Is Gambling Preference Affected from Team Identification?

Authors: Necmettin Parlak, Unal Karli*(1),

(1) Unal Karli is faculty member of Izzet Baysal University, School of Physical Education and Sport. His research area is sport management and marketing.

*Corresponding Author:
Unal Karli, PhD.
Izzet Baysal University, School of Physical Education and Sport
Gölköy, Bolu, TURKEY
mobile phone: +90 505 767 1169

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationship existed between team identification levels and gambling preferences of sport consumers who put bets on the games of their supported football team. The subject group of the study was composed of university students (N=223) who were participating in football bets. Turkish version of Sport Spectator Identification Scale (15) and a vignette developed by the researchers, to identify the bettors’ team preferences while placing bets on the games (national league, European league and derby games) of their supported team, were the data collection instruments. According to the 3×2 Two-Way Contingency Table analysis, results pointed that significant relationship existed between the team identification level and betting preferences only in the case of derby games, (χ2(2, N=223), 6.03, p=.04, Cramer’s V= .164). No significant relationship was identified between the team identification levels and betting preferences of the subjects in the cases of national league, (χ2(2, N=223), 3.47, p=.18, Cramer’s V= .125) and European league games, (χ2(2, N=223), 3.92, p=.14, Cramer’s V= .133). As a conclusion, it could be said that team identification is a determinant factor in bettors’ team preferences in derby games. The results of this study would be beneficial in identifying the betting behavior pattern of football gamblers who constitute a huge market in sport industry.

KEYWORDS: gambling, psychological adherence, loyalty, fan behavior, football
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Position-Specific Task, Strength, and Performance Comparisons between NCAA Division I Offensive and Defensive Linemen

Submitted by Garrett M. Hester, Bert H. Jacobson, Ty B. Palmer, Doug B. Smith and Matthew S. O’Brien


The ultimate goal of strength and conditioning practitioners is to improve performance on the field.  To date, little data exist that provides evidence of strong relationships between selected exercises and sport-specific tasks.  PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a position-specific task on the MAXX Football Sled Device (MX) between NCAA Division I offensive (OL) and defensive linemen (DL) and to determine the associations among selected strength and performance variables with results on the MX.  METHODS: Offensive (n = 12) and defensive linemen (n = 14) (age 20.11 ±1.49 yrs) performed 10 “fire-off-and-drive” repetitions on the MX from a three-point stance.  Data relative to force (N) and movement time (MT) was collected for each repetition on the MX.  The duration between each repetition was automatically randomized between 6 to 10 sec.  Strength and performance data including 1 RM of the squat, bench press, and power clean, along with vertical jump, 10 yd sprint, 40 yd sprint, and body fat percentage were gathered as part of seasonal standard assessment.  RESULTS: Results yielded significant differences in body weight, sprint performances, 1 RM squat, and a near significant difference in MT (p = 0.052) between OL and DL.  With respect to performance on the MX, there were no significant associations among selected strength and performance measures and MT on the MX.  Although insignificant, force on the MX was found to have moderate associations with the 10 yd sprint (r = .457) and 1 RM power clean (r = .463).  CONCLUSIONS: Primarily, these results point out that little carry over exists between the standard exercises performed and the task performed on the MX.  Further research for the purpose of finding exercises that correlate with a position-specific task in these athletes is warranted.  APPLICATION IN SPORT: A priority among practitioners is to remain cognizant of the positional role differences and distinct physical characteristics between OL and DL.  The OL and DL positions should be categorized separately so that specific evaluative and training needs can be met for each position.
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The Impact of Elite Individual Athletic Performance on University Applicants for Admission in NCAA Division I-A Football

Submitted by Chad McEvoy, Ed. D*

1* Illinois State University, Normal,IL 61761

Dr. Chad McEvoy is an assistant professor in the school of kinesiology and recreation at Illinois State University. He holds an Ed. D. in Sport Administration with a minor in statistics and Research Methods from the University of Northern Colorado; a master of science in Sport Management from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and a bachelor’s degree in sport management from Iowa State University.


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of elite individual athletes in NCAA Division I-A football on undergraduate admissions applicants to their respective institutions, an examination of what the media has labeled as the “Flutie Factor”. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, a statistically significant time-by-group interaction effect was found, with universities realizing a 6.59 percent increase in undergraduate applicants for admission in the year following having a football player finish among the top five vote recipients for the Heisman Trophy. Continue reading