 81 years of age by the year 2025.

Urbanization has continued to increase in Canada as fewer people are
living in rural areas. Of note however, a recent trend in living patterns
shows that some Canadians have moved back to smaller cities and towns
in order to experience country living (Foot and Stoffman, 1998).

The number of young adults living at home is increasing (Boyd and Norris,
1999) as is the number of young people choosing to get married later in
life. Statistics Canada (1992) reveals that the average age of first marriage
for men is 29 whereas for women it is 27. Furthermore, the number of common-law
unions, divorces, remarriages and Canadians living alone has also increased
(Oderkirk, 2000: Clark, 2002).

The structure and nature of the work force in Canada has also changed
tremendously in the past 30 years both in size and structure as the number
of self-employed Canadians has increased. Technology has also impacted
changes in the work force as computers have taken the place of skilled
workers. Moreover, knowledge and skill to use the computer and the internet
have become a necessity in most jobs (Dickenson and Ellison, 1999).

Canadians appear to be working more hours and spending less time on leisure
and recreation (DeMont, 1999) as changes in the service sector continue
to take place. A growing trend in Canada that has occurred in the commercial
and public sectors is amalgamation. Another trend has been for two or
more service sectors to work together to provide a service or services.
A third prevalent trend is “contracting out” as many government
organizations have contracted out sites and services to the commercial

Small Sized Leisure, Recreation and Sport Enterprises
in Canada

In Canada, thousands of small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises
exist making it virtually impossible to list all. Furthermore, it would
be difficult to also provide an all-inclusive classification of all small
sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises in Canada as the scope
of these enterprises is diverse and complex.

Nonetheless, research by Bullaro and Edginton (1986) attempts to provide
an all-inclusive classification system of enterprises that exist in the
leisure, recreation and sport industries. For Bullaro and Edginton (1986),
five classifications of leisure, recreation and sport enterprises exist.
These are: (1) travel and tourism, (2) entertainment services, (3) leisure
services in the natural environment, (4) hospitality/food services, and
(5) retail activities.

Travel and tourism enterprises refer to everything from tour operators
and animation to “sport tourism events.” Entertainment services
encompass the performing arts, theatre, and sports events such as baseball
and football games at all levels. Leisure services in the natural environment
refer to activities such as sport fishing, sailing and hiking. Hospitality/food
services is a classification that is used to refer to hotels, restaurants,
camp sites and the “cottage experience.” Whereas, retail services
refers to commercial, privately operated enterprises such as health clubs,
golf clubs and sport fitness and equipment shops.

Research by McIntosh and Goeldner (1984) provides a different classification
of leisure, recreation and sport enterprises. For McIntosh and Goeldner
(1984) four classifications of leisure, recreation and sport enterprises
exist. These four areas are (1) transportation, (2) accommodations, (3)
shopping, and (4) activities. Transportation is the term used to refer
to all tourist oriented services that are movement-driven such as airlines
and trains, buses and automobile. “Accomodations” is a related
term to the aforementioned that concentrates once again on tourism services,
particularly those of hospitality, i.e., hotels, lodging, resorts, etc.
The third classification, shopping, refers to the sales industry of leisure,
recreation and sport – everything from gymnasiums and fitness centers
to fitness shops. Finally, “activities” reflects the actual
services provided by leisure, recreation and sport industries, i.e., bowling,
squash or weightlifting.

While reflecting on the research of Bollaro and Edginton (1984) and McIntosh
and Goeldner (1984), the following four classifications of small sized
leisure, recreation and sport enterprises have been put together. It is
important to note that these classifications have been put together in
attempt to categorize the broad magnitude of small sized enterprises,
meaning those that consist of less than fifty employees with an “owner-in-shop.”

Small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises that fall under
the “tourism” category are “travel-oriented” services
that are owned and operated by families or individuals and that consist
of less than fifty paid employees. These services refer to everything
from family operated inns and bed and breakfasts to “mini-van”
excursions and the operation of touristic souvenir shops. The focus of
“tourism” small sized enterprises is on providing a service
that caters to visitors, that is those who travel more than 100km from
their place of origin.

The “outdoor” category engulfs all leisure, recreation and
sport activities that one experiences in the natural environment. The
“outdoor” small sized enterprises include the operation of
family-owned “mini-golf” parks, private hiking tours, and
bird-watching excursions. The focus of the “outdoor” classification
is on the provision of services that tend to be provided one-on-one or
to small groups of people with the ultimate intent of financial profit.

Entertainment is a classification used to describe the “staging
of a show, activity or performance.” Although we tend to identify
“entertainment” in large scales (i.e., internet, mega stadiums
holding professional sport events, national arts centres, etc.), “entertainment”
experiences also take place on a much smaller scale. For example, small
sized entertainment industries include party clowns, street musicians,
artists, and musical bands operated by a group of friends.

Facilities and Equipment:
The “facilities and equipment” classification is broad and
diverse offering many different avenues for the existence of small sized
leisure, recreation and sport enterprises. Some examples of small sized
“facilities and equipment” services include the following:
(1) bicycle repair shops, (2) piano lessons at the private residence of
the instructor, (3) individually owned fitness clubs, (4) privately owned
pool halls, and (5) family owned “sports bars-restaurants”.

A SWOT for Small Sized Leisure, Recreation and Sport Enterprises
in Canada

Current social trends in Canada are used to predict what may unfold in
the future in Canada. Through an examination of current social trends
and an overview of demographic shifts a prediction of the strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities and threats that face the existence of small sized leisure,
recreation and sport enterprises in Canada for the future (up to 2020)
is put forth.


  1. People will continue to desire personal service, particularly as
    more and more people are choosing to live alone.
    The need to be served coupled by the need to experience “social
    activities” will provide an avenue for growth in small sized leisure,
    recreation and sport organizations. We have an innate need to be with
    others, and the social nature of leisure, recreation and sport experiences
    helps us fulfill our social needs.
  2. The coming of work age of the “millennium busters” will
    once again crowd the work force enticing the expansion of small sized
    The “baby boomers” are now aging and have started to exit
    the work force. The “bust” and “echo” age cohorts
    simply do not have the numbers of the “baby boomers” and
    thus less people enter the work force. The “millennium busters”,
    (1996-2010), although not expected to be quite as large as the “baby
    boomers”, will be the first generation since the “baby boomers”
    to congest the work force. More people will mean new opportunities for
    small sized leisure, recreation and sport services.
  3. The need to live in the suburbs will lead to the creation of small
    sized enterprises.
    The expansion of suburban communities is a growing phenomenon in Canada
    as people are choosing to live outside of the urban centre. New communities
    mean that new opportunities for growth and development will exist. The
    development of small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises
    has tremendous potential as new communities emerge.
  4. The growth of immigration will enhance the number of small sized
    enterprises as “new Canadians” have always pursued the entrepreneurial
    Immigration in Canada is currently the highest it has been in the past
    70 years. A large number of these immigrants are young and have aspiring
    entrepreneurial dreams and innovative ideas that may lead to the creation
    of new small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises.
  5. The fact that society is more “technological” will aid
    in the provision of small sized enterprises. One of the strengths for
    expansion of small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises in
    Canada stems from our exposure to novel ideas through the internet.
    Today’s young are technological progressed and have managed to
    shrink the world by learning more about the international community
    through the internet. It is possible that many of these young Canadians
    will bring international experiences acquired through the internet into
    the Canadian business world through the establishment of small sized
    leisure, recreation and sport enterprises.


  1. The expansion of large corporations and “mega-stores”
    will make it difficult for small enterprises to survive.
    A number of chain businesses continue to crowd the Canadian market.
    For example, “Goodlife Fitness”, a Canadian based franchise,
    has opened a number of health clubs in just about every region in Canada.
    The incentive for membership is that you can participate in any of there
    gyms throughout Canada. In addition, its mega structure and diverse
    scope of facilities make it difficult for small sized health clubs to
  2. Lack of skill, knowledge and experience by young entrepreneurs may
    lead to the closing of small sized enterprises.
    Many who start small sized leisure, recreation or sport enterprises
    often lack skill, knowledge and experience in the business world. Although
    they may be experts in the nature of the leisure, recreation or sport
    service that they offer, the lack of “real” business experience
    may lead to the demise of their small sized enterprise.
  3. Cutbacks in government social programs may lead to reduced public
    sector support (i.e., grants) for the expansion of small sized enterprises.Since the 1980s a number of publicly subsidized social programs have
    been reduced or eliminated in Canada. Many of these programs aided the
    development of small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises
    in Canada. It is unlikely that social programs eliminated or reduced
    in Canada will once again be re-established by 2020.
  4. The fact that the more senior sector of society may lack computer
    skills may limit the magnitude of the type of small sized enterprises
    created by the younger sector of society.
    It is highly probable that the computer literate young population of
    society will be hindered in its technological innovation of small sized
    leisure, recreation and sport enterprises as a growing concern exists
    to cater the needs of aging “baby boomers” (many whom are
    not computer literate). The growth of small sized leisure, recreation
    and sport enterprises may thus be restricted to a more basic nature
    rather than an innovative one requiring the use of computer skills.
  5. The diversity of experiences and services offered by large corporations
    will entice society, particularly the “haves” to experience
    the services of larger enterprises.
    It usually is the case that organizations that have the capital tend
    to also have the most up-to-date facilities, services and equipment.
    The largest cohort of society, the “baby boomers” is not
    only aging, they are also aging with more discretionary income and in
    better health condition than previous generations. As a result, the
    experiences and services of larger pricy corporations may be the preferred
    choice of “baby boomers” when it comes time to fulfill leisure,
    recreation and sport needs.


  1. The trend of “contracting out” by the public sector will
    present some opportunities to small sized enterprises.
    Although this may not be the case for larger more lucrative enterprises
    such as ski resorts or golf clubs, it may be the case with smaller leisure,
    recreation and sport enterprises such as wave pools and tennis clubs.
    As government organizations continue to strive to balance deficits,
    contracting out opportunities will likely continue to expand.
  2. The fact that more and more Canadians are becoming higher educated
    will aid in the creation of new, innovative small sized enterprises.The number of Canadians who have graduated a university continues to
    growth. Canada as a nation is now more educated than ever before. This
    expanded knowledge-base will lead to the creation of innovative ideas
    and opportunities for small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises.
  3. Cutbacks in government social programs will open a window of opportunities
    for the creation of new small sized enterprises.
    The elimination or reduction of publicly operated leisure, recreation
    and sport services will lead to opportunities for the development of
    such services, particularly in the private sector. The creation of small
    sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises that cater to the leisure,
    recreation or sport needs of society that were once fulfilled through
    public sector programs, poses an opportunity for growth.
  4. The “desire to spend, be entertained and experience something
    new” will pose new opportunities for small sized enterprises.Mass media bombards us with new ideas, new experiences and new knowledge.
    In addition, a global emphasis has been placed on the pursuit of the
    “good life” and “spending to experience,” particularly
    when it comes to leisure, recreation and sport. A new opportunity is
    thus presented to the private sector for the creation of innovative
    small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises.
  5. “Downsizing and amalgamation” will cause loss of public
    sector jobs and will lead individuals toward creating small sized enterprises.The amalgamation experience of cities and towns of the late 1990s and
    early 2000s has led to job loss and unemployment. Many individuals who
    have lost jobs possess a wealth of experience in the leisure, recreation
    and sport industries. This wealth of experience has in some cases been
    put to practice through the creation of small sized leisure, recreation
    and sport enterprises. In the future, the limited number of public sector
    employment opportunities in leisure, recreation and sport will lead
    some of those trained in these areas to the establishment of small sized
    leisure, recreation and sport enterprises.


  1. Inflation and rising costs may limit the spending power of society
    and the potential to experience private sector small sized leisure,
    recreation and sport enterprises.
    When prices go up one of the first industries to suffer is leisure,
    recreation and sport. When a purchasing choice has to be made, the necessities
    of food, water, shelter and transportation take precedence over leisure,
    recreation and sport. As prices for leisure, recreation and sport services
    continue to increase so does the threat to the expansion of this industry,
    including small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises.
  2. The lack of discretionary income may limit the amount allotted to
    spending on small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises.
    The spending power of society determines to what extent we participate
    in leisure, recreation and sport services. Although Canadians do value
    leisure, recreation and sport, the fear to overextend and spend beyond
    ones means may limit involvement in this industry. Unless more disposable
    income becomes available to Canadians, a threat will continue to exist
    for the expansion of small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises
    as the Canadian public will be more restrictive in its spending patterns.
  3. Since the 1970s, the start of each decade has experienced an economic
    This trend may threaten parts of the next 20 years, possibly, the onset
    of the 2010s and the 2020s. The mere fact that the economy is unstable
    will without doubt impact the state of condition of society as a whole,
    and the distribution of monies in all industries, including leisure,
    recreation and sport.
  4. The ongoing threat of terrorism has hindered the growth and existence
    of many small sized tourism enterprises.
    Since September 11, 2001, the threat of terrorist attacks has grown.
    Industries such as tourism have largely been impacted by this threat
    as people have become reluctant to travel. As a result, leisure, recreation
    and sport services related to tourism have suffered and likely will
    continue to suffer. This is the case not only for large enterprises
    but for small sized ones as well.
  5. The fear that Quebec may one day separate from Canada continues to
    exist, meaning that growth in small sized enterprises may be limited.Those wishing to establishing small sized leisure, recreation and sport
    enterprises may be reluctant to do so when hearing than one of the provinces
    of the nation may decide to one day separate. In the case of Quebec,
    some aspiring young entrepreneurs in or around Quebec may be reluctant
    to establish small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises due
    to fear of what may happen if Quebec indeed separates.


Although it is difficult to predict the future of the existence and
development of small sized leisure, recreation and sport enterprises in
Canada, this paper presents the possible strengths, weaknesses, opportunities
and threats that this area of the service sector may face based on current
social and demographic trends. Based on what is currently happening in
Canada, socially and demographically, it may be that the future will unfold
an expansion, at least to some degree in small sized leisure, recreation
and sport industries, particularly as the number of young, better educated
Canadians expands. However, one of the biggest weaknesses and threats
will continue to be instability in the economy. Lack of money and the
distribution of capital may hinder the development of small sized leisure,
recreation and sport enterprises in Canada.


Boyd, M., and Norris, D. (1999). The crowded nest: Young adults at home.
Canadian Social Trends. Spring, 2-5, Statistics Canada-Catalogue No. 11-008.

Bullaro, J., and Edginton, C. (1986). Commercial Leisure Services. New
York: Macmillan.

Chui, T. (1996). Canada’s population: Charting into the 21st century.
Canadian Social Trends. Autumn, 1-5, Statistics Canada-Catalogue No. 11-008-XPE.

Clark, W. (2002). Time alone. Canadian Social Trends. Autumn, 2-6, Statistics
Canada-Catalogue No. 11-008.

Crompton, S. (2000). Health. Canadian Social Trends. Winter, 12-17, Statistics
Canada-Catalogue No. 11-008.

DeMont, P. (1999). Too much stress, too little time. The Ottawa Citizen,
Wednesday, November 10, pages A1-2.

Dickenson, P., and Ellison, J. (1999). Plugged into the internet. Canadian
Social Trends. Winter, 7-10, Statistics Canada-Catalogue No. 11-008.

Foot, D. (2000). Boom, Bust and Echo. Toronto: Macfarlane, Walter and

Foot, D.K., and Stoffman, D. (1998). Boom, Bust and Echo: Profiting From
the Demographic Shift in the New Millennium. Toronto: Macfarlane,Walter
and Ross.

McIntosh, R., and Goeldner, C. (1984). Tourism: Principles, Practices,
Philosophy. (4th Edition). New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons. CHECK DATE

Oderkirk, J. (2000). Marriage in Canada: Changing beliefs and behaviours
1600-1990. Canada Social Trends (Volume 3). Toronto: Thompson Educational
Publishers. (pp. 93-98).

Statistics Canada (2003). Census of Population: Immigration, Birthplace
and Birthplace of Parents, Citizenship, Ethnic Origin, Visible Minorities
and Aboriginal Peoples. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, The Daily, Tuesday,
January 21.

Statistics Canada. (1996). Census of Canada. Catalogue number 93-328
and special tabulations.

Statistics Canada. (1992). Marriage and conjugal life in Canada. Catalogue
number 91-534E.

Williams, C. (2000). Income and expenditure. Canadian Social Trends.
Winter, 7-12, Statistics Canada-Catalogue No. 11-008.

War, Warrior Heroes and the Advent of Transactional Leadership in Sports Antiquity


This paper explores the advent of a transactional leadership
paradigm in sports antiquity. Specifically, an athlete’s reaction
to means and types of intrinsic/extrinsic motivation is explored via relevant
leadership praxis. Resultant achievements on the athletic field of play
(stadion) are examined via review of an athlete’s reaction to: (a)
external influence, (b) preparation, (c) training, (d) coaching, and (e)
an established path to victory/defeat. The reactions are explored via
the dimensions of a contingent reward structure and the implications for
its adoption in order to succeed and become victorious at ancient Olympia.
The paper concludes with a summary discussion of the proffered transactional
paradigm existent in sport, and an athlete’s adherence to or subsequent
rejection of said paradigm to mediate his/her success.


With some of the earliest accounts of sport beginning in
the fourth century; the history of sport has it’s underpinnings
in antiquity (Sansone, 1988; Valavanis, 2004; Woff, 1999). This paper
suggests a typology of “transactional leadership” as a forerunner
to the seminal theory offered later by James MacGregor Burns (Bass, 1985;
Burns, 1978). Utilizing ancient sources, this inquiry begins with the
exploration of contingent reward structure, active management by exception,
and a passive management by exception paradigm (Bass, 1985; Yukl, 2002).
In accordance with the constructs mentioned above, the advent of transactional
leadership begins via the emergence of professionalism in ancient sport
and a subsequent decline of competition simply for its benefit (Rigauer,

Summary lessons gleaned from this inquiry suggest: (a) An
athlete’s level of cognitive schema with regard to leader behavior
serves as a predictor of an athlete’s successful performance, (b)
an athlete’s successful performance is moderated by acceptance or
rejection of a transactional leadership paradigm, and (c) a certain modicum
of agreeableness must be present in order to thrive in sports specific
transactional relationships (Raglin, 2001). While this paper is conceptual
in nature; the study of transactional leadership upon athletes suggests
opportunities for future research.

Transactional Leadership

Burn’s (1978) seminal work served to promulgate two
types of leadership orientation theories, transformational and transactional
leadership. Transformational leadership is predicated on the leader’s
ability, “…to move those influenced to transcend their own
self-interests for the good of the group, organization, or country”
(Bass, 1985, p. 15). Complimentary to transformational leadership is the
theory of transactional leadership, which identifies the leader as the
catalyst for expectations, goals, and provision of recognition and rewards
when a task is completed (Bass, 1985). Transactional leadership serves
as the pathway to “contingent reinforcement”. Whereby, the
leader and follower agree on the necessary path to achieve the reward
or avert punishment (Bass, 1985; Bass & Avolio, 1994; Burns, 1978).
As a caveat, reinforcement usually portends a follower’s compliance;
however, a follower will not always act in their own best interests. For
example, in sport; transactional leadership offers a cognitive framework
which helps to explain an athlete’s willingness to subject their
body to serious injury and possibly death. Furthermore, athletes appear
to be able to call forth a level of conation that allows them to compete
even in pain. Otto Graham of the Cleveland Browns football team serves
as an example. “Hobbled by a cracked rib, he came off the bench
at his coach’s request and ran and passed his lethargic team to
victory” (Natali, 2001, p. 22). Obviously, a heightened level of
commitment to achieve the reward is paramount to an athlete’s success.

Passive management by exception

Passive management by exception suggests a hands-off leadership
approach until a subordinate or follower elicits a need for an intervention.
However, this management style creates only an opportunity for negative
feedback. Hall of fame coach Paul Brown frequently engaged in passive
management by exception. “…after an interception thrown by one
of his quarterbacks, Coach Brown walked up to him and whispered in his
ear “You’ll never, never, ever get a chance to throw that pass again”
(Bell, 1991, p. 91). This example illustrates the transactional agreement
which existed between Coach Brown (leader) and his players (followers),
whereby the followers received a reward based upon their performance or
alternatively they received a swift corrective action (The player mentioned
was traded the next day) based on their inability to perform.

Active management by exception

A leader’s willingness to intervene only when something
goes wrong is a shared construct in both active management by exception
and passive management by exception. However, the theory of “active
management by exception” did not appear until five years after Bass’s
1985 higher order construct of transformational leadership (Bass &
Avolio, 1990). In active management by exception there is a divergence
with regard to rule enforcement after a mistake is encountered. For example,
if an active plan of correction is in place prior to a mistake then the
infraction may be viewed differently by the leader. The final component
of leadership associated with transactional leadership is “Laissez-faire
Leadership” (Yukl, 2002, p. 254). This latent stage of the theory
suggests levels of passivity in the leader’s approach that are both
ineffective and border on indifference toward the follower.

Path goal theory

The effectiveness of contingent reward is predicated on
a follower’s anticipated value of the perceived reward. For this
reason, “path-goal theory” is appropriate when offering a
salient methodology associated with contingent reward (Bass, 1985; House,
1971). House (1971) intimates that path-goal theory is comprised of, “…increasing
personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment, and making
the path to these pay-offs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing
roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the opportunities for personal
satisfaction en route” (p. 324). Furthermore, as the path to goal
attainment by the follower is illuminated and made accessible by the leader,
the opportunities for personal satisfaction are more accessible to the
follower (Bass, 1985).
A key determinate in the path-goal theory of motivation is related to
the leader’s ability to intervene in the sequences of goal clarity,
and guidance. “…the leader creates a supportive environment of
logical support, warmth, friendliness, and helpfulness by doing such things
as being friendly and approachable and looking out for the welfare of
the group” (House, 1971, p. 321). In summary; path-goal theory helps
to explain how contingent reward works and establishes the next section
of inquiry.

Sport in Antiquity

The Isthmian games were recognized as one of the four Pan-Hellenic
(all Greek) festivals, second in importance only to the Olympic Games
which were inaugurated in 776 B.C. In contrast to the Olympic Games which
honored Zeus as the patron deity, the Isthmian games were instituted to
honor Poseidon in 580 B.C. (Steven G. Miller, 2004; Palaeologos, 1964).
Isthmia holds special significance due to its bi-annual competition and
its importance as a trade port situated directly on the eastern side of
the Peloponnesus. The sanctuary of Poseidon where the games took place
was situated on one of the most important crossroads of ancient Greece,
the Isthmos (Golden, 1998). It’s significance is related to the
brevity between festivals and the inclusion of events such as the pentathlon,
chariot races, and horseracing (Broneer, 1999). Midway through the second
century B.C., the Isthmian Games came under the control of Corinth due
to maritime trade benefits and overseas colonization. Corinth subsequently
became renowned throughout the world for its ability to offer trade and
ease of passage (Woff, 1999). However, this renowned status would lead
to Corinth’s destruction by the Romans in 146 B.C., due to jealousy
and a need for subjugation (Grant, 2005). It was not until 44 B.C. by
the proclamation of Julius Caesar that Corinth was able to host the games
once again (Kyle, 2004). Despite the turmoil and implications of war,
the Games continued to evolve with Isthmia crafting the first “hysplex”
(starting gate) and embracing sports as a paradigm commensurate with culture
(Swaddling, 1980).

Sadly, participation in the games merely for enjoyment quickly
became a relic with the advent of professionalism in sport and society.
“The winner of the boys stadion race at the Panathenaea at Athens
received fifty amphoras of olive oil worth the equivalent of $45,000 US
dollars today” (Golden, 1998, p. 142) . Furthermore, the athlete
that did not win in the games was subject to abject disgrace and possible
retribution by their coach and judges. “You who have worked hard
enough to qualify for Olympia, ridding from your lives whatever is idle
and cowardly-proceed. Those who have not trained themselves to this level-let
them wander where they please” (Spivey, 2004, p. 78). Perhaps the
most glaring evidence for the untenable pressure to receive the “contingent
reward” is found in Perrottet’s (2004) account of an athlete
at the games:

Arrhichion: in the final of 564 B.C., was caught in a
lethal ladder hold and was expiring from asphyxiation. Inspired by a
shout from his coach, Arrhichion managed to roll over and give his opponent’s
foot a savage twist. The opponent raised the finger of surrender just
as Arrhichion died (p. 172).

In the next section; the evolution of sport reveals the
coming foundation of transactional leadership and the resultant far reaching
implications for sport in modernity.

Sport and society

Why then is the evolution of sport via a transactional paradigm
important to society? Sport has the ability to transcend all social and
cultural constraints (Yurdadon, 2005). Furthermore, the structure, forms
of behavior and interaction found in sport settings are similar to those
found in other societal settings. In other words, sport is a microcosm
of society (Frey & Eitzen, 1991; Golden, 1998). However, in day-to-day
societal functioning it does not simply end there; there are eternal constructs
that imply a preferred path or a direct relationship between the very
nature of sport and biblical instructions for humanity (Connor, 2002).
For example, the apostle Paul alludes to this very premise as he exhorts
the Corinthians with the following timeless metaphor “Do you not
know that in a race all the runners run but only one gets the prize? Run
in such a way as to get the prize” 1 Cortihians 9:24 (NIV). Indeed,
sport as a product of social reality is capable of communicating at a
level which cannot be ignored.

Emerging from this social reality is the positive concept
of “arête” which denotes (a) skill, (b) prowess, (c)
pride, and (d) excellence (Miller, 2004b). The term does not merely convey
lofty adjectives, instead it reveals a level of influence that permeates
the very existence of sport and society (Golden, 1998). Furthermore, this
level of influence is revealed in the co-existence of sport and culture
in antiquity. “…education in antiquity was set in the gymnasium,
[where] the Akademy [sic] of Plato was first and foremost a place of exercise
for the body” (Miller, 2004a, p xi). The confluence of athletics
with education reveals the interwoven concept of sport and society, whereby
the two can no longer be mutually exclusive.

In direct contrast to the example “arête”
mentioned above, the evolution of negative influences in sport and society
provides the basis for an athlete’s willingness to ascribe to a
level risk taking that is both dangerous and suggestive of cognitive dissonance.
“Those athletes who chose death over defeat were always highly revered”
(Miller, 2004a, p. 29). The preceding example served to portend the gradual
loss of athletic innocence that would herald the adoption of succeed at
all costs mentality still present today.

Bill Romanowski typifies the very nature and resolve of
an athlete from antiquity and their willingness to attain the “contingent
reward” at all costs. “Despite the effects of my first NFL
concussion, I never before experienced an injury that would remove me
from a game. Each play meant so much to me that to miss even one was like
a death sentence” (Romanowski & Schefter, 2005, p. 59). Romanowski’s
account is not too different from my own personal schema during my tenure
in the NFL. As an athlete you want to achieve the desired goals as set
forth by your coach, and quite possibly you are willing to do anything
to achieve the desired result. For example, during a conversation with
Coach Bill Parcells his assertion that “Carthen, unless you get
out there and hit somebody your going to get sent home” (B. Parcells,
personal communication, April 1994) elicited such a need to disprove his
statement that I was willing to do anything for the contingent reward,
i.e., viciously hit someone. While it may not constitute definitive research;
my NFL playing experience provides anecdotal evidence that affirms the
presence of a transactional paradigm in sport.

Continuing with the discussion of influence; the ability
of an individual to influence another individual or a group’s behavior
at any given time, suggests far reaching implications for that individual’s
locus of control (Stuntz & Weiss, 2003; Yukl, 2002). For example,
in antiquity the level of influence that a “Hellanodikai”
(coach) was able to wield provided the extrinsic motivation, leadership,
and influence necessary for an athlete’s achievement of targeted
goals. During the Olympic festival “…they could impose fines or
order whippings, and all of their decisions were final; only an appeal
to the Olympic council could overturn them, a move no athlete would take
lightly” (Perrottet, 2004b, p. 42). I posit that Bass and Avolio’s
(1994) definition of “transactional operators” appropriately
provides a lucid definition of the Hellanodikai in antiquity and some
professional coaches in modernity. “Transactional operators exist
for their own personal agenda without concern for the welfare of the others.
He or she enters into an agreement to satisfy their own personal…initiatives
and goals” (p.13). Indeed, the concept of transactional operators
in antiquity is not that far removed from some coaches in modernity.

Mental Health and Sport Performance

The premise that an athlete’s mental health dictates
their performance is not a new concept. Furthermore, the subject continues
to receive extensive inquiry (Chelladurai & Riemer, 1997; Kenow &
Williams, 1999; Raglin, 2001). In sports antiquity; an athlete’s
success was predicated on several factors, including size, preparation,
coaching, and sheer will. However, their level of self-efficacy served
as the catalyst for burgeoning victory. “Olympic champion Melancomas
of Caria …was able to keep his guard up for two days at a time, forcing
his opponents to give up from exhaustion” (Perrottet, 2004, p. 168).
While the level of self-efficacy demonstrated by Melancomas is indicative
of the value placed on contingent reward, caution is needed to stave off
a level of cognitive dissonance. For example, in order to retain electrolytes
and hormones in his system; Bill Romanowski’s contemplation of ingesting
his own urine in order to achieve the reward necessary would be unacceptable
to many elite athletes (Romanowski & Schefter, 2005). Indeed, achieving
the contingent reward both in antiquity and modernity is worthy of contemplating
the risk vs. the reward.

Discussion and Conclusion

This paper set forth the existence of a transactional paradigm
in sports antiquity. At the macro level; this paper served to polarize
the interwoven aspects of ancient sport and transactional leadership (Burns,
1978). At the micro-level; this inquiry revealed that a follower’s
adherence or rejection of contingent reinforcement serves as a road map
to follower motivation and goal attainment (Bass, 1985). Furthermore,
lessons gleaned from the research suggest sport and society are inextricably
linked, with far reaching implications for what is social reality and
what are actual playing field developments. While parallels between organizations
and the work like behavior of top-level athletic teams exist, there will
remain fertile ground for opportunities to study the complexities of effective
leadership (Frey & Eitzen, 1991; Rigauer, 1981).



Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New
York: Free Press.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1990). Developing Transformational
Leadership: 1992 and Beyond. Journal of European Industrial Training,
14(5), 21-28.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Improving Organizational Effectiveness
through Transformational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Bell, T. (1991, August 19). Brown Stresses Need for Change. Chicago Sun
Times, p. 91.

Broneer, O. (1999). The Isthmian Games. Paper presented at the International
Olympic Academy, UK.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

Chelladurai, P., & Riemer, H. A. (1997). A Classification of Facets
of Athlete Satisfaction. Journal of Sport Management, 11, 133-159.

Connor, S. (2002). A Sporting Guide to Eternity. Geanies House, Fearn,
Great Britain: Christian focus Publications.

Frey, J. H., & Eitzen, S. D. (1991). Sport and Society. Annual Review
of Sociology, 17, 503-522.

Golden, M. (1998). Sport and Society in Ancient Greece. New York: Cambridge
University Press.

Grant, R. G. (2005). Battle: A Visual Journey through 5,000 Years of
Combat. New York, New York: D K Publishing.

House, R. J. (1971). A Path Goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness. Administrative
Science Quarterly, 16(3), 321-340.

Kenow, L., & Williams, J. M. (1999). Coach-Athlete Compatibility
and Athlete’s Perception of Coaching Behaviors. Journal of sport Behavior,
22(2), 251 (259).

Kyle, D. G. (2004). Winning at Olympia. Archaeology(April Issue).

Miller, S. G. (2004a). Ancient Greek Athletics. New Haven Connecticut:
Yale University Press.

Miller, S. G. (2004b). Arete: Greek Sports from Ancient Sources (3rd
ed.). Los Angeles, California: University of California Press.

Natali, A. (2001). Brown’s Town. Wilmington, Ohio: Orange Frazer Press.

Palaeologos, C. (1964). The Ancient Olympics. Paper presented at the
Proceedings of the International Olympic Academy, University of Leeds.

Perrottet, T. (2004). The Naked Olympics: The True Story of the Ancient
Games. New York: Random House.

Raglin, J. S. (2001). Psychological Factors in Sport Performance. Sports
Medicine, 31(12), 875-890.

Rigauer, B. (1981). Sport and Work: European Perspectives (A. Guttmann,
Trans.). New York: Columbia University Press.

Romanowski, B., & Schefter, A. (2005). Romo: My Life on the Edge:
Living Dreams and Slaying Dragons. New York, New York: Haper Collins.

Sansone, D. (1988). Greek Athletics and the Genesis of Sport. Los Angeles,
California: University of California Press.

Spivey, N. (2004). The Ancient Olympics: A History. New York: Oxford
University Press.

Stuntz, C. P., & Weiss, M. R. (2003). Influence of Social Goal Orientations
and Peers on Unsportsmanlike Play. Research Quarterly for Exercise and
Sport, 74(4), 421.

Swaddling, J. (1980). The Ancient Olympic Games. Austin,Texas: University
of Texas Press.

Valavanis, P. (2004). Games and Sanctuaries in Ancient Greece: Olympia,
Delphi, Isthmia, Nemea, Athens. Los Angeles: Getty Publications.

Woff, R. (1999). The Ancient Greek Olympics. New York: Oxford University

Yukl, G. A. (2002). Leadership in Organizations (5th ed.). Upper Saddle
River NJ: Prentice Hall.

Yurdadon, E. (2005). Servant Leadership and Sport Management. The Sport
Journal Supplement, 11(4).

An Exploration of State and Trait Anger, Anger Expression and Perfectionism in Collegiate Springboard Divers


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the
dimensions of perfectionism and various aspects of anger, such as state,
trait, and the expression of anger, for collegiate springboard divers.
The role of gender was also investigated. Forty women and 19 men were
administered the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2; Spielberger,
1999) and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (F-MPS; Frost,
Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). Data analysis showed no significant
differences between genders for any scales or subscales of anger or perfectionism.
State anger and its subscales were not significantly correlated with any
subscales of perfectionism. Anger expression scales were not found to
be significantly correlated with the subscales of perfectionism. Only
trait anger, and the subscale trait anger/ angry reaction, were found
to have significant relationships with the concern over mistakes dimension
of perfectionism. The perfectionism personal standards subscale was also
correlated with trait anger/ angry reaction.


Many athletes strive to reach the highest levels of competition possible.
Competitors dream of the perfect game, performance, or skill execution
required of sport. Much time is invested into practice, conditioning,
and competition to provide athletes the best opportunity for a quality
experience. With such emphasis placed on attaining so difficult a goal,
resulting failures are to some extent inevitable. Individuals who exhibit
qualities characteristic of the construct “perfectionism”
may be significantly affected by these failures. How people experience
and react to failure is directly associated with the level and type of
perfectionism possessed. Those who demonstrate more adaptive perfectionistic
reactions to failures are more likely to express positive, or success
oriented, thoughts about sport. Those whose reactions align with maladaptive
perfectionism likely will exhibit negative, or failure oriented, behaviors
following failure in sport (Frost & Henderson, 1991; Hamachek, 1978).

The most common components present in the various definitions of perfectionism
are the engagement of actions and behaviors that lead to the setting of
exceptionally high standards for the purpose of being the best in a chosen
endeavor. These actions are often accompanied by highly self-critical
evaluations by the perfectionist (Burns, 1980; Frost, Marten, Lahart,
& Rosenblate, 1990; Hill, Zrull, & Turlington, 1997; Lombardi,
Florentino, & Lombardi, 1998).

Hamachek (1978) has characterized perfectionism as either normal (adaptive)
or neurotic (maladaptive). According to him, adaptive perfectionists are
those who set extremely high personal standards, are highly motivated
to do their best on every task attempted, experience pleasure while working
hard, and are able to recognize weaknesses which enable the individuals
to perceive themselves as successful, even when those high standards are
not met. In contrast, maladaptive perfectionists are characterized as
those who set unrealistic and inflexible goals, are driven by an intense
fear of failure, are extremely self-critical, and are unable to experience
satisfaction from accomplishments.

To measure perfectionism, a number of scales have been constructed (Anshel
& Eom, 2002; Burns, 1980; Garner, Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983; Randolph
& Dykman, 1998), two of which have been used the most consistently:
The Hewitt and Flett Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (HF-MPS; Hewitt
& Flett, 1991) and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale
(F-MPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). The HF-MPS measures
three dimensions of perfectionism: Self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented
perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism. The F-MPS examines
an overall perfectionism score, and six independent dimensions of perfectionism:
Concern over mistakes, personal standards, doubts about actions, parental
expectations, parental criticism, and organization.

Perfectionists, maladaptive and adaptive, require that certain standards
for themselves, others, and situations be met. When results are not perceived
to be adequate by the perfectionist, an emotional response may be elicited.
One such emotion is anger (Saboonchi & Lundh, 2003). Anger can be
described as a state emotion, or as a trait personality characteristic.
Spielberger, Jacobs, Russell, and Crane (1983) have conceptualized state
anger as the experience of negative feelings similar to being annoyed
or irritated, or to a greater extent, filled with rage. During this experience,
the autonomic nervous system can become aroused to different degrees depending
on the situation. Spielberger et al. describe trait anger as how frequently
state anger is experienced.

An exploration of perfectionism and anger by Hewitt and Flett (1991)
was one of the first to examine how these constructs may be related. Using
data from 91 university students, the study concluded that self-oriented
and socially prescribed perfectionism were correlated with anger, with
socially prescribed perfectionism being more strongly related. These results
were inconsistent with Saboonchi and Lundh (2003) who found that in a
randomly selected sample of adult men and women with a mean age of 37
years, self-oriented perfectionism had a weak correlation with anger,
but other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism had no significant
relationship. This study concluded that anger in perfectionists was manifested
more so because of high goals not being achieved, than by any perception
regarding treatment by others. The age difference in the samples may have
confounded these results, as evidenced by another study (Hewitt et al.,
2002) using children which resulted in dissimilar conclusions. Unlike
earlier research, this study found no correlation between self-oriented
perfectionism and anger, but did indicate a relationship between socially
prescribed perfectionism and aspects of anger. This type of perfectionism
was shown to be positively correlated with outward expressions of anger
and negatively correlated with actions indicative of anger suppression.
This lack of a relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and anger
may be explained by children not holding themselves as accountable for
their actions as an adult might, and instead, lashing out at others who
are perceived to be placing unfair perfectionistic demands upon them.

The results of these studies, albeit somewhat inconclusive, do provide
evidence that socially prescribed perfectionism may have a slightly stronger
relationship with anger than with other dimensions of perfectionism. This
interesting association has seemingly been unexplored within the realm
of sport, despite consistent findings of perfectionism in athletes (Owens
& Slade, 1987) and an association between poor performances precluded
by high goal setting and anger (Fazackerley, Lane, & Mahoney, 2004).

Recently researchers began to examine perfectionism, anger, and sport
collectively. Valance and Dunn (2002a), using their newly developed sport-specific
version of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost, Marten,
Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990), found that with adolescent ice hockey
players, trait anger was highly correlated with the subscales concern
over mistakes and perceived coach pressure. Perceived coach pressure,
a subscale of the sport oriented version of the F-MPS, is similar to the
parental expectations subscale of the F-MPS. The results of this study
demonstrated a significant relationship between maladaptive perfectionism
and trait anger. A follow up study examining state anger and perfectionism
implemented a situation criticality variable. Youth ice hockey players
were measured for perfectionism and state anger in two scenarios which
had different degrees of criticality to the outcome of the competition.
The results indicated that maladaptive perfectionists had higher state
anger and experienced greater levels of anger following mistakes than
adaptive perfectionists during competition, particularly during a critical
time period. The study also concluded that situation criticality, or the
extent to which a situation within a competition is perceived as critical
to the outcome, was positively correlated with emotional responses during
competition (Vallance & Dunn, 2002b).

An aesthetic sport such as springboard diving has innate characteristics
that focus on attaining perfectly executed performances. As a subjectively
scored athletic event, there is a set “perfect” score, for
which divers aim. It is plausible to believe that this standard may draw
competitors in this sport towards perfectionistic thoughts and behaviors,
which in turn may lead to situations conducive to experiencing greater
levels of anger and anger expression. If an athlete who experiences anger
consistently while engaged in sport can become more aware of how that
anger may be stemming from maladaptive perfectionism, a greater understanding
regarding the ensuing dysfunctional beliefs and actions may be attained.
This may lead to a greater control over anger, more appropriate expressions
of anger, and potentially, performances that are less affected by experiences
of anger.

Statement of Purpose

The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between
the concern over mistakes and personal standards dimensions of perfectionism
with the various scales and subscales of anger, as measured by the State-Trait
Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2; Spielberger, 1999). Secondary purposes
were to: a) examine how the parental criticism and parental expectations
subscales of perfectionism relate to state anger, trait anger, and anger
expression, and b) to explore how gender relates to the perfectionism-anger



Fifty-nine springboard divers, 19 men and 40 women, from varsity collegiate
teams throughout the United States participated in this study. The divers’
ages ranged from 18-26 years, had competed the previous two years, and
had a minimum of two years competitive experience. Competitive experience
was operationally defined as a minimum of six United States Diving sanctioned
meets or six NCAA Collegiate meets per year.


The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost, Marten, Lahart,
& Rosenblate, 1990) was used to assess the dimensions of perfectionism.
This scale consists of 35 items that use a five-point Likert scale ranging
from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 5 (Strongly agree). The scale measures overall
perfectionism and six independent dimensions of perfectionism. The subscales
are concern over mistakes (CM), personal standards (PS), parental expectations
(PE), parental criticism (PC), doubts about actions (DA), and organization
(ORG). The CM subscale measures the extent to which an individual reacts
negatively to one’s own mistakes. PS measures the extent to which
a person sets high standards. The PE subscales indicates the strength
of an individual’s perceptions regarding his or her parents’
setting of high standards for the individual. PC is a measure of how a
person perceives criticism from his or her parents regarding their performances.
The subscales DA and ORG measure how satisfied or dissatisfied an individual
is with a performance or project, and how important order and neatness
is to an individual, respectively. For greater interpretation of the scores,
a directional scale was added by the primary investigator of this study.
This seven-point Likert scale measures how an individual feels perfectionism
affects his or her performance. Overall internal reliability for F-MPS
has been reported at .90 (Parker & Adkins, 1995) and has been concurrently
validated by Frost et al. with the HF-MPS (Hewitt & Flett, 1991) and
the Burns Perfectionism Scale (Burns, 1980). Frost et al. also demonstrated
a Cronbach’s alpha of .91 for this scale.

The State Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (Spielberger, 1999) was
used to measure trait anger, state anger, and anger expression. The STAXI-2
is a 57-item scale which uses four-point Likert scales. The first part
of the STAXI-2 is the state anger (SANG) scale. It consists of fifteen
items measuring how intensely an individual experiences anger during either
the testing period, or a time or situation specified by the test administrator.
For this study, the individuals were directed to indicate how he or she
generally feels during a competition or practice. The Likert scale for
the state anger scale ranges from 1 (Not at all) to 4 (Very much so).
The state anger scale consists of three subscales: state anger / feeling
angry (SANGF), state anger / feel like expressing anger verbally (SANGV),
and state anger / feel like expressing anger physically (SANGP). The second
part of the STAXI-2 is the trait anger (TANG) scale. This scale consists
of ten items measuring an individual’s proneness to experience angry
feelings. The Likert scale for this measure ranges from 1 (Almost never)
to 4 (Almost always). Two subscales are used to comprise the TANG scale:
Trait anger / angry temperament (TANGT) and trait anger / angry reaction
(TANGR). The final part of this inventory measures the ways in which an
individual expresses and controls anger. These scales consist of 32 items
using the same Likert scale as the TANG scale. The following scales make
up this final part of the STAXI-2: The anger expression-out (AX-O) scale,
the anger expression-in (AX-I) scale, the anger control-out (AC-O) scale,
the anger control-in (AC-I) scale, and the anger expression index (AX).
Like the F-MPS, and additional seven-point Likert directional scale was
added to measure how an individual feels anger positively or negatively
affects performance. The three primary components of the STAXI-2 have
been concurrently validated by Spielberger with various subscales of the
Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (Buss & Durkee, 1957), Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory (Hathaway & McKinley, 1967), Spielberger’s
(1979) State-Trait Personality Inventory (as cited in Spielberger, 1999)
and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975).


A packet containing a cover letter, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism
Scale, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, informed consent
forms, directions for the administration of the surveys, and a self-addressed
stamped envelope, was sent to university teams. The letter included a
rationale for the study and the possible benefits to springboard diving,
in addition to information on the length of time necessary to complete
the scales. A requested return date was also noted in the cover letter.
The informed consent form addressed issues regarding an assurance of confidentiality
and anonymity. The information in the packet was to be read by those administering
the scales.

The diving programs were contacted by either phone or email prior to
receiving the surveys. The scales were administered primarily in the practice
facilities for each team. Data were also collected at a diving competition
from those individuals who met the prerequisites. In this case, the packets
were distributed at a pre-competition meeting and were to be returned
as soon as possible. Most were returned by mail several weeks later.

A reminder email was sent two weeks prior to the return date. Packets
were mailed a second time to those programs who had requested an additional
packet. Collection ceased soon after the deadline had passed.


Multiple Pearson’s Correlation analyses were conducted to examine
the relationships between: a) the F-MPS subscales CM and PS with all scales
and subscales of the STAXI-2, and b) the F-MPS subscales PE, PE, DA, and
ORG with the STAXI-2 scales SANG, TANG, and the AX Index. Because there
were 35 correlations examined and 10 independent t-tests analyzed, the
alpha level was adjusted to p < .01.

The subscale CM resulted in two significant correlations. TANG showed
a weak, positive relationship (r = .374, r2 = .140, p < .01), while
TANGR (r = .490, r2 = .240, p < .01) demonstrated a moderate, positive
relationship. No other scales or subscales of the STAXI-2 were found to
be significantly correlated with CM, and only one other scale approached
significance; AX-I (r = .310, r2 = .096, p = .019). Results for all correlations
for CM are shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3.

For the F-MPS subscale PS and the STAXI-2 scales and subscales, only
one significant correlation surfaced. TANGR was found to have a weak,
positive relationship with PS (r = .408, r2 = .166, p < .01). Two other
STAXI-2 scales approached significance: TANG (r = .307, r2 = .094, p =
.019) and AC-I (r = .310, r2 = .096, p = .018). The correlations for PS
are shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3.

For all other correlations examined, only one was found to be significant
at the alpha level of p < .01. PE was found to have a weak, positive
relationship with TANG (r = .397, r2 = .158, p < .01) as shown in Table

To examine the differences between genders for the F-MPS subscales CM,
PS, PE and PC, four two-tailed independent t-tests were utilized. These
independent t-tests, along with all others used in this study, had an
alpha level adjusted to p < .01. Results show no significant differences
between men and women for the above constructs. See Table 5.

Three one-tailed independent t-tests revealed no significant differences
between genders on SANG, AX-I, and AX-O. See Table 6.

For the STAXI-2 scale TANG, a two-tailed independent t-test again resulted
in no significant differences between genders. See Table 7.

The directional scales added to the F-MPS and the STAXI-2 surveys also
resulted in no significant differences between genders. See Table 8.

To examine the differences between the correlations specified in the
hypotheses, a Fisher’s zr transformation was utilized. However,
only a single transformation contained at least one significant correlation,
thus essentially nullifying any significant results for all others, of
which there were none. The one Fisher’s zr transformation that did
contain a significant relationship, CM and PS for TANG, also resulted
in a non-significant difference between correlations.


The data analysis on the relationship between the perfectionism subscales
and SANG resulted in unexpected outcomes. Individuals who score highly
on the CM subscale have an increased focus on errors (Frost, Marten, Lahart,
& Rosenblate, 1990) and have a greater desire to self-present positively
to others (Hamachek, 1978). Because athletes fitting this criterion are
less able to remove negative athletic related images from his or her mind
(Frost & Henderson, 1991) it was hypothesized that SANG would be positively
correlated with CM. Additionally, Hewitt and Flett (1991) found a correlation
between socially prescribed perfectionism and a measure of anger, which
although not specified, appeared to be more closely related to state anger.
Socially prescribed perfectionism has been found to be significantly correlated
with CM (Frost, Heimberg, Holt, Mattia, & Neubauer, 1993) but unexpectedly,
CM was not found to have a significant relationship with SANG for the
current study despite its correlation with AX-I approaching significance
(r = .310, r2 = .094, p = .019). This may lead to the conclusion that
those who score highly on CM may experience angry feelings, but perhaps
not during diving practice or competition, as only the SANG scale of the
STAXI-2 (Speilberger, 1999) inquires about emotions coinciding with the
diving experience.

Examining the subscales of SANG, and the relationships present with the
CM and PS subscales of perfectionism, resulted in additional counter-intuitive
findings. Vallance and Dunn (2002b) found that maladaptive perfectionists,
or those who’s CM score was high, had significant correlations with
SANGF and SANGV. The current study’s hypothesis proved to be incorrect,
in that CM did not have a significantly stronger correlation with these
subscales than did PS. In fact, PS had a stronger correlation with SANGF,
although none of these correlations were significant at p < .01.

The final SANG subscale, SANGP, also resulted in relationships with PS
and CM that were not significant. It was presumed that participating in
a sport in which the participant is under water and out of view immediately
following a performance, in addition to having the opportunity to leave
the immediate vicinity of the competitive venue during a competition or
practice, would increase the incidence of a diver’s desire to express
anger in a physical manner. Examples of these expressions might be hitting
walls under water, clenching fists or other muscles, or slamming lockers.
However, this proved not to be the case, and may be due to the fact that
two of the five items of the STAXI-2 (Spielberger, 1999) which measure
SANGP describe acting violent toward “somebody.” The participants
of this study may have interpreted “somebody” as someone else
in the practice or competition setting. In springboard diving, this is
not socially acceptable, as it may be in a few other sports, and would
potentially result in greater negative consequences.

TANG, and its subscale TANGR, were found to have the greatest number
of significant correlations. TANGR was significantly correlated with both
CM and PS, with CM having a stronger relationship. These results were
not unexpected as it follows logic that those who are most concerned with
how they appear to others naturally might experience greater levels of
anger in frustrating situations, or following a negative evaluation. However,
it was unexpected that CM had a significant relationship with TANG, but
PS did not. Hewitt and Flett’s (1991) self-oriented dimension of
perfectionism, which is significantly correlated with PS, has been found
to be positively correlated with TANG, but socially prescribed perfectionism,
which correlates with CM, was not (Saboonchi & Lundh, 2003). Because
of these previous findings, it was believed that PS would have a stronger
relationship with TANG than CM. However, results of this study showed
the opposite. These findings demonstrate some support the premise that
springboard divers who are more concerned about mistakes and how a performance
is evaluated may experience a greater frequency of angry emotions than
those who are more concerned with eclipsing self-imposed standards.

The perfectionism subscales examining perceptions of parents also resulted
in interesting findings. TANG was found to be significantly correlated
with PE, however PC was not. It appears that within the springboard diving
community, anger may be experienced in greater frequency by those who
perceive parents as having extremely high standards imposed on him or
her, than by those who perceive parents as overly critical for not meeting
certain standards. Perhaps this is due to other emotions being elicited
by those with overly critical parents, such as sadness, apathy, or resignation.
More research is needed in this area for a greater understanding of this

Examining gender in the context of perfectionism, anger, and springboard
diving also brought about interesting findings. Based on previous literature
(Anshel, & Eom, 2002; Flett, Hewitt, Endler, & Tassone, 1995;
Frost, Heimberg, Holt, Mattia, & Neubauer, 1993; Gotwals, Dunn, &
Wayment, 2003; Saboonchi, & Lundh, 2003) it was believed that perfectionism
would not be significantly different between genders. The results of this
study supported conclusions drawn in earlier research regarding the similarities
between how men and women experience perfectionism. What was surprising
were the differences between genders for the various scales and subscales
of anger.

Results for TANG and gender were consistent with the findings of Spielberger’s
(1999) investigation. There were no significant differences between gender
and the two subscales of TANG. This was also true for SANG and its subscales,
despite Spielberger’s findings demonstrating significantly higher
scores for men than women on each construct. In addition to Spielberger
(1999), Forgays, Forgays, and Spielberger (1997) revealed results supporting
the belief that men and women experience anger differently.

One possible explanation for the incongruence of SANG scores between
the current study and those cited above is that for Spielberger’s
(1999) study, survey items were to address the participant’s state
at the time of the test administration in a controlled setting. The participants
used in this study were asked to recall and indicate how he or she generally
felt during a competition or practice. It is possible that while diving,
similar state anger emotions may be elicited between genders, regardless
of how state anger is experienced in a more controlled setting.

With regard to anger expression, it was hypothesized that women would
score significantly higher on the AX-I scale, and men would score significantly
higher on the AX-O scale. Results showed neither to be supported, with
women actually scoring slightly higher on AX-O. It is less surprising
that AX-I scores were not significantly different, as Spielberger (1999)
had similar results. However, the assumption in this case was based on
previous findings that women experience shame with greater frequency,
and that shame is positively correlated with AX-I (Lutwak, Panish, Ferrari,
& Razzino, 2001). It was thought that being an elite athlete on display
in an individual sport such as diving, may have lead to increased instances
of shame if the athlete were to perform poorly. If this were the case,
women may experience shame with greater frequency than men, thus leading
to a greater propensity for experiencing and suppressing anger, as measured
by the AX-I scale. It appears, though, that participating in springboard
diving is not sufficient enough to alter the extent to which men and women
typically experience and suppress angry feelings.

Interestingly, women did score higher on AX-O, although not significantly.
These results refute the findings of Spielberger (1999) that men scored
significantly higher than women on this scale, and are even more noteworthy
when juxtaposed with Forgays, Forgays, and Spielberger’s (1997)
conclusion that the outward expression of anger is a more distinctive
and significant event for women than men. It is possible that the lack
of significant differences within this sample may be due to the disparity
in the number of men and women participants, but greater research is needed
regarding the uniqueness of the similarities between genders for these
typically asymmetric constructs.

Overall, findings in this study produced unexpected results. The similarities
between genders prompts the need for future research on how springboard
divers differ with samples derived from other sport populations. The relatively
small number of participants and the difference in the number of men and
women who participated may have affected these findings. Having only 59
participants may have decreased the power for the correlations and independent
t-tests to such an extent, that few correlations and independent t-tests
resulted in significance. Despite this possibility, it may be that there
is an aspect of springboard diving that either draws in a certain type
of individual to participate, or fosters similar personality characteristics
through participation.

The lack of variability in this sample decreases the ability of the results
of study to be generalizable to individuals who participate in other sports.
Because of this, differences between team and individual sports should
be examined in future studies. There appears to be a very small amount
of research examining perfectionism and anger in an athletic setting and
comparisons between team and individual sport participants has not been
a focus. With social evaluation and individualized standards, cornerstones
of the dimensions of perfectionism, varying greatly between team and individual
sports, anger and perfectionism may prove to be experienced very differently
through participation in diverse settings. More research of this kind
may lead to a greater understanding of how the perfectionism-anger dynamic
is uniquely experienced in springboard diving.

Although not specifically scrutinized in the current study, there did
appear to be differences in scores between the normal population and springboard
divers. Greater research is needed comparing the relationships of anger
and perfectionism between these groups. Understanding how these populations
differ on these constructs may shed light on the presence of conditions
that lead to the formation of relationships between the various dimensions
observed in this study.

Finally, research that has a deeper focus on the trait anger-perfectionism
dynamic is needed. This study found the strongest and greatest number
of correlations between these dimensions, and understanding why this is
the case could prove to be useful. Perfectionism is also a trait characteristic
and examining the development of these qualities, and the ties between
them, could lead to greater insight into how they may be fostered or discouraged.

Table 1
Correlations for the F-MPS subscales Concern Over Mistake (CM) and Personal
Standards (PS) and the STAXI-2 scale State Anger (SANG) and subscales
State Anger / Feeling Angry (SANGF), State Anger / Feel Like Expressing
Anger Verbally (SANGV), and State Anger / Feel Like Expressing Anger Physically


CM .189 .139 .217 .120
PS .209 .202 .160 .210

Table 2
Correlations for the F-MPS subscales Concern Over Mistake (CM) and Personal
Standards (PS) and the STAXI-2 scale Trait Anger (TANG) and subscales
Trait Anger / Angry Temperament (TANGT) and Trait Anger / Angry Reaction

CM .374** .187 .490**
PS .307* .123 .408**

**Correlation is significant at the .01 level (two-tailed)
*Correlation is significant at the .05 level (two-tailed)

Table 3
Correlations for the F-MPS subscales Concern Over Mistakes (CM) and Personal
Standards (PS) and the STAXI-2 scales Anger Control-In (AC-I), Anger Control-Out
(AC-O), Anger Expression-In (AX-I), and Anger Expression-Out (AX-O)


CM -.092 -.177 .310* .135
PS .310* .113 .234 .136

*Correlation is significant at the .05 level (two-tailed)

Table 4
Correlations for the F-MPS subscales Parental Criticism (PC), Parental
Expectations (PE), Doubts About Actions (DA), and Organization (ORG) and
the STAXI-2 scales State Anger (SANG), Trait Anger (TANG), and the Anger
Expression Index (AX)


SANG .178 .159 .035 -.078
TANG .274* .397** .165 .031
AX .179 .176 .030 -.054

**Correlation is significant at the .01 level (two-tailed)
*Correlation is significant at the .05 level (two-tailed)

Table 5
Results for independent t-tests for gender on the F-MPS subscales Concern
Over Mistakes (CM), Personal Standards (PS), Parental Expectations (PE),
and Parental Criticism (PC)

Subscale Gender (Number) Mean Standard Deviation Sig.(2-tailed)
CM Men (19)Women (40) 24.7923.33 9.076.57 .483
PS Men (19)Women (40) 26.6825.03 5.575.07 .260
PE Men (19)Women (40) 13.7914.65 4.383.98 .455
PC Men (19)Women (40) 6.958.20 3.923.09 .188

Table 6
Results for independent t-tests for gender on the STAXI-2 scales State
Anger (SANG), Anger Expression-In (AX-I), and Anger Expression-Out (AX-O)

Scale Gender (Number) Mean Standard Deviation Sig. (1-tailed)
SANG Men (19)Women (40) 26.8924.40 8.778.10 .286
AX-I Men (19)Women (40) 17.8917.26 4.563.44 .554
AX-O Men (19)Women (40) 14.4214.56 3.664.22 .900

Table 7
Results for independent t-test for gender on the STAXI-2 scale Trait Anger

Scale Gender (Number) Mean Standard Deviation Sig. (2-tailed)
TANG Men (18)Women (40) 17.2817.25 4.744.67 .983

Table 8
Results for independent t-tests for gender on the directional scales added

Scale Gender (Number) Mean Standard Deviation Sig. (2-tailed)
PERDIRECT Men (18)Women (38) 1.33.76 1.331.73 .223
ANGDIRECT Men (18)Women (39) -.28-.62 1.021.31 .339


Anshel, M. H., & Eom, H. (2002). Exploring the dimensions of perfectionism
in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 34, 255-271.

Burns, D. (1980, November). The perfectionist’s script for self-defeat.
Psychology Today, 34-51.

Buss, A. H., & Durkee, A. (1957). An inventory for assessing different
kinds of hostility. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 21, 343-349.

Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975). Manual of the Eysenck
Personality Questionnaire. London: Hodder and Stroughton.

Fazackerley, R., Lane, A. M., & Mahoney, C. (2004). Mood and performance
relationships in wakeboarding. Journal of Sport Behavior, 27, 18-30.

Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., Endler, N. S., & Tassone, C. (1995).
Perfectionism and components of state and trait anxiety. Current Psychology,
13, 326-350.

Frost, R. O., Heimberg, R. G., Holt, C. S., Mattia, J. I., & Neubauer,
A. L. (1993). A comparison of two measures of perfectionism. Personality
and Individual Differences, 14, 119-126.

Frost, R. O. & Henderson, K. J. (1991). Perfectionism and reactions
to athletic competition. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 13,

Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The
dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449-468.

Forgays, D. G., Forgays, D. K., & Spielberger, C. D. (1997). Factor
structure of the state-trait anger expression inventory. Journal of Personality
Assessment, 69, 497-507.

Garner, D.M., Olmstead, M.P., & Polivy, J. (1983). Development and
validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia
nervosa and bulimia. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10, 15-24.

Gotwals, J. K., Dunn, J. G. H., & Wayment, H. A. (2003). An examination
of perfectionism and self-esteem in intercollegiate athletes. Journal
of Sport Behavior, 26, 17-38.

Hamachek, D. E. (1978). Psychodynamics of normal and neurotic perfectionism.
Psychology, 15, 27-33.

Hathaway, S. R., & McKinley, J. C. (1967). MMPI manual (rev. ed.).
New York : The Psychological Corporation.

Hewitt, P. L., Caelian, C. F., Flett, G. L., Sherry, S. B., Collins,
L., & Flynn, C. A. (2002). Perfectionism in children: Associations
with depression, anxiety, and anger. Personality and Individual Differences,
32, 1049-1061.

Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and
social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 98-101.

Hill, R. W., Zrull, M. C., & Turlington, S. (1997). Perfectionism
and interpersonal problems. Journal of Personality Assessment, 69, 81-103.

Lombardi, D. N., Florentino, M. C., & Lombardi, A. J. (1998). Perfectionism
and abnormal behavior. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 54, 61-71.

Lutwak, N., Panish, J. B., Ferrari, J. R., & Razzino, B. E. (2001).
Shame and guilt and their relationship to positive expectations and anger
expressiveness. Adolescence, 36, 641-643.

Parker, W. D. & Adkins, K. K. (1995). Perfectionism and the gifted.
Roeper Review, 17, 13-16.

Owens, R.G., & Slade, P.D. (1987). Running and anorexia nervosa;
an empirical study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6, 771-775.

Randolph, J.J., & Dykman, B.M. (1998). Perceptions of parenting and
depression-proneness in the offspring: Dysfunctional attitudes as a mediating
mechanism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 377-400.

Saboonchi, F., & Lundh, L. (2003). Perfectionism, anger, somatic
health, and positive affect. Personality and Individual Differences, 35,

Spielberger, C. D. (1999). Manual for the State-Trait Anger Expression
Inventory-2. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Spielberger, C. D., Jacobs, G. H., Russell, S. F., & Crane, R. S.
(1983). Assessment of anger: The State-Trait Anger-Scale, In J. N. Butcher
& C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in personality assessment (Vol.
2. pp. 159-187). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Vallance, J., & Dunn, J. G. H. (2002a, October). Multidimensional
sport-perfectionism and trait anger in competitive youth ice hockey. Paper
presented at the annual conference for the Association for the Advancement
of Applied Sport Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Vallance, J., & Dunn, J. G. H. (2002b, September). The influence
of perfectionism and situation criticality upon competitive anger responses
in youth ice hockey. Paper presented at the annual conference for the
Canadian Society for Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology, Vancouver,