Do BCS Schools Have an Advantage over Non-BCS schools in APR Rankings? An Early Examination

Abstract

This paper will examine academics and athletics. In particular it will review the NCAA’s newest academic measuring tool, the Academic Progress Report. The APR was the NCAA’s response to calls for academic integrity. It is intended to ensure eligibility for student-athletes and to serve as a check and balance on athletic departments. The scores are meant to provide institutions with a clear set of goals for each team and to set a higher priority on academics in collegiate athletic departments. We will try and answer the question: Do BSC schools have an advantage over non-BCS schools in APR rankings?

Introduction

Since 1989, the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics has worked to ensure that intercollegiate athletic programs operate within the educational mission of their college and universities (Knight, 1989). The Knight Commission’s 1991 landmark report, “Keeping Faith with the Student-Athlete: A New Model for Intercollegiate Athletics,” presented a road map that captured the essence of what it takes to reform college sports: a “one-plus-three” model in which the “one”, presidential control, is directed towards the “three,” academic integrity, fiscal integrity, and a certification process to verify that integrity (Knight, 1991). Part of the implementation process of the academic integrity portion of the model was the Academic Progress Report (APR).

The APR was the NCAA’s response to calls for academic integrity. It is intended to ensure eligibility for student-athletes and to serve as a check and balance on athletic departments. The ARP also serves to monitor whether the institutions are properly providing for student-athlete academic needs. The scores are meant to provide institutions with a clear set of goals for each team and to set a higher priority on academics in collegiate athletic departments. “We want to change the behaviors of the teams and the institutions and the athletic program so we’re all headed toward the success of student-athletes on the field and in the classroom,” NCAA President Myles Brand said. “Everyone – coaches, ADs, presidents, and student-athletes – should understand that’s the order of the day” (NCAA, 2008). The APR began collecting data during the 2003-2004 academic year and released its first report in 2005.

The Bowl Championship Series (BCS) was created in 1998 to ensure the two top ranked teams in college football played in the national championship game. One unintended consequence of the BCS is that it has served to delineate six “power” conferences from other Division I conferences. These conferences – Southeastern, Pac Ten, Big Ten, Big XII, Atlantic Coast, and the Big East – are comprised of the majority of football and basketball playing schools in the Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (D1-FBS). The six conferences – branded the BCS – were given an automatic bid into the BCS bowl games (Rose, Sugar, Orange, and Fiesta) each year. This automatic bid has guaranteed millions of additional dollars to the participating conference, which the other “mid-major” conferences are not guaranteed.

Budgets of athletics programs at Division I universities vary in range. This holds true for academic advising budgets as well. With the implementation of the Academic Progress Report (APR), all programs now have the same requirements and standards to obtain. The purpose of this study is to identify whether the programs with more money have an unfair advantage over programs with smaller budgets by examining APR scores as well as budgets from both BCS and non-BCS schools.

Review of Literature

Previous studies have shown that money does not always lead to academic success. According to Costrell, Hanushek, and Loeb (2008), “determining the dollars necessary to provide an adequate education is not an easy task” (p. 24). The money an institution has must be spent properly. This statement is backed up by University of Washington Economics professor Paul Hill. Hill states, “Money is not the main barrier to performance. The main barrier to performance is how to use money more effectively” (in Spalding, 2007). Costrell et al. also found that there is no consistent amount of money that can be spent per student to ensure academic success.

Wenglinsky (1997) found that some types of academic spending are beneficial whereas others are not. Spending money to improve the level of teachers and learning assistants does not lead to better academic success. Instead, spending money to ensure a higher number of staff members so that students can have the most one on one time with their instructor is more beneficial.

As a relatively recent benchmark, little scholarly research has been devoted to the APR. The research that has been conducted focuses mostly on whether or not the APR is an accurate and fair measurement of athletic department academic programs.

Methodology, Thematic Overview and Structure

Data for this project will be gathered from a number of sources. Since the university and their respective athletic departments are both well chronicled in the popular press, there are no shortages of articles detailing the subject matter. To begin the research, the authors first consulted published reports on both the athletic departments and the university published by the NCAA and numerous articles published in the mainstream press.

A process, known as document analysis, was used prior to conducting a review of the data to develop background knowledge on the subject. This document analysis consisted of periodic visits to the campus library to obtain additional material on the subject matter. Pertinent information, specifically information detailing NCAA legislation involving academics, was obtained in this manner. The campus library contains a wealth of material that was essential in providing a historical context of intercollegiate athletics and academics at the institutions.

APR scores were collected after analyzing the official NCAA reports online from NCAA.org for the previous three years (2005-2008). The scores for each team were then divided based upon BCS status, and penalized teams were separated from the non-penalized teams. The difference between BCS and non-BCS teams was then compiled for each year.

Athletic department expenses were compiled with data from the NCAA Financial Reports Database (Indystar.com, 2009). The expense reports for each school were recorded and then separated based upon BCS status. The items were then averaged to get a sense for the difference between BCS and non-BCS schools. The list of schools reporting their budgets was incomplete. The data was taken from a report of 164 public institutions throughout the United States. Private schools are not required to release their budgets to the public, and state laws in Pennsylvania and Delaware also do not require schools to release this information (Indystar.com, 2009).

Results

Non-BCS schools were penalized more often than BCS schools all three of the years studied. For the 2005-2006 school year, seven BCS teams were penalized compared to 92 non-BCS teams. In the 2006-2007 school year, 12 BCS teams were penalized compared to 100 non-BCS teams. The number of BCS teams penalized was 18 and the number of non-BCS teams penalized was 200 in the 2007-2008 APR report out of 6,272 total teams. Recent data shows that 3.4% of all teams were penalized by the NCAA during the latest round of APR scores.


Figure 1: Number of total penalized team separated by BCS status

After analyzing the expenditures for 51 BCS conference schools and 81 non-BCS conference schools, the average BCS conference school spent $47,507,269 on athletics and the average non-BCS conference school spent $13,507,001 on athletics. The average difference between a BCS school and non-BCS school budget is $34,000,268, which you can see in Figure 2.


Figure 2: Difference between BCS and non-BCS average expenditures

Conclusion

This research was meant to identify whether or not BCS school teams were penalized less than non-BCS schools for APR score violations as well as determine how much additional money was available to BCS schools on average. Although BCS schools average budgets are over $34 million more per year, no in-depth numbers are available for how much individual schools spent on academics compared to other expenditures. Although academic success has been shown not to necessarily benefit from more money, the hiring of more tutors and learning specialists does benefit schools with larger budgets.

Future research about this topic might focus on how much money each school is spending on academic services and whether there is a correlation between money spent on academics for student-athletes and scores on the APR. This research could seek to examine what the money going to academic services is actually providing for those student-athletes and whether the extra funding is beneficial. Another topic of discussion might be the question: Is the penalty phase of the APR enough to alter schools’ behavior regarding academics. Some critics of the APR point to the fact that too few schools actually get penalized for low scores.

Recent data show that 507 teams posted APR’s beneath 925 but did not draw sanctions. “That raises the questions: How can so many schools avoid sanctions?” said Nathan Tublitz, a neuroscience professor at the University of Oregon who co-chairs the Coalition on Intercollegiate Athletics, an alliance of faculty senates at Division I universities. “One can understand a few exceptions. One can understand that some schools have good reasons. But for so many schools to have so many good reasons raises the questions of whether there’s really any bite to this academic performance package and the sanctions that are supposed to be issued” (NCAA, 2008).

References

Costrell, R., Hanushek, E., & Loeb, S. (2008). What do cost functions tell us about the cost of an adequate education?. Peabody Journal of Education, 83(2), 198-223.

Indystar.com. (2009) NCAA financial reports database. Retrieved from http://www2.indystar.com/NCAA_financial_reports/

NCAA.com. (2009) NCAA academic reform. Retrieved from http://www.ncaa.org/wps/ncaa?ContentID=276
NCAA Press Release. (2008). NCAA issues penalties and waivers for APR failures.

Spalding, A. (2007). More money does not affect student achievement, economists say. The Columbia Missourian. Retrieved from http://www.columbiamissourian.com/stories/2007/10/30/more- money-does-not-effect-student-achievement-eco/

Wenglinsky, H. (1997). How money matters: the effect of school district spending on academic achievement. Sociology of Education, 70(3), 221-237.

The Perceived Role of Senior Women Administrators in NCAA Division I Institutions

Abstract

The Senior Woman Administrator (SWA), originally named the Primary Woman Administrator (PWA), is a role designed to return to women a voice in the operations of intercollegiate athletic departments that was lost as a result of the takeover of the AIAW by the NCAA. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the SWA as it exists today and as it could become in the future. The Senior Woman Administrator Survey was developed and administered to all NCAA Division I SWAs. Senior Woman Administrators overwhelmingly disagreed with the statement suggesting they have been given responsibilities that are appropriate for their job. Further, in order for SWAs to have authority that is more than advisory in nature, they must have final decision making authority in budget and personnel. Finally, SWAs indicated that their primary functions were advocating for women’s athletics, gender equity, and serving as a role model.

Introduction

Women’s intercollegiate athletics was built on the foundation of physical education programs for female students. Athletics for women was governed and administered by female physical education teachers and coaches. In the beginning, women’s athletics programs were operated with an educational philosophy emphasizing participation over competition. Demand began to rise for more competitive women’s athletics and a governing agency to ensure appropriate administration. This demand resulted in the creation of the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW). The AIAW began forming in the late 1960s, became fully functional in 1971, and was in control of women’s athletics by the summer of 1972 (Hult, 1994; Hult in Hult & Trekell, 1991).

The educational focus of the AIAW is well documented. The Association’s leadership was intent on maintaining a “student-centered, education-oriented model” (Hult in Hult & Trekell, 1991). The first significant attack on this unique model of intercollegiate athletics came with the Kellmeyer case in 1973. This class action lawsuit was filed by a group of tennis players and their coaches challenging the AIAW’s ban on offering athletic scholarships. The leadership within the AIAW reluctantly admitted defeat and permitted member institutions to provide athletic scholarships to female student-athletes. The Kellmeyer case is recognized as one of the Association’s first steps in moving away from its original focus on education and moving toward the more commercialized model of intercollegiate athletics used by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) (Hult in Hult & Trekell, 1991; Wu, 1999, 2000).

Title IX of the Education Amendments, which passed in 1972 and banned discrimination at educational institutions that received federal funds, led to reforms that made athletic opportunities for male and female students more equitable. This new legislation brought explosive growth in participation by female athletes (Hult, 1994). Title IX introduced a new standard in that opportunities for female athletes were now being compared to opportunities for male athletes in terms of the quantity and quality of the opportunities. Women sought equitable participation opportunities as well as equitable support in scholarships, benefits, and services. As opportunities within women’s sports continued to increase, the governing body for men’s athletics, the NCAA, saw both an opportunity and a threat. An opportunity in that the NCAA anticipated that, with the implementation of Title IX, women’s athletics was going to be significantly funded, and thus, discussion began within the NCAA to include women within the organization (Hult in Hult & Trekell, 2001). A threat in that the NCAA was concerned that the resources needed to support women’s programs would be redirected from the men’s programs. In an attempt to manage both situations, the NCAA made plans to offer championships for women and to eventually take over the AIAW. In 1981, women’s basketball championships were offered for women by the AIAW, the NAIA, and the NCAA (Trekell & Hult, 1991). The NCAA takeover of the AIAW in 1982 eventually resulted in the consolidation of men’s and women’s intercollegiate athletic programs, which left many female administrators and coaches of women’s programs without jobs or in secondary positions (Hult, 1994). The most devastating aspect of the demise of the AIAW was that within the AIAW, women controlled 90 percent of the programs. Within the NCAA membership, women were part of an organization where 95 percent of the voting representatives were male and knew little if anything about the philosophies of the AIAW (Grant, 1989). According to Uhlir (1987) “by 1979-1980, over 80 percent of all collegiate athletic administrations were merged, and 90 percent of the merged administrations had men at the helm. Frequently, the woman displaced was more qualified—with more experience, a higher degree, academic rank, and tenure.” With the loss of jobs or the relegation to secondary positions, women lost decision-making opportunities at the campus level as well as representation at national conventions, and these opportunities have never been recovered (Acosta & Carpenter, 2002).

The role of Senior Woman Administrator (SWA), initially called the Primary Woman Administrator (PWA), was designed to return to women the administrative opportunities they had lost and to ensure that women had a voice in the administration of intercollegiate athletic programs (Hult, 1994; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2002). Today, considerable effort is still aimed at understanding the role of SWA for those who are already in, or who aspire to fill, senior administrative roles in athletic programs because of the changes that have occurred since the AIAW-NCAA consolidation in 1982 (Copeland, 2005; Hosick, 2005). In order for SWAs to be effective administrators, their role must be clearly understood, and they must have adequate levels of influence on administrative strategies and courses of action within athletic departments not just on issues related to gender equity and women’s sports (Gill-Fisher, 1998; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 1994; Watson, 1994). When an SWA is excluded from discussions beyond gender equity, compliance, or academic advising, the role of the SWA is limited and the entire athletics department is deprived of the insight this person can provide to enhance the experiences of all.

Until the role of the SWA is clearly understood, both the SWA and her constituents will continue to be frustrated with the results of her leadership. Unless action is taken to remedy less than desirable situations, the results will have little impact (Watson, 1994). It is hoped that athletic administrators will utilize this study in examining the role of the SWA on their campuses and assist this person in contributing more fully to the overall administration of the athletic program, thus making the SWA a viable and integral member of the athletic department and campus leadership.

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of the Senior Woman Administrator as it currently exists and as it could become in the future in order to make recommendations for a more clearly understood and utilized role. In order to accomplish this, answers to the following research questions were sought: (1) Do SWAs perceive that they are being given appropriate responsibilities for their role? (2) Do SWAs perceive that they have decision-making power in budgeting? and (3) What is the SWA’s role in the advancement of women in athletics?

Method

Participants and Procedure

All NCAA Division I Senior Woman Administrators (SWA) were surveyed. Each member institution within the NCAA Division I is required to list a Senior Woman Administrator on the NCAA Institutional Representatives Form that is completed annually by the athletic department (D. Oberhelman, personal communication, July 2002). In addition to the SWA, each institution’s CEO (Chief Executive Officer), AD (Athletics Director), FAR (Faculty Athletic Representative), and Compliance Coordinator is listed on this form (D. Oberhelman, personal communication, July 2002). SWA addresses were obtained from The National Directory of College Athletics, an official publication of the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics, 2002). Envelopes were addressed generically to the Senior Woman Administrator. Each NCAA Division I institution should have identified an SWA on their NCAA Institutional Representatives Form and, therefore, has already designated someone to receive mail addressed in this manner (D. Oberhelman, personal communication, July 2002). Survey packets were sent to all SWAs in NCAA Division I and included a letter of introduction, the coded Senior Woman Administrator Survey, and a postage-paid, return envelope. Surveys were coded only for the purpose of tracking responses to prevent reminder postcards from being sent to those who had already returned surveys. For those who had not returned surveys, a follow-up postcard was sent 18 days after the survey packets were sent.

Materials

The data collection instrument used in this study was the “Senior Woman Administrator Survey” developed through literature review, a related survey conducted by the NCAA, and interview responses gathered from three SWAs in NCAA Division I institutions in the southeast. In 1994, the NCAA’s Committee on Women’s Athletics used a similar survey. Selected items from the NCAA Survey were used with permission. The Senior Woman Administrator Survey included items designed to assess the perceptions of the SWA and her role in the athletic department.

In developing the Senior Woman Administrator Survey, interview responses were gathered from three SWAs at NCAA Division I institutions. Interview items were divided into the following sections: Demographics, Perceived Leadership Style, Relationships within Athletic Department, and Conclusion. The interview questions were open-ended in nature and the approved protocol allowed for probing questions as appropriate. Interview responses were transcribed. Responses found to be consistent among subjects or very unique in nature were then used to formulate survey items.

The Senior Woman Administrator Survey consists of three parts: Part I: Demographic Profile, Part II: Position/Institutional Profile, and Part III: SWA Perceptions. Part I: Demographic Profile included questions regarding sex, race, education level, and professional experience. Part II: Position/Institutional Profile included questions designed to describe the SWA’s role at the institution as well as provide information about the institution. Part III: SWA Perceptions was designed to assess the SWA’s perceptions of her role within the athletic department including the areas of appropriate responsibilities, authority, decision-making, leadership, value to the athletic department, and job satisfaction.

Face validity of the instrument was evaluated by a panel of experts consisting of one NCAA Division I SWA, one NCAA Division I Compliance Coordinator, and one Associate Professor of Coaching and Sport Administration. After the face validity test, minor adjustments were made to the survey. Internal consistency was determined by administering the survey to 28 NCAA Division II SWAs in the southeast. Chronbach’s alpha was used to assess internal consistency and eliminate any items with low item-total correlation. Using Chronbach’s alpha, the internal consistency was determined to be .96. No items were eliminated from the survey.

Following the initial mailing to all NCAA Division I institutions and an 18 day follow-up postcard, 150 (46%) usable surveys were returned. An analysis of the data was conducted as follows: (a) Demographic Profile Information responses and Position/Institutional Profile responses were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics with frequencies and percentages of responses tabulated for each item and each alternative within each item, (b) Senior Woman Administrator Perception responses were analyzed through the use of inferential statistics with frequencies and percentages for responses in each category being compared to determine if observed differences were statistically significant at the p < .05 level, and (c) Responses regarding the perceived role of the SWA within the athletic department including the areas of appropriate responsibilities, authority, decision-making, leadership, value to the athletic department and job satisfaction were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics with frequencies and percentages of responses tabulated for each item and each alternative within each item. Responses were indicated on a Likert-type scale with the following scores: 1: Strongly Disagree, 2: Disagree, 3: Somewhat Disagree, 4: Somewhat Agree, 5: Agree, and 6: Strongly Agree.

Results and Discussion

Appropriate Responsibilities

In response to the statement, “I have been given responsibilities that are not appropriate for my job,” 73.9% disagreed at some level with this statement. Table 1 shows the responses to this item.
SWAs overwhelmingly disagreed with the statement suggesting that they have been given responsibilities that are appropriate for their role. In the development of the Senior Woman Administrator Survey, interviews were conducted to assist in survey construction. One interviewee suggested that “whenever it was time to plan a party, I was asked to plan it.” Overall, the responses to this item indicate that progress has been made in accepting the SWA into the fraternity of athletic administration. It is also important to note that responses were received primarily from SWAs at Football Bowl Subdivision (formerly Division IA) institutions. These are the premiere institutions in the country, and they may have been the most diligent in developing the role of the SWA at their institutions.

Budget Decisions

In response to the statement, “I have final decision-making authority on budgetary decisions,” 61.0% of SWAs disagreed at some level with this statement. Table 2 shows the responses to this item.

In order for the SWA to have authority that is more than advisory in nature, she must have final, decision-making authority in the area of budgetary decisions. This finding is consistent with Claussen and Lehr (2002) who determined that, “SWAs possess only advisory authority for most functions analyzed.” For example, if the coach of a sport reports to the SWA and the SWA has denied a request for money to be allocated in a particular way, the coach should not be able to approach another athletic administrator and be granted his or her request. Furthermore, the SWA should have access to the paperwork that is submitted confirming that the money requested was spent as permission was given. For example, if a coach is told that he or she is not permitted to take the team to a movie on a road trip, the SWA should have access to the voucher submitted by the coach upon their return to confirm that the coach did not take the team to a movie. Unless the SWA is given the authority to grant and deny permission for spending coupled with the access to accountability methods, greater opportunity exists for her authority to be subverted.

Advancement of Women in Athletics

SWAs indicated that, for the most part, their primary functions should include functioning as an advocate for women’s athletics (n=128), gender equity (n=116), and serving as a role model (n=109), Table 3.

It is interesting to note that these primary functions do not necessarily cross over into the overall administrative strategies of athletic departments. Not minimizing the importance of the advocacy functions indicated, but it is the crossover into the overall scheme that women are looking for in the position of the SWA, “a female voice at the table, many times the only female voice,…providing a diverse, different view—a different perspective” (Stallman cited in Copeland, 2005). Claussen and Lehr (2002) found that SWAs had little decision making authority in marketing, development, promotions, and sponsorships, thus, limiting the scope of their involvement. As reported by McKindra (2009), a recent study conducted by the NCAA indicates an 8.2 percent increase the number of women serving in administrative positions. The increases have come in the positions of business manager, graduate assistant, academic advisor, and administrative assistant (McKindra, 2009). While the recent increases in women administrators seems to provide cause for celebration, a close look at these positions reveals advances in positions that do not cross over into the overall administration of the athletic department. Further, serving as an advocate for women is not enough, and when an SWA’s role is limited to advocacy then that individual’s impact on the overall administration of athletics programs is reduced (Copeland, 2005). If SWAs see their role as primarily dealing with women and their issues, then it will be difficult to persuade others that they need access to the other operations of the athletic department (Gill-Fisher, 1998).

Conclusions

The position of Senior Woman Administrator (SWA) was designed to include women in the administration of intercollegiate athletics, an opportunity that was lost for many as a result of the AIAW-NCAA consolidation (Hult, 1994; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2002a). Overall, SWAs seem to be satisfied with the contributions they are making to their respective athletic departments, yet there still exists today some ambiguity regarding the role and function of SWAs. Those who are already in, or who aspire to fill, senior administrative roles in athletic programs may have a clear understanding of the role and function of the SWA as it is intended, but those working with the SWA, including coaches, athletic administrators, and university administrators are often unclear as to the role and function of the SWA.

In order for SWAs to be effective administrators, their role must be clearly understood. In addition, they must have adequate levels of influence on administrative strategies and courses of action within athletic departments, not just on issues related to women’s athletics (Gill-Fisher, 1998; National Collegiate Athletic Association, 1994; Watson, 1994). When SWAs are given authority in particular areas, i.e., budget issues, they need to be given access to the tools for accountability. Further study should examine whether or not the experience gained while serving in the role of SWA is adequate to advance the careers of these athletic administrators into positions of higher rank or authority or if the persons who fill the role of SWA are seen only as advocates for women’s athletics.

In order to gain a more accurate picture of the role of the SWA as it exists and as it could become at NCAA Division I institutions, continued research needs to be conducted on the perceptions of the SWA by members of the athletic department and other campus administrators regarding the role of the SWA on their campuses. Further, the women who fill the role of SWA need to consistently seek opportunities for involvement in all facets of the athletic department, not just issues related to female student-athletes, and in other aspects of campus leadership. As the NCAA and the member institutions seek to more clearly understand and utilize the role of the SWA at all divisions, those institutions which have effectively integrated the role of the SWA into the campus leadership should make recommendations for best practices in these areas.

Tables

References

Acosta, R.V. & Carpenter, L.J. (2002). Women in intercollegiate sport: a longitudinal study—twenty five year update 1977-2002.

Claussen, C.L. & Lehr, C. (2002). Decision making authority of Senior Woman Administrators, International Journal of Sport Management, 3(3), 215-228.

Copeland, J. (2005, August 15). Association takes steps to improve understanding of ‘SWA’. NCAA News, 42(17), A3-A4, Retrieved May 10, 2009, from http://www.ncaa.org/wps/ncaa?key=/ncaa/ncaa/ncaa+news/ncaa+news+online/2005/association-wide/association+takes+steps+to+improve+understanding+of+_swa_+-+8-15-05+ncaa+news

Gill-Fisher, P. (1998). SWA position needs planning and support. The NCAA News. Indianapolis, IN. Retrieved from http://www.ncaa.org/news/1998/19980316/comment.html#1
Grant, C.H.B. (1989). Recapturing the vision. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 60(3), 44-48.

Hosick, M. B. (2005, August 15). SWAs perceive a lack of involvement in finance, personnel. NCAA News, 42(17), A3-A3, Retrieved May 10, 2009, from http://www.ncaa.org/wps/ncaa?key=/ncaa/ncaa/ncaa+news/ncaa+news+online/2005/association-wide/swas+perceive+lack+of+involvement+in+finance%2C+personnel+-+8-15-05+ncaa+news

Hult, J.S. (1991). The saga of competition: Basketball battles and governance war. J.S. Hult & M.

Trekell (Eds.). A Century of Women’s Basketball: From frailty to Final Four (pp. 223-248). Reston, VA: National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

Hult, J.S. (1991). The legacy of AIAW. J.S. Hult & M. Trekell (Eds.). A Century of Women’s Basketball: From frailty to Final Four (pp. 281-307). Reston, VA: National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

Hult, J.S. & Trekell, M. (1991). A century of women’s basketball: from frailty to Final Four. Reston, VA: National Association for Girls and Women in Sport.

Hult J.S., (1994). The story of women’s athletics: manipulating a dream 1890-1985. D.M. Costa & S.R. Guthrie (Eds.), Women and sport: interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 83-106). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

McKindra, L. (2009, July 9). Study shows slight gains for women administrators, NCAA News, Retrieved July 9, 2009, from http://www.ncaa.org/wps/ncaa?key=/ncaa/ncaa/ncaa+news/ncaa+news+online/2009/association-wide/study+shows+slight+gains+for+women+administrators_07_09_09_ncaa_news

National Association of College Directors of Athletics (2002). The 2002-2003 National Directory of College Athletics. Cleveland, OH: Author.

National Collegiate Athletic Association. (1994). Summary of the survey to review the roles of senior woman administrators at NCAA member Institutions. Kansas City, KS: Author.

National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2002). Senior Woman Administrator [Brochure]. Indianapolis, IN: Author.

Uhlir, G.A. (1987). Athletics and the university: the post-woman’s era. Academe, 73 (4), 25-29.

Watson, V. (1994). Survey: confusion surrounds SWA role. The NCAA News, 31(36), 1, 14, 16.

Wu, Y. (1999). Kellmeyer: The lawsuit that ruined women’s control of intercollegiate athletics for women? Proceedings of the North American Society for Sport History. Retrieved from www.la84foundation.org/SportsLibrary/NASSH_Proceedings/NP1999/NP1999zl.pdf

Wu, Y. (2000). From educational model to commercial enterprise: The philosophical change of U.S. women’s intercollegiate athletics in the Title IX era. Proceedings for the North American Society for Sport History. Retrieved from www.la84foundation.org/SportsLibrary/NASSH_Proceedings/NP2000/NP2000zzzw.pdf

Identifying and Assessing the Elements of Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress in Sport

Introduction

Horror stories of outlandish behavior by coaches in the sport milieu: many have heard the stories, to one extent or another. Many have personally dealt with the accompanying emotions of dread, humiliation, discrimination, and fear that coaches have imposed during practices and games. Many have suffered immeasurably while helplessly watching their child endure torment at the hands of an abusive coach or coaches. Many have asked the same questions: What can be done? What good can possibly come from garnishing discussion with the coach, athletic director or administrator? Will the ordeal continue with new vigor because the problem was brought out into the open? Parents often struggle with these types of questions, wavering in a sea of indecision, wishing for easy solutions to unfortunate situations. And so the questions remain: what can be done; are there potential solutions; and where can one seek advice?

Assuming that the parties involved have exhausted all possible common sense remedies such as speaking directly with the coach and/or the administration, the logical next step would be to turn to tort law within the legal system. A tort is defined in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (1982) as “a wrongful act, damage, or injury done willfully, negligently, or in circumstances involving strict liability, but not involving breach of contract, for which a civil suit can be brought” (p. 1280). According to the Free Online Law Dictionary (2009) a tort has three elements that a plaintiff must ascertain in court. First, it must be established that the defendant be under a legal duty to act in a certain way. Second, it must be shown that the defendant breached this duty by failing to match his or her actions accordingly. Third, it must be shown that the plaintiff suffered injury or loss as a direct result of the defendant’s breach.

The difficulty faced by courts considering sport related tort cases in regards to coaching behaviors is to distinguish an exact point where coaches have crossed the line. Because the alleged abuse is emotionally centered, it is difficult to discern emotional abuse from coaching tactics used to motivate athletes to perform at higher levels. Tort law that specifically targets this type of behavior is intentional infliction of emotional distress (IIED).

IIED is a tort claim that focuses on intentional conduct resulting in extreme emotional distress which causes a mental reaction such as anguish, grief, or fright in response to another person’s actions that brings about recoverable damages. According to Personal Injury Law (2009), to successfully prove a claim for IIED, one must establish four elements: the defendant acted intentionally or recklessly; the defendant’s conduct was extreme and outrageous; the defendant’s act is the cause of the distress; and the plaintiff suffers severe emotional distress as a result of the defendant’s conduct. Unfortunately, these four elements consist of ambiguous wording including such terms as reckless, extreme, outrageous, and severe that attempt to describe defendant actions. Elusive terms such as these have helped to create a confused tort that means “entirely different things to different judges” (Russell, 2008) resulting in wide-ranging court decisions and ones that are difficult to win.

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the elements of intentional infliction of emotional distress (IIED) and discover legal precedent. An attempt will be made to uncover potential solutions, if any are to be found, that can be employed when confronted with the unfortunate events that surround IIED within the sport environment.

Significance

Understanding the elements of intentional infliction of emotional distress will benefit athletic directors, coaches, athletes, parents, spectators, team owners, commissioners, and others associated with sport. It is essential to appreciate the legal aspects of sport because unique situational variables will inevitably arise in the sport milieu. Garnishing an appreciation of past legal precedent can benefit those suffering from the anguish created by IIED. Recognizing potential solutions can be a comfort to those directly and indirectly involved.

Review of Literature

Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress

Intentional infliction of emotional distress (IIED) is a tort that was created to address the threat of emotional harm that results in extreme emotional distress. IIED is also referred to as the tort of “outrage” because the defendant’s conduct is so extreme that it produces the response “outrageous!” from an average member of the community (Rapp, 2008). Outrageous behavior must be conduct that is atrocious and beyond the standards of a civilized society.

To characterize conduct that is “extreme and outrageous” and consequently meet the second element of IIED, one must determine what types of conduct would go beyond all reasonable bounds of human decency. The Legal Aid Society of San Francisco (2009) notes that “outrageous conduct does not include annoyances, hurt feelings, insults, rough language, or bad manners that a reasonable person is expected to endure.” This statement begins to provide advice to those suffering emotional distress at different levels; the law is not intended to handle frivolous claims. Although the emotional distress may not seem frivolous to those involved, the courts take a look at the severity of the distress including the intensity and duration to meet the fourth element of IIED. Severe or extreme levels of emotional distress must be long lasting and of the nature that no reasonable person is expected to endure. Severe or extreme levels may consist of highly distasteful emotions such as fright, grief, shame, humiliation, embarrassment, anger, or worry. Behavior that breaks criminal law would automatically meet the “extreme and outrageous” standard.

The first element of IIED points to the intentionality of the infliction of emotional distress. To meet this element, the defendant must conduct behavior that is pre-meditated and intended to cause harm rather than simply demonstrate mean-spirited actions. Ultimately the courts have the final say as to what is “extreme and outrageous” since case law has not provided an exact definition. The LSU Law Center’s Medical and Public Health Law Site (2009) points out that Missouri courts have stressed in Viehweg v. Tanny that a defendant’s conduct must be “more than malicious and intentional…and liability does not extend to mere insults, indignities, threats, annoyances, or petty oppressions.” It then stands to reason if the first element is established as a result of the defendant’s intentional conduct, then the third element (the defendant’s act is the cause of the distress) is also established.

Ambiguity

The ambiguity of the tort of outrage may open a window of doubt by giving a person enough skepticism to wonder whether the legal system can provide relief. Michael P. Ehline, Personal Injury Attorney (2009) provides a vivid example in his video clip that may give a bit more insight into what exactly is an “outrageous” situation. His example describes a circumstance where a person can claim IIED. If an individual’s child is attacked and killed in front of them by a person with ax, then claiming IIED is appropriate. This illustration gives us a graphic example of what type of heinous behavior would constitute as an utterly intolerable action in a civilized society. Other examples would include watching a child die in an accident from a distance or receiving a letter from someone falsely claiming that a parent, child, sibling, or spouse had died. These examples are ones in which the emotional distress is a reaction to some type of gruesome event or a horrible incident occurring in a violent situation. These examples help to put the tort of IIED into perspective. The majority of emotional distress that many have endured is not compensable.

Gap-filler

Over the years, the tort of IIED has become a “gap-filler” according to the Texas Supreme Court (Intentional Torts, 2009). The gap-filler’s purpose is to supplement other forms of recovery by providing an answer for barbaric conduct that might otherwise go unresolved. In other words, IIED is to be claimed only when more established tort doctrines are not applicable and the intentional harm is so severe that the plaintiff has no other means to rectify the situation. Thus IIED is a “gap-filler” as it can never overlap another tort.

Accepting that IIED is often characterized as a “gap-filler” and used very rarely only whenever the emotional distress is so extreme and outrageous, it makes one question if this tort can be of any help at all when it comes to dealing with abusive coaches in the sport milieu. As noted earlier in the case of Viehweg v. Tanny, IIED liability does not include mere insults, indignities, threats, annoyances, or petty oppressions. Also previously noted is the fact that outrageous conduct does not include hurt feelings, rough language, or bad manners that a reasonable person is expected to endure. Because the legal system is designed to address wide-ranging, ambiguous situational behaviors, one may never know if their own personal circumstances are behaviors that a reasonable person is expected to endure, unless the case is taken to the courts. The conduct endured may turn out to be extreme or outrageous in the eyes of a jury.

“Outrageous” Cases

It is pertinent to discover court cases that have dealt with claims of outrageous behavior to gain a better understanding of legal precedent. One case described by Simon (2009) recently met the definition of “outrageous” when a claim for IIED concerned an employee that was abused at work. In the case of Rothwell v. Nine Miles School District, the plaintiff, employed as a custodian, was ordered to clean up the mess of a suicide victim of whom she knew personally. Prior to cleaning up the mess, which included gruesome remains of the deceased, Rothwell was ordered to go through classrooms to look for bombs. At the suicide scene, she had found a book bag of which she began to open the contents until the police told her to stop. A little later, she watched the bomb squad detonate a bomb that was found in that same book bag and learned that there was another bomb also detonated at the football field. Rothwell became sick from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and won her case due to emotional distress that was intentionally inflicted as a result of the District and Superintendant’s actions.

In a recent sports related case, a Kentucky high school head football coach, David Stinson, has been indicted on the charge of reckless homicide for the death of one of his players. On August 20, 2008, 15 year old Max Gilpin collapsed at practice from heat stroke and died three days later (FindLaw, 2009). Allegations were made in the case that the coaching staff denied the players water breaks on a day with a heat index of 94 degrees. Truman (2009) stresses in his blog that coaches “use denying water as punishment and somehow they feel the kids need to tough it out” and feels that this type of behavior is “inexcusable recklessness.” Even though the case was criminal in nature, one can imagine the emotional distress the athletes endured on that extremely hot day. Not to mention the distress of watching their teammate collapse and eventually die from heat stroke. If the coach punished the athletes by denying them water on a hot day, one can only imagine other kinds of emotionally distressing tactics that may have been put into practice with the team. In this case, the coach was caught utilizing these kinds of tactics through the untimely death of Max Gilpin.

A recent, well-publicized sport case between Major League Baseball pitcher Roger Clemens and his former trainer Brian McNamee actually did involve an IIED claim. Clemens claimed that McNamee fabricated the pitcher’s steroid abuse in an account that appeared in Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell’s 409 page report on the illegal use of steroids and other performance enhancing drugs. Clemens alleges that the untruths spoken by McNamee caused him severe emotional distress. Rapp (2008) suggests that there is one thing that McNamee did that might successfully make one claim the response of “outrageous!” Rapp avows that McNamee “kept dirty bandages, and Roger’s bodily fluids, in sealed bags for years, just in case he might need them later.” This type of behavior is, admittedly, highly unusual and disturbing. So much so that one can see the logic in making an IIED claim in this sport case.

These three lawsuits, the Rothwell, Gilpin, and Clemens cases, are three examples where one can easily see behaviors that were extreme and outrageous. A large amount of litigation that center on IIED claims contains elements that are more ambiguous in nature and are difficult to prove. Taking a look at successful and a bit vague IIED court cases, although not sport related, will provide a deeper understanding of legal precedent.

Successful ambiguous cases

Litigation victories for cases claiming IIED are not abundant especially in the sport venue. IIED claims that have awarded large sums of money for emotional distress establish precedent and provide background knowledge for future, potential litigation. The following two cases are extremely different, yet both show aspects of emotional distress that was severe and invasive.

The first case involves a civil suit brought forth by the plaintiffs regarding outrageous behavior of their next door neighbor. The case, Efros, et al., v. Giles, awarded the plaintiffs $350,000 for their claim of IIED. Giles was already criminally charged with aggravated stalking, malicious destruction of property, and malicious annoyance by writing (Verdicts & Settlements, 2008). Police discovered Giles to be the source behind the anonymous graphically suggestive and threatening letters directed toward the plaintiffs and also the vandalism of their home where Giles had thrown rotting fruit, eggs, D-cell batteries and feces. He also smeared feces on the automobiles in their driveway. For this behavior, the plaintiffs won their IIED claim as they stated they have been forever changed by Giles’ behavior which caused their severe and continual emotional distress. This case does show extreme criminal actions of which the defendant was sentenced two to five years in prison; however, it also shows that individuals can lean on the legal system when dealing with extreme and outrageous behavior of this sort.

The second civil court case finds a former high school teacher awarded a monetary amount for her IIED claim. Janis Adams alleged that administrators did not take proper action when an underground student newspaper made crude assertions about her (Walsh, 2002). The newspaper included articles written about Adams as a porno star and made vulgar references about the teacher and members of her family. Ms. Adams claimed that although preliminary disciplinary action was taken up with some of the students involved, school administrators did nothing to stop the distribution of the newspapers on campus. As a result, she was subjected to a severe, outrageous, and offensive work environment, which the administrators failed to remedy. Ms. Adams was awarded $1.1 million for lost earnings and $3.25 million for the IIED claim – totaling an award of $4.35 million.

Both of these unique cases show that it is possible to receive monetary damages for the intentional infliction of emotional distress. Although each case dealt with extremely different issues, together they show that individuals in society are not expected to deal with such outlandish behavior that causes emotional distress.

“Something more”

After a thorough review of legal precedent, one can begin to compare the emotional distress that is occurring within their individual sport milieu to determine the next step to assuage the problematic situation. If it is determined that the behavior of the one in charge (typically the coach) is bringing forth harmful consequences, then one is encouraged to seek legal counsel and sue for damages under the tort of IIED. However, if it is determined that the behavior is simply not bizarre enough to claim outrage in a civilized society, then court costs may not be worth incurring litigation.

Determining that legal recourse is not a viable option and assuming that the coach’s behavior is not going to change because all efforts have led down a windy path to nowhere, there must be “something more” that one can do to handle an oppressive situation. Each scenario will be different than the next and that “something more” solution will vary from case to case. Simply stated, there are no easy answers. It all boils down to making a determination as to what one can and cannot control.

Summary and Conclusions

Restatement of the Purpose

The intent of this paper is to identify and assess the elements of intentional infliction of emotional distress (IIED) and discover legal precedent. An attempt will be made to uncover potential solutions that can be employed when confronted with the unfortunate events that surround IIED within the sport environment.

Summary

The tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress is designed to bring about recoverable damages for those who have suffered from mental anguish, grief, or fright in response to another person’s actions. The elements required to prove an IIED claim include ambiguous terminology that have resulted in wide-ranging court decisions. IIED, also designated as the tort of outrage, must include conduct that goes beyond all reasonable bounds of human decency. Because case law has not provided an exact definition of outrageous behavior, the courts must decide if the behaviors are severe enough to win an IIED claim. In review of successful case law, the wins demonstrate that individuals in a civilized society should not have to deal with emotionally distressing, outrageous behaviors. On the other hand, drawing the line between “extreme and outrageous” emotionally distressing behaviors and finding potential solutions outside the legal environment is not an easy matter.

Conclusions and Potential Solutions

When dealing with emotionally distressing coaching behaviors, an individual should review legal precedent and seek legal counsel if the behavior is deemed as severe and outrageous. Already formulating that one cannot control the coach, there are two potential solutions if legal action is not a viable option: to quit and do something else or to find a way to deal with the abusive situation. Choosing to remain on the team and deal with an unfortunate situation is not easy. It has already been determined that to make an IIED claim, outrageous conduct does not include mere insults, indignities, threats, annoyances, and petty oppressions. A coach that utilizes tactics such as these is truly not worth the accompanying mental anguish, yet many individuals love the sport so intensely that they cannot dream of quitting. If this is the case, one must turn to positive psychology to find a way to handle emotional distress that will inevitably be encountered.

Individuals may not be able to control the coach, but they can control personal reactions to bad coaching behaviors. Athletes (and often their parents) need to develop a mental strategy to cope with emotionally distressing situations. There are two strategies that can be employed to develop a personal mental plan. The two tactics are: 1) determining psychological type for self-understanding, development, and problem solving; and 2) utilizing cognitive strategies by accepting the importance of positive expectations and implementing positive self-talk.

The first part of the mental strategy is to determine psychological type by taking the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI is a self-report questionnaire designed to provide feedback to enhance an understanding of personal self, motivations, natural strengths, and potential areas for growth (Myers, 1998). The MBTI, based on Carl Jung’s theory of personality and further developed by the mother/daughter team of Myers and Briggs, provides an individual with one of sixteen personality preference scales. Each of the sixteen types consist of a four letter personality preference code which can help an athlete understand the following: the way one prefers to focus their attention and energy; the way one prefers to take in information; the way an individual prefers to make decisions; and how one orients themselves to the external world. With this information, athletes can learn more about themselves. The type code allows an athlete to see their characteristics, view how others may see them, and identify areas of potential growth. In a perfect world, it would be nice to know the personality type of the coach or coaches to gain a better understanding of the characteristics frequently associated with his or her type. Even without this information, one can study the sixteen types and attempt to match characteristics of the coach with a particular type. Empowered with this information, athletes can better understand themselves and in the process begin to understand others around them – specifically to recognize and attempt to understand the coach’s behavior. Having this type of insight won’t completely take away the emotional distress factor, but it might soften the edges of the hurtful words or behaviors.

The second part of the mental strategy is concerned with cognitively appreciating the importance of positive expectations and utilizing positive self-talk. To prove the essence of positive expectations, Waitley (1978), conducted interviews with “winners” from various fields of endeavor. He then grouped the characteristics of the “winners” into categories of five “attitude qualities” which include positive self-expectancy, self-image, self-control, self-esteem, and self-awareness. These five “attitude qualities” are found within the self-talk of winners – no matter what circumstances come their way. With practice, athletes can internalize all five positive attitudes, which in turn affect positive expectations of self. To restate once again, athletes may not be able to control their coaches, but they can control their own state of mind when dealing with bad behaviors by incorporating cognitive strategies. In emphasis, Singer (1980) claims that implementing a cognitive (or mental) strategy can favorably affect one’s emotions, such as reduce anxiety, focus attention, maintain concentration, and cope with stress.

Concluding Statements

The tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress (IIED), otherwise known as the tort of outrage, is a viable legal option. Although the tort is not set up to handle frivolous claims, it is frustrating that the majority of emotional distress is not compensable. To be subjected to bad coaching behaviors with very little opportunity for recourse is extremely maddening to all involved. Is one supposed to chalk up the negative experience as a good life lesson – teaching the principle that “life’s not fair?” Is one supposed to simply deal with bad behaviors until something drastic happens like the untimely death of Max Gilpin? Other than the legal option of claiming IIED for extreme and outrageous activities, there are only two other viable solutions: to quit the sport and attempt to move on; or dig down deep into the trenches and develop a mental strategy in an effort to maintain sanity. Regrettably, either option is heartbreaking when one is submersed in a very unfortunate situation.

References

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FindLaw. (n.d.). High school coach David Stinson indicted in Max Gilpin’s heat
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21.

An Ethnographic Study of the Skateboarding Culture

Abstract

Skateboarders are often seen as outsiders. However, understanding the culture of skateboarding can be insightful for politicians, adults, or scholars who seek to develop stronger relationships with young people who participate in skateboarding (Freeman & Riordan, 2002). In this ethnographic study, skateboarding culture is described through observations of professional skateboarders in a segment of the DVD, Planes, Trains and Skateboards. The findings suggested themes of acceptance, energy and drive, concern for safety, self-expression of style, and progression. Leaders who understand the culture of skateboarding may be able to communicate more effectively with the younger generation.

Introduction

Ethnography describes a culture and provides an understanding of that culture from an insider’s perspective (Neuman, 2003). Through observation, inferences can be made from how members of a culture act, speak, or think within specific cultural contexts to give meaning to actions and behaviors of the group. This study uses an ethnographic design to identify characteristics of the skateboarding culture by documenting characteristics, action, and behaviors of participants in the video compilation of Planes, Trains and Skateboards.

World Cup Skateboarding captured the essence of competitive skateboarding in the 2004 release of Planes, Trains and Skateboards from video recorded at X Games X in Los Angeles, CA. Through observation of communication styles and cultural artifacts manifested in the video, the culture of competitive skateboarding is described and generalizations to the overall culture that envelopes skateboarding are discussed. From the discussion of the video content, inferences are synthesized to provide a greater understanding of the skateboarding culture.

Population, Sampling, Data Collection Procedures, and Rationale

Planes, Trains and Skateboards is a video compilation of skateboarding events held around the world during 2004. Each of the 15 chapters highlights the social scene enveloping the competition and the athletes who participated. For purposes of this analysis, Chapter 13, X Games X, which includes skateboard street, vert best trick, and big air competitions, was selected because of the variety of genres included in the compilation and the competitive nature of the event.

The population for this study consists of professional skateboarders participating in skateboard competition at X Games X in Los Angeles, CA. While not all skateboarders become professional athletes, the sample for this study included street skaters, vert skaters, and big air skaters. Street skaters are those who predominantly skate on streets and other public domains where concrete and obstacles offer an interesting playground. Vert skaters are those who skate on a half-pipe, usually made of wood or concrete shaped like half of a pipe cut through the diameter. Big air skaters are the newest genre to the culture as these athletes are the most experienced group of skaters and choose a mega-ramp that rises as high as seven stories in the air from which they “drop-in” to gain enough speed to carry them across the bottom, up the opposite side, and above the ramp by as much as 15 or 20 feet above the rim. While each group of skaters is different, by identifying the similarities between them, a greater understanding of the skateboarding culture is gleaned.

Data was collected through an ethnographic analysis, noting unspoken language, behaviors, and cultural artifacts such as dress, hair, and body art. A description of what is observed in the video is detailed. As the competition begins, a standing room only crowd is observed. No whistles, balls, referees, or coaches can be found. Instead, the competition is on the sidewalk behind Staples Center in downtown Los Angeles. Just before the competition, one athlete is break dancing for the crowd. Another is signing autographs. One athlete hides his face from the camera as his family sports hats that look like wedges of cheese in the background. Another athlete dances to the music as he eyes the young, thin, attractive girls in the front row of the crowd. From these observations, inferences can be made to the general population of skateboarders that might suggest that skateboarders are more concerned about having fun and connecting with the audience than winning competitions.

Validity and Bias

Bias is inherent in qualitative research (Neuman, 2003). In particular, because the researcher is the instrument, personal background, interests, and point of view become part of the analysis. In this study, the researcher has an interest in understanding the culture of skateboarding and has participated in the action sports industry for 13 years. Yet these years have not provided an opportunity to discover how skateboarders think or why these athletes do what they do. While bias cannot be erased, bias is identified as a mediating factor that may influence the results of this study.

The single source of data for this study limits the validity. However, repeated observations of the same participants improved the internal validity, or interpretability of the data (Newman, 2003). Further research may be necessary to confirm the external validity, or generalizability of the findings (Newman).

Data Analysis

Data from this ethnographic study was collected by watching the DVD repeatedly to identify the demographic characteristics of the skateboarding participants, including athletes, judges and announcers who were presented in the footage, then observing behaviors and appearances from which meaningful inferences could be drawn.

Agar (2006) suggests that ethnography is about the study of human differences through the identification of similarities. By studying the similarities among the participants in the video, the researcher identified differences between these participants to draw meaning that connects these participants to outsiders such as the researcher.

To understand what was happening in the video, the researcher looked to identify “rich points” or patterns across certain kinds of people in certain situations (Agar, 2006, p. 5). After preliminary notes were taken and reviewed, the DVD was again reviewed repeatedly to confirm the original notes and to make additional observations. Special attention was given to communication and action that took through participant interaction and crowd responses. Through a careful analysis of participant characteristics, participant interaction, and crowd responses, explanations for the overall increase in participation in skateboarding and the rationale for increased acceptance of skateboarding by mainstream sports enthusiasts can be garnered.

Findings

The data from this study were recorded and analyzed for patterns within observed responses and actions. Demographic observations were made. Actions and behaviors were then analyzed. The analysis revealed several themes: acceptance, energy and drive, concern for safety, self-expression of style, and progression.

The demographic characteristics revealed limited diversity among the professional skateboarders who participated in the study competition. Of the 30 participants, 10% were female and 90% were male. 73% were observed to be of Caucasian ethnicity, while 16% were observed to be of Hispanic origins and 1% of African American ethnicity. Age ranged from early teens to late thirties and appeared to have some correlation to the discipline as younger skaters tended to be involved in street skating, while the older, more experienced skaters dominated the vert and big air disciplines. The demographic characteristics are presented in Table 1.

Table 1
Demographic Characteristics of Skateboarding Participants

Skater #

Discipline

Gender

Observed Ethnicity

Observed Age

1

Street

Female

Caucasian

Teens

2

Street

Female

Caucasian

Teens

3

Street

Female

Hispanic

Teens

4

Street

Male

Caucasian

Twenties

5

Street

Male

Caucasian

Early Teens

6

Street

Male

Hispanic

Twenties

7

Street

Male

Caucasian

Late 20s

8

Street

Male

Hispanic

Late 20s

9

Street

Male

Caucasian

Late teens

10

Street

Male

Caucasian

Twenties

11

Street

Male

Caucasian

Twenties

12

Street

Male

African American

Twenties

13

Street

Male

Caucasian

Twenties

14

Vert

Male

Caucasian

Twenties

15

Vert

Male

Caucasian

Twenties

16

Vert

Male

Hispanic

Twenties

17

Big Air

Male

Caucasian

Twenties

18

Big Air

Male

Caucasian

Thirties

19

Big Air

Male

African American

Thirties

20

Big Air

Male

Caucasian

Thirties

21

Big Air

Male

Caucasian

Thirties

22

Big Air

Male

Caucasian

Thirties

23

Big Air

Male

Caucasian

Thirties

24

Big Air

Male

Caucasian

Late Thirties

25

Big Air

Male

Caucasian

Thirties

26

Big Air

Male

Hispanic

Late Twenties

27

Big Air

Male

Caucasian

Late Twenties

28

Big Air

Male

Caucasian

Twenties

29

Big Air

Male

Caucasian

Late Twenties

30

Big Air

Male

Caucasian

Twenties

Regardless of gender, discipline, ethnicity, or age, the participants in this study routinely embraced each other, supported each other by showing encouragement and appreciation, and showed no signs of negative emotion toward other participants, despite the fact that prize money was on the line. This lack of negative emotions infers an inclusionary construct within the skateboarding culture.

Another central theme of this study was the energy and drive of the participants. While each participant was competing, facial expressions suggested the presence of passion and determination, fun, excitement, and desire to do their best at that moment. Participants did not appear tired or winded, even at the conclusion of their turn in the competition rotation. Although the exact time of each run was not apparent from the video, many athletes continued to show energy by dancing, jumping, or engaging in other celebratory acts. Observed behaviors included applauding each other, dancing, smiling, and other congratulatory behaviors. The unique behaviors of participants and spectators, which were captured in the video, are included in Table 2.

Table 2

Unique Behaviors of Participants

Skater #

Unique Behaviors

4

Break dancing before competition

5

Smiling

6

Fans enjoying the run

9

Family supported participant by wearing shirts spelling out last name

10

Moved around the course, spectators applauded, many spectators filming the run

14

High-five with fellow competitor

15

Smiled, happy

16

Received congratulatory slap and hugged competitors on deck, started dancing to the music, showed medal to group of reporters following competition, hugged female reporter

17

Described Big Air Mega Ramp, suggests he’s lost money by betting on these competitions, but laughs as if he’s joking,

18

Gave advice to “hang on, you’ve got 4 tries, that’s it,” joked with camera

19

Moving things forward

21

Describes this as “history in the making” “gladiator skateboarders”

22

Making of “super heroes” today

23

Indicated he was “gearing up for getting slammed”

24

“Awesome,” “sick” suggests athletes must have guts to try this

25

Held small child on the medal stand and waived to crowd after winning gold medal, appeared very happy

26

Nervous, anxious look on face prior to taking jump

29

Skate competitors shown watching, enjoying competition

30

Smiled, happy, camera pan of crowd revealed jammed parking lot full of people cheering and applauding

While danger is inherent in most sports, the potential for falls in skateboarding appears quite high. Helmets, kneepads, elbow pads, wrist guards and gloves were observed in both the vert and big air disciplines. The use of safety equipment appeared to be routine for all competitors, suggesting a concern for safety.

The participants did not wear uniforms or jerseys that identified their team or sponsors. Rather, each participant had an individual sense of style that provided for self-expression. However, similarities in style suggest certain appearance constructs of the skateboarding culture. Comfortable attire such as baggy jeans and loose-fitting t-shirts that allow for movement were common among participants. Style appears to be important to members of the skateboarding culture, but style is not what everyone else is doing or wearing. Rather, style appears to be an expression of individuality. The presence of tattoos, body piercing, or other expressions of individuality could not be gleaned from the video in this study.

Finally, with the variety of disciplines within skateboarding, the theme of progression appears to play a prominent role. While street skating was the original discipline of early skateboarders back in the 1950s, the vert competition was introduced in the mid-1970s as skaters found empty swimming pools provided an interesting playground for skateboarding activities (Hayes, 2005). Not until X Games X was the big air discipline introduced as a competitive event. The progression of the sport through these disciplines suggests skateboarding is an evolving culture that pushes members to try new things, take bigger risks, and progress the sport to new levels.

Conclusions

Critics argue that the skateboarding culture represents a youth activity that embraces anti-establishment values in opposition to middle class norms and values inherent in traditional team sports (Kusz, 2003). However, popular culture can be a means of projecting social resistance, and skateboarding is no exception, despite originating under the Boy Scouts of America umbrella (Beal, 1995).

To outsiders, skaters are thought of as rebels, social deviants, or simply different. Participants are banned from public areas and signs are routinely posted prohibiting the activity (Nolan, 2003; Woolley & Johns, 2001). However, understanding the culture of skateboarding can be insightful for politicians, adults, or scholars who seek to develop stronger relationships with young people (Freeman & Riordan, 2002).

In a study of female skaters, participants described skateboarding as fun, adventurous, confidence building, and nonconformist with a casual, comfortable style (Kelly, Pomerantz & Currie, 2005). These same themes can be inferred from the current study. Even with the status of professional athlete, the subjects in this study were observed as happy, comfortable, and inclusive.

Skateboarding allows for individuality as rules are minimal and self-expression is encouraged. This freedom to be creative and express oneself through skateboarding activity can be a means of empowerment. Through the cultural values of inclusion, having fun, self-expression, and progression, participants can build confidence to become leaders. By understanding the culture of skateboarding, today’s leaders are in a better position to understand tomorrow’s leaders and develop communication styles to improve interaction between generations.

References

Agar, M. (2006, June). Culture: Can you take it anywhere? International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(2).  

Beal, B. (1995). Disqualifying the official: An exploration of social resistance through the subculture of skateboarding. Sociology of Sport Journal, 12. Retrieved September 22, 2006, from EBSCOhost database.

Bostick, D. & Bostick, D. (Executive Producers) & Kanights, B. (Producer). (2004). Planes, trains and skateboards (DVD). United States: Come Together Productions.

Freeman, C. & Riordan, T. (2002). Locating skateparks: The planner’s dilemma. Planning, Practice & Research, 17(3).  

Hayes, A. (2005). Dogtown and Z-Boys: Teaching the documentary. Screen Education, 40. Retrieved September 22, 2006, from EBSCOhost database.

Kelly, D. M., Pomerantz, S., & Currie, D. (2005, August). Skater girlhood and emphasized femininity: ‘you can’t land an ollie properly in heels’. Gender and Education,17 (3).  

Kusz, K. (2003). BMX, extreme sports, and the White male backlash. In Brayton, S. (2005). “Black-Lash”: Revisiting the “White Negro” through skateboarding. Sociology of Sport Journal, 22. Retrieved September 22, 2006, from EBSCOhost database.

Neuman, W. L. (2003). Social research methods (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

Nolan, N. (2003, November). The ins and outs of skateboarding and transgression in public space in Newcastle, Australia. Australian Geographer, 34(3).  

Woolley, H. & Johns, R. (2001). Skateboarding: The city as a playground. Journal ofUrban Design, 6(2).

A Study of the Participative Motivation, Satisfaction and Loyalty of the Members at the Taekwondo Training Hall in Taipei County

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore the differences among the taekwondo training hall members’ demographic variables as they related to participative motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty. A secondary aim is to verify the cause and effect relationship of participative motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty. For this study, a total of 358 members were selected from 15 taekwondo training halls in Taipei County. The instruments utilized in this research include a participative motivation scale, a satisfaction scale, and a loyalty scale. The data were statistically analyzed utilizing descriptive statistics (including a frequency distribution percentage, the mean and the standard deviation), a t-test, a one-way ANOVA, the scheffe method and structural equation modeling. The results were as follows: (a) As it related to the demographics of the members at the taekwondo training halls in Taipei county, the descriptive statistics indicated that a majority of the members were males between 9-12 years old; their total family income was around NT 40,001~NT 60,000; and a majority of the members had practiced taekwondo for less than one year. (b) The results of the analysis of the member’s demographic variables showed that a member’s gender, age, and time spent learning taekwondo indicated statistically significant differences on his or her participative motivation and satisfaction. A member’s gender, age, family income, and time spent learning taekwondo also indicated statistically significant differences on his or her loyalty. (c) According to the analysis conducted by the structural equation modeling, participative motivation had a positive influence on satisfaction and loyalty, and satisfaction had a positive influence on loyalty. Based on these findings, the researchers have provided some suggestions for taekwondo training halls.

Introduction

Taekwondo was introduced from Korea to Taiwan more than four decades ago. The military has long established a special battle tactic training team that utilizes taekwondo, and the police force has also practiced it in regular training. In addition, most schools have taekwondo clubs on campus, and hundreds of private establishments are scattered throughout the island. Today, there are 737 taekwondo training halls in Taiwan (Chien, 2007). Taekwondo has been an official event in the Olympic Games since 2000. This has been a medal-winning event for the Taiwanese national team members. These factors have led to the acceleration of the development of taekwondo in Taiwan, as evidenced by the establishment of the R.O.C. Taekwondo Association and numerous private taekwondo training halls and taekwondo schools. The outstanding performance of the athletes is a testament to the sport. Therefore, the private taekwondo training halls and taekwondo schools are of great significance to the development of taekwondo in Taiwan (Yeh, 1999).

In recent years, a number of researchers have explored participative motivation in the field of taekwondo. Chen (2001) did research on the participative motivation of taekwondo members, and the results indicated that the major participative motivations were “learning the skill of taekwondo” and “developing a healthy body.” Sung (2005) pointed out that there were four major factors related to the taekwondo training hall members’ participative motivation, (i.e., learning the skill of taekwondo, relieving stress, encouraging self-fulfillment, and developing a healthy body). S. H. Yang (2005) also pointed out that the participative motivation factors of the taekwondo club members at high schools were, based on a factor analysis, health demands, achievement demands, psychological demands, leisure demands, and social demands. Therefore, different researchers have focused on different aspects of participative motivation, and there is no universal, parsimonious, or all encompassing definition. A number of researchers have explored demographic variables related to participative motivation. For example, gender, age, training, family income, and the period of learning have made significant differences to participative motivation (Chen, 2001; Huang, 2005; Sung, 2005; W. C. Yang, 2005).

The degree of a member’s satisfaction plays an important role in determining the quality of a taekwondo training hall. Satisfaction signifies the loyalty of a consumer. Using these four dimensions (i.e., the professional ability of the coach, the relationships of the members, the training hall environment, and the promotion system), Chen (2001) and Sung (2005) made efforts to quantify the level of satisfaction. They developed an instrument to assess satisfaction empirically, which relied on the differences in the scores of consumers’ perceived performances. Additionally, Yang (2006) indicated that significant differences were found in members’ participative satisfaction levels based on their demographic variables. Sung (2005) pointed out that the demographic variables, including gender, age, time spent studying, and the duration of the learning period, were of significance, but there was not a significant difference in family income. W. C. Yang (2005) also pointed out that significant differences were found in training satisfaction based on gender, grade, the number of years they had been training, when they started learning taekwondo, their degree or level, and their sport performance.

Realizing the importance of consumer loyalty, students in the field of recreation and leisure have paid growing attention to loyalty-related issues in recent decades (Gahwiler & Havitz, 1995; Park & Kim, 2000). This section reviewed the development of the exploration of consumer loyalty in the past, especially in the field of sport or recreation and leisure. This study reviewed the development of the exploration of consumer loyalty in the past, especially in the field of recreation and leisure. Most researchers focused only on one dimension of consumer loyalty—either behavioral or attitudinal (Chen, 2005; Cheng & Yuang, 2007; Hung, 2007). Therefore, this study designed four items to measure loyalty.
Both W. C. Yang’s (2005) and Sung’s (2005) results indicated that there was a significant correlation between the members’ participative motivation and their satisfaction with the taekwondo training halls. Hung (2007) indicated that satisfaction and loyalty were positively and significantly correlated. Cheng and Yuang (2007) indicated that participant motive was a significant influence on satisfaction and that satisfaction was a significant influence on loyalty, but that participant motive was not significant to loyalty. Furthermore, this research was designed to determine whether or not the relationship between motivation and loyalty is a suppressed relationship, and if so, whether or not the results indicated a suppressed relationship in the whole model, that is, whether or not the involvement of satisfaction suppressed the influence of the relationship between participative motivation and loyalty. Therefore, this study investigated the causal relationships among taekwondo members’ perceptions of participative motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty. In this study, the researcher identified loyalty as an outcome variable, the consumer perception of participative motivation as an independent variable, and satisfaction as a mediate variable.

Purpose

The purpose of this study was as follows:

1. To understand the relationships among participative motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty.

2. To understand the demographic differences among the participants as they related to participative motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty.

Research Questions

Based on a review of the existing literature, the researcher constructed the following research questions:

1. Were there any significant demographic differences among the participants as they related to participative motivation?

2. Were there any significant demographic differences among the participants as they related to satisfaction?

3. Were there any significant demographic differences among the participants as they related to loyalty?

4. Were there any significant relationships among participative motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty?

Methodology

Subjects and Sampling

The target population included people who participated in the taekwondo training halls in Taipei County. Four hundred questionnaires were distributed to 15 taekwondo training halls randomly selected from a pool of 146 taekwondo training halls. Three hundred and seventy-eight questionnaires were collected. This represented a response rate of 94.5 percent. The survey analysis required a data set without any missing values. Therefore, the questionnaires with missed values were dropped. Three hundred and fifty-eight questionnaires of the questionnaires had no missing values. The return-rate valid questionnaire was 89.5 percent.

Instruments

Three instruments were used in this study to gather information on the participants’ perceptions of participative motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty in the taekwondo training halls, as follows:

1. The Participative Motivation Scale of Participant Taekwondo Training Halls (PMSPTTH), a modified version of Chen’s (2001), Sung’s (2005), and S. H. Yang’s (2005) scale of participative motivation, measured the perception of participative motivation among the participants. It consisted of five primary dimensions (i.e., health demands, achievement demands, psychological demands, leisure demands, and social demands), and the PMSPTTH consisted of 20 items measured by a six-point Likert scale ranging from (1) “Strongly Disagree” to (6) “Strongly Agree”. The validity and reliability of the PMSPTTH was conducted by the LISREL 8.80 software. The result showed that the PMSPTTH passed the extrinsic quality test with the overall fit measures of the model as follows: χ2 = 450.47, df = 165, GFI = .90, RMSEA = .08, SRMR = .05, CFI = .98, NNFI = .98, χ2 / df = 2.73. The test result of the intrinsic fit measures of the model, from the composite reliability of the overall PMSPTTH, was 0.93, revealing high reliability. In terms of the convergent validity, all of the observed variables and latent factors reached “significance.” This indicated that the model had convergent validity (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). Accordingly, the foregoing findings identified the validity and reliability of the PMSPTTH.

2. Satisfaction was measured by the Satisfaction Scale of Participant Taekwondo Training Halls (SSPTTH), which was a modified version of Sung’s (2005) and Teng’s (2005) satisfaction scales. The satisfaction scale consisted of four primary dimensions (i.e., the professionalism of the coach, the relationships of the members, the training hall environment, and the promotion system). The SSPTTH consisted of 16 items measured by a six-point Likert scale ranging from (1) “Strongly Disagree” to (6) “Strongly Agree.” The validity and reliability of the SSPTTH was conducted by the LISREL 8.80 software. The results showed that the SSPTTH passed the extrinsic quality test with the overall fit measures of the model as follows: χ2 = 255.47, df = 100, GFI = .91, RMSEA = .07, SRMR = .04, CFI = .99, NNFI = .98, χ2 / df = 2.55. The test results of the intrinsic fit measures of the model and the composite reliability of the overall SSPTTH was 0.94, revealing high reliability. In terms of the convergent validity, all of the observed variables and latent factors reached “significance.” This indicated that the model had convergent validity (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). Accordingly, the foregoing findings identified the validity and reliability of the SSPTTH.

3. Loyalty was measured by the Loyalty Scale of Participants in Taekwondo Training Halls (LSPTTH), which was a modified version of Chen (2005), Cheng and Yuang’s, (2007) and Hung’s (2007) satisfaction scales. The LSPTTH consisted of four items measured by a six-point Likert scale ranging from (1) “Strongly Disagree” to (6) “Strongly Agree.” The validity and reliability of the LSPTTH was tested using LISREL 8.80 software. The results showed that the LSPTTH passed the extrinsic quality test with the overall fit measures of the model as follows: χ2 = 7.03, df = 2, GFI = .99, RMSEA = .08, SRMR = .02, CFI = .99, NNFI = .98, χ2 / df = 3.52. The test results of the intrinsic fit measures of the model from the composite reliability of the overall LSPTTH was 0.85, revealing high reliability. In terms of the convergent validity, all of the observed variables reached “significance.” This indicated that the model had convergent validity (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). Accordingly, the foregoing findings identified the validity and reliability of the LSPTTH.

Data Analysis

The data were analyzed by the SPSS for Windows 12.0 program and the LISREL 8.80 software. The SPSS for Windows 12.0 program was used to run the descriptive statistics (including the frequency distribution percentage, mean, and standard deviation), a t-test, a one-way ANOVA, and the scheffe method. LISREL 8.80 software was used to run the proposed model. For the assessment of the fit for the proposed model, this study utilized the suggestions of Bagozzi and Yi (1988), Browne and Cudeck (1993), Byrne (1998), Chou and Bentler (1995), Jöreskog and Sörbom (1993), Hair, Anderson, Tatham, & Black (1998) and Kline (1998), which indicated that the proposed model should be evaluated based on the overall model fit as well as the fit of the internal structure.

Results

The descriptive statistics of the demographics of the members in the taekwondo training halls in Taipei county showed that the majority of the members were males between 9-12 years old; their total family income was around NT 40,001~ NT 60,000; the majority of the members have practice taekwondo for less than one year (see Table 1).

Table 1. Descriptive statistics of the demographics

Variables

N

Gender

male

254

70.9

female

104

29.1

Age

9-12

165

46.1

13-15

100

27.9

16-18

 82

22.9

19 or older

 11

 3.1

Family income

NT 40,000 or less

 66

18.4

NT 40,001-60,000

153

42.7

NT 60,001-80,000

109

30.4

NT 80,001 or more

 30

 8.4

Years spent learning Taekwondo

Less than 1

111

31.0

1-2

 89

24.9

2-3

 64

17.9

3-4

 68

19.0

More than 4

 26

 7.3

Note: N=358

The results of the analysis of the members’ demographic variables as they related to participative motivation showed that the females’ participative motivation was higher than the males’ participative motivation. Members 19 or older scored higher than members 9 to 18 years old on participative motivation. Members who had practiced taekwondo for one to three years scored higher on participative motivation than members who had practiced taekwondo for less than one year. The member’s demographic variables as they related to satisfaction showed that females indicated higher satisfaction than males. Members 19 years or older scored higher on satisfaction than members 9 to 18 years old. Members who had practiced taekwondo for one to three years scored higher on satisfaction than members who had practiced taekwondo for less than one year. The member’s demographic variables as they related to loyalty showed that females indicated higher levels of loyalty than males. Members 19 years or older scored higher on loyalty than members 9 to 18 years old. Members with family incomes of NT 80,001 scored higher on loyalty than members with family incomes of 80,000. Members who had practiced taekwondo one to four years scored higher on loyalty than members who had practiced less than one year (see Table 2).

Table 2. Difference tests of member demographic variables as they related to participative motivation, satisfaction and loyalty

Demographics Variables

Participative Motivation

Satisfaction

Loyalty

Gender

(a) Male (n=254)

4.33±.67

3.97±.68

4.39±.85

(b) Female (n=104)

4.49±.73

4.20±.72

4.59±.87

t value

-2.00*

-2.79*

-2.07*

Age

(a) 9-12

4.34±.67

4.00±.69

4.39±.89

(b) 13-15

4.40±.69

3.99±.66

4.49±.89

(c) 16-18

4.32±.56

4.01±.59

4.40±.66

(d) 19 or older

5.04±1.39

4.98±1.19

5.32±1.00

F value

3.91*

7.31*

4.31*

scheffe method

d > a, b, c

d > a, b, c

d > a, b, c

Family income

(a) NT 40,000 or less

4.46±.75

4.09±.80

4.44±.98

(b) NT 40,001-60,000

4.34±.68

4.05±.68

4.27±.80

(c) NT 60,001-80,000

4.29±.62

3.94±.63

4.26±.78

(d) NT 80,001 or more

4.65±.78

4.21±.79

5.04±.89

F value

2.57

1.42

6.88*

scheffe method

d > a, b, c

Years spent learning taekwondo

(a) Less than 1

4.15±.63

3.80±.62

4.10±.77

(b) 1-2

4.57±.59

4.26±.57

4.75±.70

(c) 2-3

4.57±.95

4.21±.97

4.59±1.05

(d) 3-4

4.35±.50

4.01±.62

4.51±.87

(e) More than 4

4.22±.61

3.91±.52

4.38±.66

F value

6.82*

7.11*

8.56*

scheffe method

b, c > a

b, c > a

b, c, d > a

Note: mean ± standard deviation; *p < .05

Model Evaluation

A number of fit indicatives were generated to determine the model that best fit with the observed data. Seven indicatives of fit were examined. First, a chi-square test was conducted to test the fit between the sample covariance matrix and the matrix implied by the model. A large chi-square value and a statistically significant result (p < .05) indicated a poor fit in that there was a substantial proportion of variance in the data not explained by the model. As this statistic was somewhat sensitive to sample size, a second calculation could be made that involved dividing the chi-square value by the degrees of freedom (Kline, 1998). In general, GFI, NNFI and CFI of greater than .90 were considered to be acceptable (Kline, 1998; Bentler & Bonnett, 1980; Tabachnick & Fidell, 1996). SRMR and RMSEA of less than .08 were considered to be acceptable (Browne & Cudeck, 1993). of less than three were considered to be acceptable (Kline, 1998).

Table 3. Model fit statistics

Note: GFI= goodness of fit index; SRMR= standardized root mean square residual; RMSEA= root mean square error of approximation; CFI= comparative fit index; NNFI= non-normative fit index.


Figure 1. Completely standardized solution of the model
Note: *P < .05

Table 3 presented the fit indicatives for the hypothesized model: χ2 = 602.00, df = 203; GF I= .90 was greater than .90; SRMR = .06 was less than .08; RMSEA = .06 was less than .08; CFI = .98 was greater than .90; NNFI = .97 was greater than .90; = 2.97 were below 3. These results indicated that the hypothesized model fit the empirical data very well (see Figure 1).

When the full model is acceptable, then the quality of measurement and structural models can be examined. The factor loadings for the participative motivation indicators (λ1~λ5) were greater than 0.56 and significant at p < .05, indicating convergent validity for participative motivation (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). Factor loadings for the satisfaction indicators (λ6~λ9) were greater than 0.65 and significant at p < .05, indicating convergent validity for satisfaction. Factor loadings for the loyalty indicators (λ10~λ13) were greater than 0.70 and significant at p < .05, indicating convergent validity for loyalty.

The structural path coefficients were used to test the direct and indirect effects of the theoretical considerations of this study. The participative motivation had a positive and direct influence on loyalty (γ = .42, t = 5.93, p < .05); the participative motivation had a positive and direct influence on satisfaction (γ = .61, t = 10.50, p < .05); satisfaction had a positive and direct influence on loyalty (γ = .31, t = 4.42, p < .05). Finally, the indirect influence of participative motivation to satisfaction to loyalty was 0.19 (.61*.31 = .19, t = 4.25, p < .05).

Discussion

The evidence in this study reported that the demographics of the taekwondo members in Taipei County indicated that the ratio of the male members was higher than the female members. Additionally, the majority of the members were between 9 and 12 years old. Also, most of the members were in elementary schools. The results supported the previous finding about members learning taekwondo (Chen, 2001; Teng, 2005; Sung, 2005; C. H. Yang, 2006). Among the members, the total family income was around NT 40,001~ NT 60,000. The results supported Teng (2005) and C. H. Yang (2005), but not Chen (2001). The reason for this may have been the living standards in the different counties and cities. Finally, the majority of the members had practiced taekwondo for less than one year, which was the same time period in the studies by Teng (2005) and Sung (2005).

The results indicated that the respondents’ demographic variables showed that female students 19 years or older that had practiced taekwondo for one to three years had higher perceived motivation than the other groups. Additionally, the discoveries in this study were similar to other related research in the papers of Chen (2001), Huang (2005), Sung (2005) and W. C. Yang (2005).
Different demographic variable tests related to satisfaction have found that females score higher than males on satisfaction. These findings are similar to related research (W. C. Yang, 2005) that has explored gender as the main factor of training satisfaction in taekwondo. These results were different from those found in the studies of Sung (2005) and Teng (2005). Both found that males had higher satisfaction than females. The subjects in those studies were participating in taekwondo training halls in Kaohsiung County and Taipei County. In addition, members 19 or older scored higher on satisfaction than 9 to 18 year old members. Table 1 showed that members 19 or older scored lower numbers than other groups. Table 2 showed that this group had more motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty than other groups. Therefore, this group belongs to higher motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty. Members who had practiced taekwondo for one to three years scored higher on satisfaction than members who had practiced taekwondo for less than one year. The results were consistent to C. Yang’s (2005) and Yang’s (2006) research.

Females scored higher than males on loyalty. This result was different than that found in the studies of Chen, Chang, and Li (2005), which explored consumer loyalty in indoor heated swimming pools and Huang (2006), which explored health and fitness club members. The results were no different as they related to gender. So, each service industry had different results. Members 19 or older scored higher on loyalty than members 9 to 18 years old. Members with family incomes of NT 80,001 or more scored higher on loyalty than members with family incomes of 80,000 or less. Members who had practiced taekwondo for one to four years scored higher on loyalty than members who had practiced taekwondo for one year.

The results of the structural equation modeling showed that participative motivation had a positive influence on satisfaction and loyalty and that satisfaction had a positive influence on loyalty. These results confirmed the findings of previous studies indicating a strong relationship among participative motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty in taekwondo activities (Hung, 2007; Sung, 2005; W. C. Yang, 2005).

Suggestions

1. The target market for the taekwondo training halls were 9-12 years olds. Huang (2005) indicated that the priority of participation motivation among taekwondo members was exercising to become healthier. It also pointed out that the first participation motivation was the factor of body needs, then knowledge needs and achievement needs. Therefore, the taekwondo programs need to enhance their related fitness activities, and try to promote the health of their members.

2. The coaches need to realize that member’s traits (i.e., gender, age) are relevant. Nineteen year old females have more motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty than other groups. The coaches need to maintain their movement interest and strengthen other member groups; for example, they could increase the degree of difficulty for the male members in order to create challenge, and coaches could offer certificates to encourage interest and a sense of achievement.

References

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