The Perceptions of Male and Female Athletic Administrators Towards Gender\Equity in Faith-Based Institutions

Authors: Martha Marra, Ed. D.
Corresponding Author:
DR. MARTY MARRA
LONGWOOD UNIVERSITY
201 HIGH STREET
FARMVILLE, VA 23909
marraml@longwood.edu
434-395-2935

Dr. Marty Marra is an Assistant Professor of Health and Physical Education at Longwood University in Farmville, VA. Dr. Marra has been involved in education for 30 years and continues to research and study in the areas of pedagogy, professionalism, current trends and gender equity issues in health, physical education and athletics.

Co Authors: Fred J. Cromartie, Ed. D.
CONTRIBUTING AUTHOR:
DR. FRED CROMARTIE
ONE ACADEMY DRIVE
DAPHNE, AL 36526
cromartie@ussa.edu
1-800-223-2668

Dr. Fred J. Cromartie, is the Director of Doctoral Studies at the United States Sports Academy.

ABSTRACT
This study discusses the findings from research which was conducted in 2015. The researcher compared the perceptions of male and female athletic directors towards gender equity in their athletic programs using faith-based institutions of higher learning. The purpose of the study was to identify factors which predicted compliance with Title IX from athletic administrators at the collegiate level between two groups of faith-based institutions; those who belonged to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU) and those who did not belong to the organization (NCCCU) but were faith-based institutions. The sample comprised of 230 colleges and universities; 115 were members of the CCCU organization and 115 were not members (NCCCU). The response rate was 52.6% with 121 surveys being returned from 230 that were sent. The study included the participation of 70 men and 51 women athletic administrators. Overall findings suggested that the women athletic administrators were less satisfied with Title IX provisions and policies than were the men athletic administrators. Media coverage, practice times, and locker room facilities were also considered inequitable from the perspectives of the female athletic administrators. The men athletic administrators were satisfied overall with the provisions for both male and female athletic programs. The disproportionate number of males to females in the study raised questions about gender equity within athletic administration. Studying gender equity within collegiate athletics provides information of how gender inequity can be perpetuated in a culture where athletics are revered, at times, above academia.
Continue reading

Tennis Anyone? A Content Analysis of the Written and Pictorial Coverage of Tennis Magazine

Authors:
Tywan G. Martin, University of Miami
Sanghak Lee, Korea Aerospace University
Erin L. McNary, Indiana University
Daniel Totani, University of Miami

Corresponding author:
Tywan G. Martin, Ph.D.
Department of Kinesiology & Sport Sciences
P.O. Box 248065
Coral Gables, FL 33124
Phone: (305) 284-1168
E-mail: t.martin@miami.edu

Tennis Anyone? A Content Analysis of the Written and Pictorial Coverage of Tennis Magazine

ABSTRACT
This investigation measured the coverage given to female and male athletes in a single sport focused print publication Tennis magazine from 2007 to 2012. The examined timeframe was selected based on the updated Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) rules that required both female and male athletes to compete at many of the same high profile events during the professional tennis season. Given the restructured rules, the perceived femininity associated with female tennis players, and the media coverage female athletes in individual sports tended to generate, it was important to determine the amount of media attention female professional tennis players received on the pages of a tennis magazine. The study’s results revealed that female tennis players did receive some prominent coverage and their total amount of coverage was similar to the percentage of female readers of the magazine. However, enthusiasm over the progress should be tempered as female competitors’ total exposure was less than their male counterparts and more coverage was garnered to female athletes in poses not related to tennis.

Continue reading

Examination of Gender Equity and Female Participation in Sport

Author: Joshua A. Senne*(1)

(1) Joshua A. Senne is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy located in Daphne, Alabama. His doctoral emphasis is sports fitness and health, with a specialization in sport marketing. He currently holds a master of science in recreation and sport management from Indiana State University, a business credential from the Harvard Business School, and is a Stanford Certified Project Manager.

*Corresponding Author:
Joshua Senne, MS, SCPM
5068 Argus Dr. Apt 1
Los Angeles, CA 90041
jasenne@students.ussa.edu
225-202-6787

ABSTRACT
This paper presents an overview of five topics related to gender equity and sports. These topics include (a) history of gender equity in sports and Title IX, (b) gender equity in sport governance, (c) gender equity issues in athletics, (d) gender equity, sports participation, and Title IX, (e) and gender equity in coed sports. For each topic, the author presents an overview as well as a reason for selecting the topic. Further, the author presents information about the importance of each topic to gender equity in sports, plus any relevant social, ethical, or legal concerns.

KEYWORDS:gender equity, sports, sports governance, Title IX, coed sports.
Continue reading