Comparison of Shotokan Karate Injuries against Injuries in other Martial Arts and Select NCAA Contact Sports

Authors: John-David Swanson, Jacquelynn Morrissey, Adam Barragan

Corresponding Author:
John-David Swanson, Ph.D.
Department of Biology and Biomedical Sciences,
Salve Regina University,
100 Ochre Point Ave,
Newport, RI 02840
jd.swanson@salve.edu
401-3413165

John-David Swanson is an Associate Professor and Interim Chair of the Department of Biology and Biomedical Sciences at Salve Regina University. A long time Shotokan Karate Practitioner he is the Director of both the National Collegiate Karate Association and the East Coast Collegiate Karate Union.

Comparison of Shotokan karate Injuries against Injuries in other Martial Arts and Select NCAA Contact Sports

ABSTRACT
United States Collegiate Shotokan karate clubs have historically played a vital role in the spread of the art of Shotokan karate. Additionally, Karate being included in the 2020 Olympics is expected to afford an increase in participation. In recent years, however, there has been an increase in risk management policies at universities to protect the liability of the school and increase the safety of the students who participate in any kind of athletic activity. While these policies are important, they vary depending on the type of sport or activity, resulting in different athletic activities being categorized into various categories based on their perceived risk. Shotokan karate is often placed into the high-risk category, with resulting policies being implemented in such a way as to make the day-to-day running of a Shotokan karate Club difficult to impossible. Interestingly, there is very little evidence that Shotokan karate is a high-risk sport and is deserving of the policies and regulations that it is often subjected to. To date, current risk assessments for injuries in Shotokan karate exist but have not been collated and organized in a meaningful way. To this end, using the current available data for injuries in Shotokan karate, this study aims to compare Shotokan karate to other types of martial arts and other collegiate sports, while looking at parameters including, but not limited to, the duration of training and number of days of training per week, to identify the safest ranges and determine ways to help prevent injury. It is hoped that in collating these data collegiate clubs will be able to help college policy makers to reach more informed decisions regarding risk management with respect to this sport.

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Conflicts of Interest in the Intercollegiate Athletics Management Structure – The Impetus for Nullification of Presidential Authority

Submitted by Corey M. Turner, J.D., Assistant Professor of Business Law*

1* Department of Business, Kingsborough Community College, City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11235

Corey M. Turner is an Assistant Professor of Business Law and a member of the campus-wide Athletics Committee at the City University of New York’s Kingsborough Community College.

ABSTRACT

In recent years there have been numerous athletics scandals at major universities. The scandals are the outgrowth of infractions of NCAA rules and regulations committed by coaches and student-athletes. In the wake of such scandals, university presidents have asserted that they are not in control of their athletics programs, despite the fact that the NCAA changed its management structure in 1997 giving presidents full authority for the governance of intercollegiate athletics nationally. Thus, there is a perception amongst university presidents that their presidential authority in areas of intercollegiate athletics governance has been nullified despite the existence of NCAA regulations to the contrary.

The root cause of nullification of presidential control and authority is the president’s own conflict of interest between professional responsibilities and personal interests. In the contemporary environment of large television contracts and the race to increase revenues on university campuses, there has been a fundamental change in mindset that places the importance of athletics over academics. In such an environment, conflicts of interest are both prevalent and unavoidable. Thus, the key issue is not the existence of conflicts of interest, but the management of conflicts of interest.

Although there is no easy answer or simple fix for conflict of interest induced nullification, process based decision making may be strategically deployed as a conflict of interest management tool when analyzing information, evaluating choices, making decisions, and establishing conditions that such decisions must meet in order to be ethically correct.

Key words: infractions, NCAA, university, president, management structure, control, authority, governance, intercollegiate, athletics, conflict of interest, nullification, decision making. Continue reading