Physical, Affective and Psychological determinants of Athlete Burnout

Authors: Frode Moen, Kenneth Myhre, Christian A. Klöckner, Kristin Gausen and Øyvind Sandbakk.

Corresponding Author:
Frode Moen
E-mail address: frmoe@online.no, Tel. : +47 932 487 50
Postal address: Department of Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway

Frode Moen is currently the head manager of the Olympic Athlete program in central Norway, where he also has a position as a coach / mental trainer for elite athletes and coaches. He also is an associate professor at the Department of Education and lifelong learning at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. He previously has worked as a teacher in high school where sport was his major subject, and he has been a coach for the national team in Nordic combined in Norway for several years. Frode received his Ph. D. in coaching and performance psychology from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. His research focuses mainly on coaching in business, coaching in sport, communication, performance psychology and relationship issues.

ABSTRACT
This article examined how training load, illness and injuries, perceived performance, affect and worry predict athlete burnout in sport. A sample of 358 Norwegian junior elite athletes from a variety of sports with cross country skiing (28 %), soccer (22 %) and biathlon (13 %) being those most frequently reported participated in the investigation. The results show that the theoretical model in this study explains 57% of the variance in athlete burnout, and the direct effects on athlete burnout are mainly derived from the variables positive affect, worry and negative affect. In addition, our model also shows that performance, illness/injuries and worry indirectly affect athlete burnout through the mediating variables in the model. The results are discussed in regard of applied implications and possible future research.

Continue reading

Athlete Perceptions of a Monitoring and Strength and Conditioning Program

Authors: Jacob P Reed(1), Mauro Palmero(2), Kimitake Sato(3), Cheng-Tu Hsieh(4), Michael Stone(3)

(1)Kinesiology, Allied Health, and Human Services
University of Northern Iowa
Cedar Falls, IA 50614

(2)Hospitality Management Department
University of Missouri Columbia
Columbia, MO 65211

(3)Center of Excellence for Sport Science and Coach Education
Department of Exercise and Sport Science
East Tennessee State University
Johnson City, TN 37614

(4)Departmet of Kinesiology
California State University, Chico
Chico, CA 95929

Corresponding Author:
Jacob P. Reed
University of Northern Iowa
203 Wellness and Recreation Center
Cedar Falls, IA 50614
Phone: (319)-271-8090
Email: Jacob.reed@uni.edu

Athlete Perceptions of a Monitoring and Strength and Conditioning Program

ABSTRACT
Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to assess athlete perceptions of a monitoring program.

Methods: Athletes currently participating in the monitoring program were invited to participate. Reliability for the questionnaire and principle components analysis (PCA) were completed in the spring of 2013. To analyze changes throughout the academic year, the questionnaire was administered six times throughout the fall 2013 and spring 2014 semesters.

Results: The questionnaire was considered reliable. PCA revealed a three-component model (KMO = .798, Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity = p < .001) with eigenvalues over one explaining 68.88% of total variance. Statistical differences between pre and later time points were noted for of overall performance, skill, strength, speed, power and understanding of the monitoring protocols. Conclusion: The questionnaire was shown reliable and can be considered for future use. The first component of the PCA revealed that perceptions of overall performance are influenced by perceptions of strength, skill, power, and agreement that testing data reflects performance. Second, aerobic and anaerobic endurance and speed are all highly correlated. Finally, athletes understanding of the program monitoring increased with the return of data. Overall, perceptions of the programs influence the questionnaire components were positive ranging from no different to much better.

Applications in Sport: The athlete monitoring program seems to be a beneficial model for enhancing athlete’s perceptions of certain aspects of performance.

Continue reading

The Role of Emotions for 4 Athletes in Nordic Combined in Ski Jumping Competitions in World Cup

Authors: F. Moen, J. Vitsøe, V. Rasdal, K. Myhre and Ø. Sandbakk

Corresponding Author:
Frode Moen
E-mail address: frmoe@online.no, Tel. : +47 932 487 50
Postal address: Department of Education and Lifelong learning, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway

Frode Moen is currently the head manager of the Olympic Athlete program in central Norway, where he also has a position as a coach / mental trainer for elite athletes and coaches. He also is an associate professor at the Department of Education at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. He previously has worked as a teacher in high school where sport was his major subject, and he has been a coach for the national team in Nordic combined in Norway for several years. Frode received his Ph. D. in coaching and performance psychology from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. His research focuses mainly on coaching in business, coaching in sport, communication, performance psychology and relationship issues.

ABSTRACT
This study looks at how emotions were associated with ski jumping competitions in world cup for four athletes representing the Norwegian national team in Nordic combined. The athletes documented their emotional experiences during competition rounds (trial-, and competition rounds) and non-competitive episodes (the period just after the competition round). The results in this study show that there is no clear relationship between emotions and performance between- and within the different episodes among the athletes. However, both hedonic emotions and eudaimonic emotions were experienced at high levels across all the measured episodes. Eudaimonic emotions were significantly higher during competing episodes (trial- and competition round) compared with non-competing episodes. Anger and sadness were higher after both trial jumps and competing jumps, whereas the opposite pattern was found for fear: more fear was experienced during jumps than after jumps. The results are discussed in regard of applied implications and possible future research.

Continue reading

Associations Between Emotions and Performance in Cross-Country Skiing Competitions

Authors: F. Moen, K. Myhre and Ø. Sandbakk

Corresponding Author:
Frode Moen
E-mail address: frmoe@online.no, Tel. : +47 932 487 50
Postal address: Department of Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway

Frode Moen is currently the head manager of the Olympic Athlete program in central Norway, where he also has a position as a coach / mental trainer for elite athletes and coaches. He also is an associate professor at the Department of Education at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. He previously has worked as a teacher in high school where sport was his major subject, and he has been a coach for the national team in Nordic combined in Norway for several years. Frode received his Ph. D. in coaching and performance psychology from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. His research focuses mainly on coaching in business, coaching in sport, communication, performance psychology and relationship issues.

Associations Between Emotions and Performance in Cross-Country Skiing Competitions

ABSTRACT
This article looks at how emotions are associated with performance during cross-country skiing competitions among 10 senior Norwegian national level athletes. The results in this study show that there is a relatively similar emotional distribution pattern found among the athletes who are most satisfied with their performance compared to the less satisfied ones. However, the intensity in their emotions is different. The most satisfied athletes have higher intensity in their eudaimonic and hedonic emotions, while the negative emotions “sad” and “scared” are higher among the less satisfied athletes. The emotion “angry” is not significantly different between the two groups of athletes, and significantly higher in intensity compared to “sad” and “scared”. The emotions in this study explain 53 % of the variance in subjective performance. The results are discussed in regard of applied implications and possible future research.

Continue reading

Goal-based Metrics Better Than Shot-based Metrics at Predicting Hockey Success

Author: Rob Found
9432-152 Street
Edmonton, AB, Canada
T5R 1N2
(780) 479-7919

Corresponding author: found@ualberta.ca

ABSTRACT
The growing business of professional sports has lead to an increasing demand for effective metrics quantifying factors leading to team success, and evaluating individual player contributions to that success. In the sport of hockey the advancement of analytics has lead to a decline in the use of goal-based metrics, and an increased reliance on shot-based metrics. I tested assumptions behind this trend by using statistical modeling of 10 years of NHL data to directly compare the effectiveness of goal versus shot-based metrics at predicting team success, and comparative hypothesis testing to determine how well goals and shots quantify player contributions to team success. Goal-based models consistently outperformed their shot-based analogs. Models of team goal differential successfully predicted winning % during the 2015-16 season, while shot differential did not. Goal-based metrics (i.e. relative plus-minus/minute of ice time) were also better than shot-based metrics (i.e. relative Corsi/minute of ice time) for evaluating individual player contributions to team winning %. These results show that team and individual performance is not correlated with all shots, but only those shots effective enough to result in goals. These results will lead to more effective evaluation of individual players, and better understanding and prediction of those factors leading to team success.

Continue reading