The Perceptions of Male and Female Athletic Administrators Towards Gender\Equity in Faith-Based Institutions

Authors: Martha Marra, Ed. D.
Corresponding Author:
DR. MARTY MARRA
LONGWOOD UNIVERSITY
201 HIGH STREET
FARMVILLE, VA 23909
marraml@longwood.edu
434-395-2935

Dr. Marty Marra is an Assistant Professor of Health and Physical Education at Longwood University in Farmville, VA. Dr. Marra has been involved in education for 30 years and continues to research and study in the areas of pedagogy, professionalism, current trends and gender equity issues in health, physical education and athletics.

Co Authors: Fred J. Cromartie, Ed. D.
CONTRIBUTING AUTHOR:
DR. FRED CROMARTIE
ONE ACADEMY DRIVE
DAPHNE, AL 36526
cromartie@ussa.edu
1-800-223-2668

Dr. Fred J. Cromartie, is the Director of Doctoral Studies at the United States Sports Academy.

ABSTRACT
This study discusses the findings from research which was conducted in 2015. The researcher compared the perceptions of male and female athletic directors towards gender equity in their athletic programs using faith-based institutions of higher learning. The purpose of the study was to identify factors which predicted compliance with Title IX from athletic administrators at the collegiate level between two groups of faith-based institutions; those who belonged to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU) and those who did not belong to the organization (NCCCU) but were faith-based institutions. The sample comprised of 230 colleges and universities; 115 were members of the CCCU organization and 115 were not members (NCCCU). The response rate was 52.6% with 121 surveys being returned from 230 that were sent. The study included the participation of 70 men and 51 women athletic administrators. Overall findings suggested that the women athletic administrators were less satisfied with Title IX provisions and policies than were the men athletic administrators. Media coverage, practice times, and locker room facilities were also considered inequitable from the perspectives of the female athletic administrators. The men athletic administrators were satisfied overall with the provisions for both male and female athletic programs. The disproportionate number of males to females in the study raised questions about gender equity within athletic administration. Studying gender equity within collegiate athletics provides information of how gender inequity can be perpetuated in a culture where athletics are revered, at times, above academia.
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Recognizing ESports as a Sport

Authors: Daniel Kane, Brandon D. Spradley

Affiliations: United States Sports Academy

Corresponding Author:
Daniel Kane
20 Ravenhurst Ave
Staten Island, NY 10310
Danielskane@gmail.com
917-545-9179

Daniel Kane is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy pursuing his degree in sports management.

ABSTRACT
The commentary is a theoretical framework that builds on the concept that eSports should be considered a sport. The first part of the paper analyzes the definition of a sport and determines that competitive video games should apply to the meaning. The second part of the paper discusses how eSports should be recognized by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). In addition, the application of Title IX is applied to have eSports listed as an emerging sport for women.

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Differences in Official Athletic Website Coverage and Social Media use Between Men’s and Women’s Basketball Teams

Authors: Steve Shih-Chia Chen, Terran Duncan, Eric Street*, and Brooklyn Hesterberg

*Corresponding Author:
Eric Street, MS
1048 Lemon Rue Way
Lexington, KY 40515
esflair@hotmail.com
859-797-1479

Steve Chen, D.S.M., is an associate professor at the Department of Management and Marketing in Morehead State University, Morehead, KY. He received his doctorate in Sport Management from United States Sports Academy in Daphne, AL. He currently serves as the chief editor of the KAHPERD (Kentucky Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance) Journal. (s.chen@moreheadstate.edu)

Terran Duncan, M.A., is an assistant coach of Lindsey Wilson College’s Women’s Basketball. She received her Master’s degree in Sport Management from Morehead State University, KY. (duncant@lindsey.edu)

Brooklyn Hesterberg is an undergraduate Sport Management student of Morehead State University. She is an assistant softball coach at Rowan County High School, KY. (blhesterberg@moreheadstate.edu)

Eric Street, M.S. is a doctorate student at the United States Sports Academy in Daphne, AL. He received a BA and MS in Sports Management from the University of Kentucky. He currently works as Director of Fitness and Training for LA Fitness in Lexington, KY. (esflair@hotmail.com)

ABSTRACT
Since the implementation of Title IX, there have been significant gains in the area of equity between men’s and women’s sports. Instituted in 1972, Title IX has leveled the playing field by offering the same amount of opportunity for women as men. Deficient media coverage in female sports is a less examined and recognized issue among various types of Title IX violations in collegiate sports. The study examined if there was equal coverage between men’s and women’s basketball programs on the athletic department’s webpages and social media websites. The collected data included traffics for the athletic website, Facebook, and Twitter pages of Southeastern Conference institutions. The findings indicated that there was slightly more men’s coverage than women’s (53% vs 47%). Among those 14 schools, eight schools had more content coverage for their men’s team. Only six women’s programs received more official website coverage than their male counterparts. The exact tendency also occurred regarding the number of total Twitter posts. The analysis of Facebook posts displayed an unexpected result, as 13 schools had more posts related to women’s teams than men’s teams. The results tended to support the vital promotional role that social media may play to increase the awareness and popularity of women’s sports. In general, the schools’ official website still maintained an accepted coverage proportion toward both genders without heavily gravitated toward men’s teams. Practical implications are addressed for better utilizing social media to promote women’s sports and maintain gender equity in media coverage.

Keywords: Social Media, Facebook, Twitter, Blog, Title IX

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Examination of Gender Equity and Female Participation in Sport

Author: Joshua A. Senne*(1)

(1) Joshua A. Senne is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy located in Daphne, Alabama. His doctoral emphasis is sports fitness and health, with a specialization in sport marketing. He currently holds a master of science in recreation and sport management from Indiana State University, a business credential from the Harvard Business School, and is a Stanford Certified Project Manager.

*Corresponding Author:
Joshua Senne, MS, SCPM
5068 Argus Dr. Apt 1
Los Angeles, CA 90041
jasenne@students.ussa.edu
225-202-6787

ABSTRACT
This paper presents an overview of five topics related to gender equity and sports. These topics include (a) history of gender equity in sports and Title IX, (b) gender equity in sport governance, (c) gender equity issues in athletics, (d) gender equity, sports participation, and Title IX, (e) and gender equity in coed sports. For each topic, the author presents an overview as well as a reason for selecting the topic. Further, the author presents information about the importance of each topic to gender equity in sports, plus any relevant social, ethical, or legal concerns.

KEYWORDS:gender equity, sports, sports governance, Title IX, coed sports.
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Athlete Support for Title IX

Submitted by James N.  Druckman, Northwestern University; Mauro Gilli, Northwestern University; Samara Klar, University of Arizona; Joshua Robison, Northwestern University.

Abstract:

Purpose: Few policies have been deemed as successful as Title IX, which, in theory, ensures equal educational opportunities for women.  While the language of the law makes no mention of athletics, Title IX has nonetheless become a cornerstone of equality in athletics and the basis of expansion of sports programs for female athletes.  As with any public policy, however, there is much debate about the ramifications, potential, and implementation of Title IX.  Additionally, change and interpretation can be traced back, to a large extent, to public support or opposition.  Yet, virtually no work explores public opinion about Title IX, particularly among the very issue public most affected by the law: college athletes.

Methods: A wide-scale survey of opinion and knowledge of Title IX among college athletes.

Results: The key correlates explaining support for Title IX are identified.  A key finding is that nearly half of college respondents do not fully grasp the breadth of Title IX, which potentially limits the impact of the law.

Conclusions: Much educational efforts are needed concerning Title IX.

Application in Sport: The results show what characteristics shape support for Title IX, thereby providing guidance to individuals interested in promoting (or arguing against) the law.  Perhaps most importantly, many affected student-athletes do not fully understand Title IX and thus educational efforts continue to be needed.

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