Body Image in Division I Male Athletes: Why is Baseball High and Outside?

Authors: Lorraine Killion & Dean Culpepper

Corresponding Author:
Lorraine Killion, Ed.D.
Associate Professor
Texas A&M University-Kingsville
700 University Blvd.
Kingsville, TX 78363-8202
lorraine.killion@tamuk.edu
361.593.3095

Lorraine Killion is an Associate Professor in the Health & Kinesiology Department at Texas A&M University-Kingsville. She is also the EC-12 Physical Education Program Coordinator.

Dean Culpepper is in the Health and Human Performance Department at Texas A&M University-Commerce and is a Certified Sports Psychology Consultant with the Association for Applied Sport Psychology.
Body Image in Division I Male Athletes: Why is Baseball High and Outside?

ABSTRACT
Body image research has largely focused on females and a drive for thinness. Recent research has investigated males and a drive for muscularity indicating an increasing concern for males’ appearance of their body. A desire to enhance their physical image has increased pressure to meet a body ideal for their sport. The purpose of this study was to examine Division I male athletes’ body perceptions. Upon IRB approval, ninety four (N=94) athletes volunteered for the study. To determine body image differences, three sports were considered: football (n = 51), basketball (n = 14), and baseball (n = 29). Demographic and anthropometric measures were taken by the researchers. The Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ-AS) was administered and five subscales were examined. ANOVAs documented differences between Body Area Satisfaction [F(2, 92) = 20.61, p> .001], Appearance Evaluation [F(2,92) = 6.50, p =.002], and Appearance Orientation [F(2, 92) = 9.84, p < .001]. Bonferroni post hoc tests showed baseball players demonstrated a unique difference from their football and basketball cohorts: AE (p=.002), AO (p= .000), & BASS (p= .000). Findings shed additional light onto male body image. While Fitness Orientation showed no significant differences, Appearance Orientation yielded a more meaningful score for baseball players. Baseball has a history and infamous past concerning the need to “bulk up.” Regulations and legal efforts have diminished drug abuse in the sport, but the psychological need to obtain a larger upper body still exists. Researchers and coaches should further examine the baseball culture so the behavioral determinants can be better understood. Continue reading

Great British Athletes’ Perceptions of Competing at the London 2012 Olympic Games

Author: Rachel Kent*

*Corresponding Author Address:
Rachel kent
E-mail: coach_kent@hotmail.com

Abstract
To review Great British (GB) athletes’ perceptions of home court advantage and competing ahead of the 2012 London Olympic Games a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted. The seven topics discussed in the interview were based on previous research. Five female GB Olympic sprinters were interviewed at their training facility in West London as they trained for the 2012 Olympic Games. Athlete responses were coded into categories then analysed using phenomenological analysis.

Athletes had a range of reasons why they believed they had a ‘home advantage.’ All athletes agreed that media representation could be good if media was positive but was bad when the media coverage was negative. Athletes reported a range of expectations some expressing high expectations and associated higher levels of performance anxiety. Athletes reporting lower levels of expectations had lower levels of performance anxiety. Athletes reported different sources of expectations and the significance of the source to them and their anxiety. The implications of the research findings suggest recommendations for media and sponsors, coaches, family, and friends to help provide the athletes with the optimum levels of unconditional support to aid in performance and prevent pressure, stress and pre-competitive anxiety.

KEYWORDS: Olympic Games, Olympics, Home Court Advantage, Expectancy Theory, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Media bias, Athletes, Phenomenological Analysis

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Caffeine Improves Sprint-Distance Performance among Division II Collegiate Swimmers

Submitted by David F. Vanata, Ph.D., RD, CSSD, LD; Nick Mazzino, B.S.;Robert Bergosh, Ph.D. and Paul Graham, B.S. of Ashland University in Ashland, Ohio.

ABSTRACT

Caffeine has been identified as a possible ergogenic aid for athletic performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on sprint-distance swim trials. Caffeine dosages of 3 milligrams per kilogram (mg.kg-1) of body weight and placebos were administered via vegan capsules to 30 Division II collegiate swimmers, (60.0% males, n=18), in a single blind, crossover study design. Capsules were administered 30-minutes prior to completing a 50-yard time trial using electronic touch-pads. Urine samples were collected and analyzed via High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine the amount of caffeine excreted in the urine. Significant improvements were observed between caffeine and placebo time trials, M=27.27 seconds, SD=3.65 vs. M=27.51 seconds, SD=3.74, t(29)=2.81, p=.009, respectively. Overall, 70.0% of all swimmers improved 50-yard swim times (n=21), with 61.1% (n=11) of males improving and 83.3% (n=10) of females. There was a significant difference between urinary caffeine levels after ingesting the placebo vs. the caffeine capsules, M=.733 micrograms per milliliter (mg.ml-1), SD=1.29 vs. M=2.69 mg.ml-1, SD=2.02, t(29)= -5.34, p<.001, respectively. Following supplementation, female swimmers excreted significantly more urinary caffeine than males, M=3.59 mg.ml-1, SD=2.23 vs. M=2.09 mg.ml-1, SD=1.68, t(28)= -2.11, p=.044, respectively.

Overall, caffeine supplementation was found to significantly improve time trials of trained colligate swimmers. Additional studies are needed to identify factors associated with the variation of urinary caffeine excretion values observed between female and male athletes.

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