Results and Recommendations of the World Summit on Physical Education

Introduction

 

Over 250 delegates from 80 countries, representing governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGO), and academic institutions attended the World Summit on Physical Education (Berlin, November 3-5, 1999). It was held under the international patronage of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and with the co-sponsorship of the World Health Organization (WHO).

On behalf of the participants of the Summit and the International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE), I present this paper to the Ministers and Senior Officials of Ministries responsible for Education and Sport for discussion at the MINEPS III meeting. The paper combines the latest research, content from keynote presentations and workgroup discussions from the World Summit.

The activities of ICSSPE reflect the interests of a diverse range of multi disciplinary and international member organizations. To date, two-hundred governmental and non-governmental bodies with international, regional, national or local membership form the Council’s world-wide network. ICSSPE is a non-governmental organization in Formal Associate Relations with UNESCO.

The International Committee of Sport Pedagogy (ICSP) within ICSSPE links five international organizations with a common interest in physical education. This Committee is composed of: the Association Internationale des Ecoles Superieures d’Education Physique (AIESEP), the Federation Internationale d’Education Physique (FJ EP), the International Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women (IAPESGW), the International Federation of Adapted Physical Activity (IFAPA), and the International Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sport (ISGPES). The International Committee of Sports Pedagogy played a leading role in the development of this World Summit on Physical Education. The intention behind these plans has been to:

  • Raise awareness of the positive benefits of Physical Education;
  • Increase awareness in the public, media, governmental and private sectors about the increasingly serious situation of Physical Education world-wide;
  • Offer a platform for organizations and institutes to present the activities they are undertaking;
  • Identify areas where co-operation is necessary;
  • Compile existing research, statements and declarations;
  • Strengthen networks and co-ordinate plans of action and implementation.

We welcome the opportunity to co-operate with Ministers and Senior Officials and hope that by working together, we can extend the benefits and joys of Physical Education to more children across the world.

Prof. Dr. Gudrun Doll-Tepper
President ICSSPE

The Challenge

 

Despite the overwhelming scientific evidence on the value of physical activity, and the fact that the 1978 UNESCO Charter enshrined Physical Education as a basic human right (see page 14), Physical Education is in a perilous position in all regions of the world. Some national governments have either removed Physical Education from the curriculum, or reduced curriculum time allocation.

“. . . Physical Education is not seen as a priority in the ’90s. It is under severe attack and faces competition for time within the school curriculum. Often Physical Education is being taught by generalist teachers with little or no preparation in Physical Education methods. Additionally, budget cutbacks are having a negative impact on the time and resources required to teach a quality Physical Education programme.”
(Mo Mackendrick, President of the Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education (CAH PER3) 1996)

In order to determine the extent of the problem, a world-wide audit (which included an extensive literature survey) of the state and status of Physical Education in schools was initiated by ICSSPE and funded by the International Olympic Committee. The International Committee on Sports Pedagogy played a leading role in ensuring the survey provided the kind of information needed to address and solve current challenges.

Dr. Ken Hardpan, University of Manchester, presented his audit results to set the scene for the World Summit on Physical Education. The audit results show the critical status of Physical Education around the world, regardless of geography or socio-economic status. Five key issues clearly define the challenge Physical Education is facing:

  • Statutory requirements for Physical Education
  • Subject status of Physical Education
  • Curriculum time allocation
  • Teacher training
  • Resources

Sample quotations (in bold letters) and statistics are included. For a full copy of Dr. Hardpan’s report, please contact the International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education.

Results of World-wide Survey on the State and Status of Physical Education

1. Statutory Requirements for Physical Education

In 92% of the 126 countries sampled, Physical Education is legally required but few countries actually implement their statutory requirements. Globally around 30% of Physical Education is dropped to make way for other subjects.

In a Province of Canada, it is estimated that 97.8% of schools may not meet the allotted Physical Education curriculum time.

In an African country, “It is not enforced. Some teachers do not teach it at all and nobody seems to bother” (Physical Education Professor)

In another African country, it is a compulsory subject, “yet the majority of schools do not present P.E. at all.” (Physical Education professor)

2. Subject Status of Physical Education

In many regions of the world, Physical Education is perceived as being a non-productive educational activity, less important to a successful future than academic subjects. Physical Education occupies a low position at the bottom of the ‘curriculum barrel’. Overall 86% of countries’ respondents indicate that Physical Education has attained a similar legal status to other subjects, but this is not matched in practice.

In an Oceanian country, teachers have expressed concerns that the “image of Physical Education that perseveres with the school’s management and other teaching staff renders it as a marginal subject… not worthy of valuable timetable space.”

In a Latin American country, a Physical Education lecturer indicates that the state attaches little importance to Physical Education and continues to decrease its importance by reducing space for the subject and not providing facilities.

In a European country, the “status of Physical Education … is an essential problem – (its) legal status is revealed by a low division of time for Physical Education confirmed through central school policy (and generally), the actual exercising status is lower than other subjects”.

3. Curriculum Time Allocation

Most curriculum time is allocated when children are between 9-14 years of age, with reductions in time as age increases – especially in the upper years of schooling, when it either becomes an optional subject or it disappears from the timetable.

“Estimated activity levels increase during childhood into early adolescence, and then decline as youth pass through adolescence.” (R. Malina, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)

In one European country more than half a million hours of Physical Education have been lost in primary schools in the year 1998-’99 to make time for literacy and numeracy work.

In another European country, Physical Education time has been reduced from three hours a week to one hour a week during the last decade i.e. from 537 hours to 460 hours in the compulsory school years. “The sports days in school (have also been) canceled…(with) total reduction of movement in school … to about a third.”

In secondary schools in a Latin American country, Physical Education has been reduced from three to one or two classes per week.

4. Teacher Training

Too often Physical Education teachers in primary or elementary schools are untrained for the subject and some conduct Physical Education lessons as supervised play. Physical Education is taught by the classroom teacher who usually has had little or no training in Physical Education. There are more trained Physical Education teachers at the secondary level, but many Physical Education classes are still given by untrained teachers.

“On average post-graduate trainees do 23 hours and undergraduates 32 hours. But some do as little as seven-and-a-half.” (Office for Standards in Education – England and Wales, 1999)

5. Resources

Funding for Physical Education is being disproportionately cut as government departments try and cope with reduced funding. The result is a loss in both the quantity and quality of Physical Education programs. Both the provision of facilities and their maintenance are inadequate in many schools world-wide. Globally, only 31% of countries have adequate facilities. In the less developed countries, there are greater challenges in providing a full range of facilities; but even in countries with more established systems of Physical Education, there were reports of poor maintenance and loss of facilities.

In a European country, “decreased funding has resulted in a reduction in the number of hours for Physical Education within several cantons, even though this contravenes the federally set minimum for the subject.” (Physical Education teacher).

In a state of the USA, in some schools, shared facilities like “all purpose rooms (lunchroom, auditorium, gym) restrict accessibility; some urban schools do not have a gymnasium and have limited outdoor space”;

whilst in another state of the USA, a teacher “… lost gym space over the summer (they turned one of our gyms into a library). We have a large number of students and some classes have to take place in the cafeteria .”

 

Overall, the findings of the survey indicate a widespread scepticism and pessimism for the future of school Physical Education. Physical Education has been pushed into a defensive position. It is suffering from decreasing time in the curriculum, budgetary controls with inadequate financial, material and human resources, and low subject status and esteem. It is being ever more marginalised and undervalued by authorities.

However, despite these problems, there were many examples of good practice across the world. In all cases, such quality Physical Education is led by teachers with good training and skills.

“Physical Education is at great risk of being lost altogether in the next five years due to the diminished and marginalised position the subject has found itself in.” (Doecke, Papua New Guinea 1998)

Request to MINEPS III

At the World Summit on Physical Education (Berlin, November 3-5, 1999), 250 delegates from 80 countries representing governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations and academic institutions from all regions of the world endorsed the Berlin Agenda and its Call for Action by Ministers and Senior Officials responsible for Education and Sport.

The Call for Action asks Officials at MINEPS III to endorse the Berlin Agenda (see Appendix 1) and the Call for Action asks Government leaders to undertake the following:

  • to implement policies for Physical Education as a human right for all children;
  • to recognize that quality Physical Education depends on well-qualified educators and scheduled time within the curriculum. Both these are possible even when other resources like equipment are in short supply;
  • to invest in initial and in-service professional training and development for educators;
  • to support research to improve the effectiveness and quality of Physical Education;
  • to work with international financial institutions to ensure Physical Education is included as part of their definition of education;
  • to recognize the distinctive role of Physical Education in health, overall development and safe, supportive communities;
  • to recognize that failure to provide Physical Education costs more in health care than the investment needed for Physical Education.

Rationale

 

As scientific data from around the world has consistently shown, quality Physical Education can meet a broad range of needs for all people, especially children and youth.

Quality Physical Education:

  • is the most effective and inclusive means of providing all children with the skills, attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding for life long participation in physical activity and sport;
  • helps to ensure integrated and rounded development of mind, body and spirit;
  • is the only school subject whose primary focus is on the body, physical activity, physical development and health;
  • helps children to develop the patterns of and interest in physical activity, which are essential for healthy development and which lay the foundations for adult healthy lifestyles;
  • helps children to develop respect for the body – both their own and others’;
  • develops understanding of the role of physical activity in promoting health;
  • contributes to children’s confidence and self esteem;
  • enhances social development by preparing children to cope with competition, winning and losing; and co-operation and collaboration;
  • provides the skills and knowledge for future work in sport, physical activity, recreation and leisure, a growing area of employment.

Research Findings

At the World Summit on Physical Education 1999, international delegates presented research evidence from around the globe on benefits of Physical Education and its important role in developing healthy, active children. Additional relevant research is also included. The physical domain of Physical Education emphases (1) instruction in motor skills and the opportunity to practice these skills in a supervised setting, (2) development and improvement of physical fitness, and (3) provision of physical activity on a regular basis in the school setting.

Benefits of Physical Education (and sport):

  • enhances self esteem and reduces tendency to risk behaviors;
  • for girls, reduces likelihood of early sexual activity & teenage pregnancy;
  • reduces negative attitudes to school and dropout;
  • is an important pre-vocational subject;
  • improves health, prevents injuries from poor posture, carrying, poor balance;
  • enhances academic performance;
  • provides experience of structured activity with clear targets and outcomes;
  • provides better understanding of abstracts – speed, distance, depth, force, flight, fairness;
  • offers focus and commitment.

(R. Malina, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)

 

Positive Health Evidence

  • An active lifestyle during childhood is a direct benefit to health in later years.
    (S. Blair 1999)
  • Mainly due to modern technological developments (e.g. cars, elevators, computers, television) within almost all cultures, both children and adults have become less physically active. In some cultures, inactivity and the resultant obesity and diseases have reached ‘crisis proportions’.
    (C. Koop 1999)
  • New scientific studies indicate that fitness may contribute more-to a long healthy life than any other factor, including smoking. Moderate regular activity reduces the likelihood of high blood pressure, heart disease, colon cancer and depression.
    (C. Koop 1999)
  • The declining level of exercise has the potential to increase the burden of chronic disease in our population, indirectly through increased obesity and directly as an independent risk factor
    (O. Bar Or 1994)
  • The strength of muscles and bones and the flexibility of joints are important to produce the co-ordinations, balance and ability of movement needed to perform everyday tasks. These components all show a substantial decrease with age and this is partly due to declining levels of physical activity.
    (World Forum on Physical Activity and Sport, Quebec 1995)
  • Besides the role of physical activity on disease prevention, both physical (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, colon cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis) and mental (depression and stress), physical activity, games and sports, can play a significant role in the enrichment of social life and the development of one’s social interaction skills.
    (World Forum on Physical Activity and Sport, Quebec 1995)
  • Activity has been shown to have favorable effects on anxiety, depression, self-esteem and some measures of cognition.
    (S. Biddle 1995)

Evidence for Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement

  • Numerous studies have shown that by adding activity to the children’s curriculum, thereby reducing time in academic subjects no reduction on grades and standardized tests were found and many children were found to improve their grades and academic learning.
    (R. Shephard 1997)
  • Comparing 6-12 year old children who receive 5 hours per week to 40 minutes per week found those with more activity showed significant difference in academic performance.
    (R. Shephard and R. Lavelle 1994)

Economic Evidence

  • “Neglecting Physical Education will prove more costly than providing it….A 25% increase in participation from the initial base of 33% of the population who regularly take part in physical activity would reduce health costs by $778 million in 1995 dollars and stimulate productivity gains by from 1% – 3%, for from $2 to $5 for every dollar invested. The direct costs of stimulating that increased physical activity would only be $191 million.”
    (B. Kidd, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)
  • One year less disease over a lifetime will save (US) $3-5 billion in health care costs in the state of New York alone.
    (R. Feingold 1994)
  • Sport and leisure account for 1.5% of Gross National Product (GNP) in the European Union
    (European Union, 1998)
  • In the United Kingdom there are more jobs in sport and leisure than in the car industry and agriculture, fisheries and food put together.
    (Sports Council, London 1997)

Evidence for Inclusion

Physical Education is especially important for girls and women, special needs, and cultural groups, who are:

  • More dependent on school PE for learning physical skills;
  • See schools as safe and protected – with parental/cultural approval;
  • Less likely to have opportunities in community and in the commercial sector.
  • For these groups especially, PE teachers (especially women) can be powerful role models and PE can lead to adult jobs. The loss of school PE has the greatest effect on these groups.”
    (M Talbot, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)
  • “Increasing Physical Education in schools and in the community will remove one of the major limitations to child health, especially for children from lower socio-economic groups.”
    (V. Matsudo, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)
  • “Quality Physical Education lessons are equitable (gender, culture, race, ability in all aspects.”
    (Global Vision for Physical Education, 1996)

Quality Physical Education

At the World Summit on Physical Education, presenters (M. Talbot, W. Brettschneider, D. Solomons, B. Kidd, inter alia) outlined recommendations on quality Physical Education. This section includes the needs and components of a quality Physical Education experience.

Physical Education needs:

  • Well trained and qualified teachers, both elementary school and high school;
  • Time in the curriculum, for every child and adolescent;
  • Equipment and space;
  • Support for teachers and schools to deliver quality Physical Education;
  • Support for after-school sport and dance.
  • The understanding that Physical Education includes both ‘Learning to Move’ (the skills and understanding required for participation) and ‘Moving to Learn’ (physical activity as a way of learning).

Children and young people, whatever their abilities and despite living in a wide range of countries and cultures, material circumstances, all:

  • Need to develop physically and grow;
  • Are predisposed to be physically active;
  • Need to experience being children before they have to be adult;
  • Learn best through activity;
  • Respond best to enjoyment and achievement.

Effective Physical Education has the following characteristics:

  • Child-Centered: the focus is on the child, not sport. This demonstrates that each child is unique and worth-while and should be treated as such. Activities should be learner-paced and take into consideration the differences among children.
  • Create a Positive Environment: the educator is the motivating force – not only in planning activities, but also in creating a positive teacher-learner atmosphere.
  • Skills and Knowledge Building Toward independence and Independent Learners: in the holistic development of the learner, all learners can learn regardless of competency and skill levels. Physical Education offers each child an opportunity to make choices, develop values and attitudes that support independent learning in a self-disciplined way.
  • Human Rights, gender equity and peace education are important aspects that can the enhanced during the presentation of Physical Education activities.

“Schools reach all young people – girls and boys, the physically strong and the not so strong; the socially privileged and the socially weak – thereby avoiding social inequality and disintegration.”
(D. Solomons, World Summit on Physical Education,1999)

All learners should be provided with a sound knowledge of healthy living and a safe way of living. As education is a life-long process, sound health and human movement practices can contribute to the prevention of health-related problems and can improve the quality of life of learners.

“Physical Education is the place for improving physical fitness and developing motor skills. In addition, in Physical Education classes young people are empowered to assume responsibility for developing an interest in physical activity of their own accord and for adopting an active lifestyle.”
(W. Brettschneider, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)

“(..) Unfortunately, the reality is that not only are the time mandates for Physical Education in public and private schools continually decreasing, but there are many education programmes world-wide whose curriculum does not include Physical Education at all. Further, we should not confuse athletics with physical education because they are not synonymous. […]The purpose and campaign of promoting physical activity through developmentally appropriate Physical Education has never been more compelling. We desperately need to develop an international commitment to ensure that all children receive the encouragement, training and support they need to develop and maintain active, healthy lifestyles…),”
(M. Murray, 1999)

“… We cannot meet our obligations to make the world a better place for our children without contributing significantly to their physically active health and enrichment. We should hold our leaders to that promise.”
(B. Kidd, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)
Supporting Statements

This section is designed to provide resources for Ministers and Senior Officials to build the case for Physical Education at a local, regional or national level. It includes several examples of international policy statements.

  • UNESCO – The International Charter of Physical Education and Sport
  • “… one of the essential conditions for the effective exercise of human rights is that everyone should be free to develop and preserve his or her physical, intellectual and moral powers, and that access to Physical Education and sport should consequently be assured and guaranteed for all human beings.”

“Article 1:
The practice of Physical Education and sport is a fundamental right for all .
Article 2:
Physical Education and sport form an essential element of lifelong education in the overall education system.
Article 3:
Physical Education and sport programmes must meet individual and social need.
Article 4:
Teaching, coaching and administration of Physical Education and sport programmes must meet individual and social needs.
Article 5:
Adequate facilities and equipment are essential to Physical Education and sport.
Article 6:
Research and evaluation are indispensable components of the development of Physical Education and sport.
Article 7:
Protection of the ethnical and moral values of Physical Education and sport must be a constant concern for all.
Article 8:
Information and documentation help to promote Physical Education and sport.
Article 9:
The mass media should exert a positive influence on Physical Education and sport.
Article 10:
National institutions play a major role in Physical Education and sport.
Article 11:
International co-operation is a prerequisite for the universal and well-balanced promotion of Physical Education.”

  • World Forum on Physical Activity and Sport, Quebec 1995
    Encouraging children in adolescence to engage in physical activity helps them to establish good health habits and avoid smoking or drug abuse. The enhancement of self-image and relief of boredom produced by physical activity may also enhance classroom performance.
  • World Health Organization
    The goals of Physical Education in schools are: 1) lay the foundations for life-long active living; 2) develop and enhance the health and well-being of the students; 3) to offer enjoyment, fun and social interaction; and 4) to help to prevent/reduce future health problems. Currently, most schools in most countries around the world cannot meet these goals because the time in the curriculum and the resources for teaching of quality Physical Education are inadequate.
  • The basic reason is the ignorance of the importance of physical activity for young people. This’ in turn, is largely due to the fact that policy and decision makers, teachers, other professionals, parents and various other concerned groups, have no adequate knowledge of the need for physical activity and its benefits for the present and future health and well-being of young people.
  • Schools can and should 1) allow each child and young person to take part in a structured Physical Education curriculum and in physical activity sessions of moderate to vigorous levels regularly, several times each week, and 2) offer a range of physical activities outside the school system, i.e. in the community with the support of parents, peers, community leaders and local sport and social organizations.
  • Appropriate professional development and training opportunities should be provided for all those involved in organizing physical activities in and through schools, including teachers, local leaders, coaches, and recreation and health care personnel. The aim is to increase their capacity in programme planing and in educating, motivating, guiding and building the confidence of young people.
  • “An ‘active school’ is a healthier and better-performing school and a better place to work.”
    Promoting Active Living in and through Schools – A World Health Organization Statement 1998
  • Global Vision for Physical Education 1996 (Statement by CAHPERD and AAPHERD)

All students in every grade should have the right and opportunity to experience sustained, vigorous physical activity, and participate in quality, daily Physical Education programmes.

  • Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting – Committee on Co-operation Through Sport

Physical Education:

    • should be required component on all teacher training courses
    • should be priority subject for training
    • should be essential in curriculum
    • should attract grants for equipment
      (Endorsed by Commonwealth Education Ministers 1995)
  • 3rd International Olympic Forum for Development 1998, Malaysia
    The 3rd International Olympic Forum for Development “..reinforces the need to build the case for investment in sport and Physical Education both nationally and internationally especially by critical analysis of sport’s role as a tool for development.”
  • All Africa Pre-Games Scientific Congress, September 1999
    With the endorsement of the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa (SCSA) and supported and endorsed by delegates, the following was accepted:
  • Action Plan – Prefatory Statement
    “Physical Education should be recognized as the basis of the physical activity participation continuum. School Physical Education should be seen as the most important aspect for the development of sport. If traditions of physical activity are developed in schools, children are more likely to participate in out-of-school and post-school settings.”
  • The participants “…urge all governments, inter- and non-governmental organizations involved in education and relevant associated areas to take corrective action to reverse the declining trend and to promote Physical Education.”
  • 3rd International Conference for Women and Sport (Association for Arab Women and Sport), October 1999The following Declaration was accepted by the participants:”The Physical Education of Arab girls suffers from negative attitudes towards girls’ benefitting from school Physical Education, which is a part of her life and future. In the light of the inadequacy of the human and material resources and expertise needed for practicing sport activities, and the low care shown by those responsible for girls’ Physical Education, this conference makes the following declaration: Raise standards of school Physical Education for Arab girls.”
  • National Children’s Agenda, Canada, 1999
    “…as a nation, we aspire to have children who are healthy – both emotionally and physically, safe and secure, successful at learning, and socially engaged and responsible.”

Conclusion

 

The world-wide survey on the state of Physical Education, and other international research provides an enormous challenge to address the status and resources for Physical Education. Most government Departments are working hard trying to balance the overwhelming number of requests for their limited resources However, when Physical Education is not incorporated as an integral part of education programmes, the consequences can be long-lasting and manifold.

Physical Education can provide a large number of health, social, cognitive and economic benefits. Physical Education can and does provide a Return on Investment (R013 in other areas of spending, most notably health. Based on the evidence presented in this paper, we ask the participants of the Third International Conference of Ministers and Senior Officials Responsible for Sport and Physical Activities (MINEPS III) to endorse the Berlin Agenda for Action and to implement the recommendations at the national, and local levels.

Working together we can make a difference for our most precious resource — today’s children and youth.

This is an international problem requiring international, regional and national action

Annex 1

The Berlin Agenda for Action for Government Ministers

The World Summit on Physical Education reinforces the importance of Physical Education as a
life-long process. It is particularly important for every child as articulated in the International Convention on the Rights of the Child. All children have a right to (1) the highest level of health; (2) free and compulsory primary education for both cognitive and physical development; (3) rest and leisure; play and recreation.

THE BERLIN AGENDA CALLS FOR ACTION BY GOVERNMENTS AND MINISERIES RESPONSIBLE FOR EDUCATION AND SPORT TO:

  • implement policies for Physical Education as a human right for all children;
  • recognize that quality Physical Education depends on well-qualified educators and scheduled time within the curriculum, both of which are possible to provide even when other resources like equipment are in short supply;
  • invest in initial and in-service professional training and development for educators;
  • support research to improve the effectiveness and quality of Physical Education;
  • work with international financial institutions to ensure Physical Education is included as part of their of definition of education;
  • recognize the distinctive role of Physical Education in health, overall development and safe, supportive communities;
  • recognize that failure to provide Physical Education costs more in health care than the investment needed for Physical Education.

Why take these actions? Quality Physical Education:

  • is the most effective and inclusive means of providing all children, whatever their ability/disability, sex, age, cultural, race/ethnicity, religious or social background, with the skills, attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding for life long participation in physical activity and sport;
  • helps to ensure integrated and rounded development of mind, body and spirit;
  • is the only school subject whose primary focus is on the body, physical activity, physical development and health;
  • helps children to develop the patterns of and interest in physical activity, which are essential for healthy development and which lay the foundations for adult healthy lifestyles;
  • helps children to develop respect for the body – both their own and others’;
  • develops understanding of the role of physical activity in promoting health;
  • contributes to children’s confidence and self esteem;
  • enhances social development by preparing children to cope with competition, winning an losing; and co-operation and collaboration;
  • provides the skills and knowledge for future work in sport, physical activity, recreation and leisure, a growing area of employment.

BERLIN, November 5, 1999


Annex 2

Appeal of the World Summit on Physical Education to the General Conference of UNESCO

The representatives of states, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and educational institutions at the World Summit on Physical Education, held in BERLIN from November 3-5, 1999.

Considering the importance of Physical Education for every child around the world, and its role in encouraging people to remain active and healthy throughout their life-span,

Considering that Physical Education helps to ensure integrated and rounded development of mind, body and spirit and contributes to children’s confidence and self-esteem,

Emphasizing that Physical Education can enhance cognitive, academic achievement and social development including fundamental educational skills like literacy, and numeracy.

Noting that Physical Education is the most effective and inclusive means of providing children, whatever their ability, age, sex, cultural or religious background, with the skills, knowledge and understanding for lifelong participation in physical activity and sport,

Reaffirming that Physical Education provides skills and knowledge for employment in sport, physical activity, public health, recreation and leisure, a growing area of vocational opportunity,

Reaffirming that Physical Education provides an ethical and social foundation for the spirit of fair play, mutual respect, solidarity and human understanding.

  1. Call upon the General Conference to record the urgent need to promote Physical Education and the resources required for delivering quality programmes in Physical Education to be made available.
  2. Urge the Ministers of Education and the Ministers of Youth and Sport: to recognize the distinctive role that Physical Education and sport play in the education of young people and that Physical Education and sport are a human right for all children; to mandate adequate e time in the school curriculum; and to support research to improve the effectiveness and quality of Physical Education programmes.
  3. Urge the General Conference to commit to developing strategies for effective implementation of Physical Education programmes in the education system and the community, with the necessary financial and human resources.
  4. Request the General Conference to encourage the allocation of adequate human and financial resources through the inter-governmental Committee for Physical Education and Sport of UNESCO (CIGEPS!)
  5. Urge the General Conference to invite the Director General of UNESCO to mobilize intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, public and private sectors to cooperate in the promotion and development of Physical Education within the context of a culture of peace.
  6. Request the General Conference to invite the Director General of UNESCO to submit the Appeal from the World Summit on Physical Education to the Third International Conference of Ministers and Senior Officials of Physical Education and Sport to be held in Punta del Este from November 30-December 3, 1999.

Annex 3

Scientific Programme of the World Summit on Physical Education

Programme highlights / Keynotes

  • World Wide Audit Survey of the State and Status of Physical Education in Schools Dr. Ker’ Hardman, Past-President of the International/ Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sport, University of Manchester, UK
  • The Case for Physical Education Prof. Dr. Margaret Talbot, President of the International Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
  • Good Practices in Physical Education Doreen Solomons, Western Cape Education Department, South Africa
  • Nutritional Needs for Physical Activity in Young People Prof. Dr. Clyde Williams, Loughborough University, UK
  • Physical Education and its Physical Domains Prof. Dr. Robert Malina, Michigan State University, USA
  • Psychological Outcomes and Social Benefits of Sport Involvement and Physical Activity Implications for Physical Education Prof. Dr. Wolf-Dietrich Brettschneider, university Gesamthochschule Paderborn, Germany
  • Physical Education, Health and Well-Being Prof. Dr. Victor Matsudo, CELA FISCS, Brazil
  • The Economic Case for Physical Education Prof. Dr. Bruce Kidd, University of Toronto, Canada

Workshops

  • Physical Education in National Development and Reconstruction
    Marcia Oxley, Director, Commonwealth Sports Development Programme, Barbados / Doreen Solomons, Western Cape Education Department, South ,Africa
  • Managing Diversity- Inclusion and Integration
    Prof. Dr. Karen DePauw, Past-President of the Intemational Federation of Adapted Physical Activity, Washington State University, USA I J. Wilton Littlechild, WlNsport, Canada
  • Working Towards a Balanced Curriculum
    Dr. Richard J. Fisher, President of the European Union of Physical Education Associations, St. Mary’s College, Twickenham, VK / Dr. Irina Ugolkova, Russian State Academy for Physical Education
  • Making the Economic Case
    Prof. Dr. Bruce Kidd, University of Toronto, Canada / Marce/lin Dally, Physical Education and Sport Unit, UNESCO
  • Advocacy and Lobbying Strategies Prof. Dr. Ronald Feingold, President of the Association
    Internationale des Ecoles Superieures d’Education Physique, President AAHPERD, Ade/phi University – Garden City, USA I Hamadi Benaziza, Department of Health Promotion – Focal Point on Active Living, WHO
  • Physical Education for Health: Active Schools
    Prof. Dr. Ilika Vuori, Director of the UKK Institute, Tampere, Finland I Prof. Dr. Frank Fu, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong of China
  • Physical Education, Schools and Community
    Dr. Gerhard Trosien, German Sports Confederation, Frankfurt’ Germany / Christine Spain, President’s Council on Fitness and Sport, Washington, USA

 


-Download Results and Recommendations of the World Summit on Physical Education as PDF-