developmental policy aims at achieving the balanced growth
in the different fields of development programs. Any retardation
in these programs will heavily influence the growth of the
other fields. Such balanced growth can be accomplished through
creating waves of private investments in a number of various
projects all at once so as to realize advancement in these
have to be absolutely certain that the individual does not
move forward to invest unless s/he expects to make inviting
earnings to the extent that it enables them to make the decision
to invest. In other words, the investor is not convinced to
invest unless it is anticipated to make much more profit than
other alternative earnings that could be made if capital is
directed to other uses (10).
marketing position has acquired more importance and noticeable
improvement in the essential efforts that aim at identifying
the consumers’ needs and desires and translating these needs
into a group of goods and services. These should be provided
with the required quality and quantity, the prices appropriate
for the nature of goods and services, and, further, appropriate
for the consumer’s income. Every possible way of distribution
should be exploited so that our products will reach the consumer.
It is not only a matter of marketing, but of producing what
is desired in the market.
the framework of this advanced marketing view, which is realized
by the variety of investment directions whereas the profit
made takes into account the variety of growth orientations,
the sports field and all its activities cannot be ignored,
owing to the fact that they provide the opportunity for producing
diverse goods represented by contests as well as diverse services.
For this reason, the sports activity has been introduced to
be one of the economic investment fields, because it has been
enormously increased during the late period of the 20th century
because of the remarkable advancement in the sports information
paramount importance of the crucial role played by the media
in promoting sports in society is attributed to the characteristics
and criteria such means of communication have. The media is
diversified, since it works through the reading forms as well
as through the visual aids, and can reach every corner of
the world with suitable and effective manner. Consequently,
the individual enjoys what is displayed in front of her/him
use of scientific methods and the latest technological tools
in administration and the different training fields in the
sports sectors has been effective in increasing the levels
of competitions concerning both the individual level as well
as the communal one. Furthermore, this issue has contributed
to spreading the professionalism phenomenon, the value of
preparing champions, and maintaining their level.
has caused a regular expansion of expenses and so it is important
to search for diverse means of financial backing necessary
for warranting the expected revenues that could accelerate
the development of this field. To face this problem, many
sports corporations, organizations, associations and clubs
appoint special committees to examine the possibility of developing
available resources and to investigate sports marketing as
a means of supporting sports practices at all levels.
the functional responsibility’s framework of the researcher
in the sports education field, her varied participation in
numerous technical committees related to the official authorities
responsible for the sports field in Bahrain; and besides her
witnessing the voluntary activities in the field, she is capable
of coming close to, researching, studying and examining the
sports activity in actuality.
requires organized efforts to accomplish many strategic goals
to realize the constant promotion and enable the local contests’
levels and the championship field to enter the twenty first
century. The researcher believes that the possibility of attaining
the required development will not present itself unless we
use scientific administration and take advantage of the earlier
attempts at realizing the development we seek taking into
consideration our local circumstances and abilities. It is
also necessary that the continuous financing of these activities
be provided, which cannot be supplied presently because of
the State’s limited abilities and because we cannot keep waiting
for a financial support from this party or that. It is also
essential to study the different applications implemented
throughout the world and by the countries seeking to become
advanced. Looking around us, we will find that marketing in
the Arab world or the gulf region positively contributes to
the possibility of financing as well as it works as a motive
to promote the standard level so that further success in marketing
will be gained. Not only is this related to marketing the
sports activities and services for those who regularly go
to clubs or playgrounds, but also it has been introduced into
coded channels and other means of communication.
the sports marketing proceeds slowly in the Arab region and
Gulf States because it is still in its beginning, it is the
duty of researchers to conduct studies in order to identify
the actual situation of sports marketing in Bahrain and participate
in promoting this field as well.
very issue has motivated the researcher to choose this topic
as a beginning of a series of studies and research to identify
the true status of the present sports marketing and to know
to what extent the aspects of application and problems’ observations
have reached. This is to be illuminated with the obstacles
that impeded the process, the main activities that can be
taken advantage of in marketing, the priorities of individual
and group games and the various services that may help in
the success of sports marketing in Bahrain. The purpose of
this is to win a good position in the Gulf, Arab and international
domains. It is because of the vital importance of this field
and all the outcomes will be a good reflection on the Bahraini
of the Study:
the modern period, the sports field has become rich in its
functions that it has taken the professional nature such as
technicians, directors, experts and professionals. This criterion
makes the field an esteemed profession (4).
importance of research in the sports field is of secondary
economic value regarding the individual and the state. Concerning
the individual, it improves her/his health and physical abilities,
lengthens the productive span and lessens the probability
of work injury. For the state, sports increases the citizens
efficiency and reduces the rates of remedial and rehabilitation
consumption (1). Marketing is considered the main instrument
for the economic and social development plan. Thus the state
can achieve its goals, which are stepping up productivity,
meeting the individual’s needs, increasing the national economy
and enabling it to confront the international challenges,
and creating new work opportunities that contribute towards
raising standard of living (9). Sports is one of the most
attractive fields for individuals from the different classes
and ages. For this, sports playgrounds are not connected with
competitive activities only, but they have become working
targets for which individuals, companies and private firms
pay for the investment’s sake. This is what actually occurs
in various countries, whereas in the Arab countries and specifically
Bahrain it is only recently that sports has been considered
a subject for marketing studies and research in a limited
manner, although it is a social and cultural activity that
serves as a means of enjoyment, recreation, health and consumption
complete development requires being concerned about the sports
field. Sports marketing can be a natural way towards fulfilling
it. This study is a serious attempt with which it is possible
to identify the existent marketing situation of sports activities
and services and see the sports scale as a marketing field
besides other fields. We can also perceive its returns and
economic benefits to the individual and the state besides
analyzing the impediments of the private section participation
in this field, which has proven to be a great success in many
cases. This study also puts forward some proposals about the
most important directions, activities and services that can
be a productive domain for private capital.
investors’ opinions about the impediments of sports marketing
investors’ opinions about the proposed work spheres of sports
marketing in Bahrain.
investors’ opinions about the most important individual
and group games that bring success to sports marketing in
accomplish the study objectives, the researcher formulated
research questions about the investors’ points of view to
articulate the true sports marketing situation in Bahrain.
The study endeavors to answer the following questions:
- What are the investors’ views about the sports marketing
- What are the proposed work fields for sports marketing according
to the investors’ opinions?
- What are the main individual and collective games that are
successful in sports marketing according to the investors’
is a survey of views and trends that dominate the market so
as to direct products and goods to match these views”.
It includes the organizations and individuals activities that
facilitate and meet the communal relationships within a dynamic
environment through presenting, distributing, merchandizing
and pricing goods, services and ideas”. (10)
Marketing ” procedural definition”
is the exchange of benefits between the investor and the consumer
to meet the community needs for sports activities and services
within an economic theory. This will achieve financing that
will participate in the continuous promotion of the sports
“the possession of sources that will spurt out returns
or capital profits”. (19)
Ebrahim (1995) conducted a study presenting generally the
problems of financing and the methods of marketing sports
in the United States. The study deals with the most important
methods in sports financing and marketing. Some of the important
problems are endowments, donations, carnivals, lots, charity
festival, advertisements and patronage. (7)
- Sari Ahmed & Suha Adeep (1995) made a study about the
marketing methods done through the appropriate activities
according to businessmen in Jordan.
study was made in order to being acknowledged of businessmen’s
opinions about preparing, organizing and defining the sports
activity level they seek to involve marketing in. Besides,
the study was to scope their opinions about the marketing
methods in sports activities. (8)
Ebrahim (1997) made a study evaluating Covered Sports Gymnasiums
Block in Cairo Stadium from the sports and economic points
of view. The researcher concluded that there was a deficiency
in revenues in comparison with expenditures. (11)
- Ashraf Hussein (1999) conducted a study about the impediments
of sports investment in Egypt and approached numerous impediments.
- Handerson (1995) studied marketing of the sports recreational
activities program for ladies to understand the foundations
of the process of this program. (18)
- Stolor & Bitts (1996) made a study about the foundations
of sports marketing in order to conceive the principles
of the sports marketing process.
- Arnold Jay (1997) conducted a study about the sports clubs
in colleges and universities to recognize the necessary
procedures that should be taken on the part of the responsible
directors and specialists of these clubs so as to attract
The Methodology Used:
descriptive method is used because it is appropriate for the
nature of study and because of its objectivity.
The Study Sample:
study sample was chosen randomly. The actual number is 30
investors. All of them are Bahraini businessmen who have interests
in the sports field. The questionnaire was conducted in January
Information Gathering Tools:
researcher used questionnaires of her own design to be filled
in by the investors. She followed the following steps in preparing
the questionnaire form (Annex 1):
theoretical reading of scientific references and the studies
connected with the research.
- Defining the pivots of the questionnaire. They were as follows:
- Impediments concerning the sports policy issue.
- Impediments concerning the laws and rules issue.
- Impediments concerning awareness of the sports marketing
- Impediment concerning technical and administrative aspects.
investors’ proposals for some suggested work opportunities
of sports marketing in Bahrain.
investors’ proposals for some individual and group games
that can be successful in sports marketing.
these pivots were brought before the experts, who were 10
professionals in management. It was provided that these people
were university instructors and Ph.D. holders, besides their
experience in the investment field and sports concerns.
The experts agreed upon these pivots after combining some
phrases, shortening a number of them and deleting others.
The researcher removed some phrases graded less than 70% of
the experts’ support. Therefore, the final form is as follows:
sports policy in Bahrain
The laws and rules organizing the activity
Awareness of the sports marketing importance
Technical and administrative aspects
researcher specified a particular space at the end of the
form for the sportsmen and investors’ proposals about the
work opportunities and the important individual and group
games that can be befitting in sports marketing.
Scientific Correlation of the Questionnaire form:
The researcher applied content validity by bringing the
questionnaire form – during preparation and before application
in the final form- before a number of specialized experts
(Judges Validity) in the investment field. They are ten
The reliability of the questionnaire form was calculated
by performing the test and retaking it for the second time
after an interval of 10 days. It was conducted on an exploratory
study sample represented by 10 businessmen investors, who
were chosen randomly.
correlation coefficients of the performances is (0.80 – 1),
which indicates its reliability as its manifested in Table
The Study Implementation:
researcher carried out the questionnaire form by giving it
to the study sample members after verifying its validity and
reliability in the period 13-17 January 2000. The researcher
used the statistical processes appropriate for this kind of
Results Presentation & Analysis
The Results Demonstration:
The correlation coefficients of the two applications of the
exploratory study sample
We infer from Table (1) that the correlation coefficients
of the two applications is (0.80 – 1), which indicates its
The proportional Importance of the investors’ opinions about
the impediments of sports marketing in Bahrain regarding the
Bahraini sports policy
It is inferred from Table (2) that the percentage of the investors’
opinions about the sports policy impediments in Bahrain is
(86.66% – 93.33%).
The proportional Importance of the investors’ opinions about
the impediments of sports marketing in Bahrain regarding the
laws organizing the sports activity in Bahrain
It is inferred from Table (3) that the percentage of the investors’
opinions about the impediments of the laws organizing the
sports activity in Bahrain is (82.22% – 91.11%).
The proportional Importance of the investors’ opinions about
the impediments of sports marketing in Bahrain regarding awareness
of the sports marketing value in Bahrain
It is inferred from Table (4) that the percentage of the investors’
opinions about the impediments of awareness of the sports
marketing value in Bahrain is (80% – 92.22%).
The proportional Importance of the investors’ opinions about
the impediments of sports marketing in Bahrain regarding technical
and administrative aspects
It is inferred from Table (5) that the percentage of the investors’
opinions about the impediments of technical and administrative
aspects is (77.77% – 91.11%).
The investors’ proposals for some suggested work opportunities
concerning sports marketing in Bahrain
It is clear from Table (6) that the percentage of the main
investors’ suggestions in sports marketing is (53.33% – 90%).
The investors’ proposals for some individual and group games
that can be appropriate for sports marketing.
It is manifested from Table (7) that the percentage of the
main investors’ proposals for some individual and group games
that can be appropriate for sports marketing is (50% – 80%)
The Results Analysis
Investors’ opinions about the sports policy issue:
It is inferred from Table
(2) that the percentage of phrases is (86.66% – 93.33%).
These obstacles are ranked in a descending order according
to their percentage as follows:
national sports level does not encourage to invest in the
sports marketing field 93.33%
no attention to the sports field unlike the case with the
other economic fields 92.22%
the sports activities does not accomplish the State’s policy
in development 92.22%
marketing plans at the national level did not include a
scheme for sports marketing 88.90%
State does not have future prospects for increasing investment
rates in sports marketing 86.66%
is clearly manifested that the national sports’ level does
not encourage investing in the sports marketing field, unlike
the other fields. Besides, financing sports activities by
different sources does not contribute to the sports field
development and consequently sports marketing. Furthermore,
there are no specific official plans to increase the investment
rates through sports marketing. The sports widespread throughout
the world has become a burden to the administrative authorities
and organizations in order to raise the sports standard of
performance so that it will meet the spectators’ needs and
desires, who are not satisfied with the local situation in
comparison with what they see, read, or hear about other countries.
Investors’ opinions about the laws organizing the sports activity:
As it is manifested in Table
(3), the phrases gained a percentage of (82.22% – 91.11%),
which indicates that they express the investors’ opinions
about the impediments connected with laws and rules. They
are ranked in a descending order as follows:
- There are no laws or rules organizing work in the sports
marketing field 91.11%
- The laws organizing customs exemption do not encourage investment
in the sports field 88.90%
- There are no State’s economic laws that encourage financiers
to invest in sports marketing 88.90%
- There is no official authority responsible for offering
its services for work in sports marketing 85.55%
- Certain impediments (bureaucracy) face investors when investing
in sports marketing 82.22%
it is obvious that the impediments facing the investors and
connected with the laws organizing the sports activity are
the absence of those laws that organize work in sports marketing
and those ones organizing customs exemption. Moreover, there
are no State’s economic laws that encourage involvement in
marketing, which articulates the passive role of the authorities
that does not conform to that role of sports in a developing
community. One of the impediments also is the absence of an
official body responsible for offering services in sports
marketing whether in the Public Institution for Youths &
Sports or official corporations, which prevents investors
from entering the sports marketing field besides the other
obstacles that face them such as not protecting the investor
and the absence of clear contracts between dealers in marketing.
Ebrahim (11) agreed with this when he emphasized the necessity
of a creating balance among the different marketing aspects
taking into consideration that sports marketing and services
should be in compliance with the financial laws and the public
order. Sports marketing can not be activated unless there
is a complete coordination with the responsible official bodies.
above phrases are also supported by Stolor Bitts (13), who
placed a heavy emphasis on the importance of knowing the principles
that sports marketing is based on and that sports has become
an industrialized field based on powerful economic pillars,
not a mere individual activity.
Mahmood (2) stated that there was not any official body specialized
in sports marketing. He also articulated the difficulty in
having financial support for sports projects.
Investors’ opinions about awareness of sports marketing usefulness:
It is clear from Table
(4) that the impediments ranked in a descending order
are as follows:
investor is not convinced of sports marketing as an activity
given priority 92.22%
are not convinced that sports marketing is a source of income
officials in sports organizations do not encourage working
in sports marketing. 86.66%
that sports marketing is done by organizations and companies
for its high cost 84.44%
do not have a plenty number of sports activities and services
to be used in marketing 80%
general investors’ opinion that does not welcome marketing
in sports field and does not appreciate the importance of
sports in developing the individual and society and increasing
work opportunities. So, sports marketing depends on the officials’
and investors’ conviction of working in such a field. Endorsing
this, Jane Adams (17) articulates in his study the extent
of sports marketing significance in improving the sports standard
performance in Britain and increasing thousands of work opportunities.
in marketing depends entirely on the degree of the individual’s
and corporations’ awareness of sports value concerning the
individual’s lifestyle, the mass engagement in many games,
and attracting investors to marketing in services, programs
and various games.
Studies have demonstrated that profitability and revenues
heavily influence the marketing process and so it is important
to apply the scientific theories in determining expenditures
and the expected revenues. This goes with what Mohammed Ebrahim
(11) and Ashraf Mahmood (2) believe in. The latter stressed
the importance of studying profit, the existence of specialized
centers to gather information to lessen to the minimum the
probability of problems taking place during implementation,
and understanding the successful attempts taking into account
the significance of seeking specialists’ assistance. While
agreeing with this, Helmi Ebrahim (7) emphasizes the scarcity
of specialists in sports marketing means, the importance of
raising the employees and employers standards so that better
work in sports marketing is guaranteed. Having shown this,
we have answered the first question, which is: What are the
investors’ opinions about the impediments of sports marketing?
Investors’ opinions about the technical and administrative
(5) shows, the investors’ opinions about the impediments
connected with the technical and administrative aspects are
ranked in a descending order as follows:
coverage of sports events in Bahrain does not contribute
to success in sports marketing. 91.11%
organizations do not grant investors fiduciary facilities
to invest in sports marketing 88.90%
multiplicity of authorities that grant permits, for a lack
of coordination 88.89%
standard of work & activities of the main clubs discourages
investors from entering the sports marketing field. 86.66%
are no technicians specialized in the economic sector to
work in sports marketing 86.66%
is no previous experience in Bahrain concerning sports marketing.
is no special centers for making studies about the benefits
of sports marketing 80%
is no available data that help making research and studying
the benefits of sports marketing in Bahrain. 77.77%
is difficult to determine and realize the amount of profit
in the long run 77.77%
is obvious that the main impediment to marketing in the sports
sectors, according to investors, is the absence of media coverage
of sports events. This is because not giving media focus causes
a difficulty in sports marketing like marketing matches, sports
projects, the corporations events, installations and so on.
This media deficiency might be attributed to the lack of scientific
planing to be used in sports media, improving the means of
communicating with the public, and creating integration between
the media and comprehensive sports activity plans. This is
what both Amima Munir Jado (3) and Jameel Abultayyeb (6) agree
with. They mentioned the importance of the mutual understanding
and healthy relations between the organization and its outside
by means of reliable media so that consistency between the
public and the organization will be realized. Sami Alseesi
accepts this and adds it is essential that financial organizations
grant loans’ facilities so that they will investment instead
of hindering it.
of the obstacles along with the above-mentioned is the multiplicity
of authorities that grant permits as a consequence of the
lack of coordination and the absence of a specific official
body for this kind of investment. Unlike the other kinds of
investment, granting permits takes a long time and the investor
is faced with complicated administrative procedures because
of the dealing difficulties between investors and the responsible
sports corporations, which results in hindering marketing
in the sports field. Mohammed Ebrahim (11) and Arnold Jay
agree with this through placing a heavy emphasis on the importance
of simplifying the required procedures and that the different
authorities should have a good coordination. It is also manifested
that the standard of work and sports activities does not encourage
investors to introduce marketing in this field. What enters
the equation also is the deficiency of technicians specialized
in the economic sector to work in sports marketing. The lack
of those skilled and experienced people in this field results
in a scarcity of specialized centers that serves marketing
and balance the proportion of benefit, the thing that depends
on information-gathering. This difficulty in the availability
and accuracy of data concerning sports marketing will cause
a difficulty in defining the cost and revenue of any possible
project, which, in its turn, will result in a trouble commanding
or controlling prices or realizing them in the long term only.
investors’ proposals for some work opportunities concerning
sports marketing in Bahrain:
As it is shown in Table
(6), there is a number of work opportunities that have
gained high percentages according to the investors’ view.
The local and international championships got a less percentage
maybe because of the weak technical standard and the absence
of sufficient media coverage. Furthermore, the financial support
on the part of the State of these championships do not help
in a remarkable sports preparation and cannot introduce the
limited local abilities to the international arena. For sports
marketing to succeed, there must be capable and active media
coverage that follows every sports event. Moreover, scientific
methods must be used in administration by having fully aware
and experienced persons as leaders in such activities. This
is besides an actual participation on the part of economists.
There should be organizing objectives, financial sources and
administrative skills to determine the levels of competition,
leading the training issue and selecting players so as to
give fresh impetus to the marketing process regarding the
local and international championships.
Handerson (18), while agreeing with this, made it clear that
the marketing process should bring into existence those services
that specify the amount of profitability that individuals
make. Stolor and Bitts (13) stress the importance of the sports
marketing process as a comprehensive field.
covered this issue, we have answered the second question,
which is: What are the investors’ proposals for some suggested
work opportunities concerning sports marketing in Bahrain?
investors’ proposals for some individual and group games that
can be appropriate for sports marketing:
(7) shows that the weight percentage is (50% – 80%). By
ranking it in a descending order, it will be as follows:
- Football 80% 3- Volleyball 66.66%
- Horse racing 70% 4- Track & field events 50%
obtained a high percentage because of its popularity followed
by horse racing, volleyball and track & field. The other
individual and group games did not obtain a high percentage
in sports marketing. The investors think that football is
an investment field of 80% value while horse racing obtained
70%. The other individual and group games got low percentages
due to the fact that they are not that popular. Since the
Bahriani community is multinational, sports interests differ
from one game to another. This is attributed to the weak technical
and administrative aspects, the unsound financial support
of clubs, and the insufficient media coverage of such games.
We have to exploit the events that are more affective and
popular. We should also seek to find the consumer and meet
her/his needs in sports marketing by presenting the excellent
standard. Having achieved this, sports events and sectors
will be closely connected with economics and development.
We should also open the door to researchers to benefit from
this field and enrich it with their research efforts in order
that the process required will take off sports marketing among
the Arab countries in general and the Gulf States and Bahrain
Ahmed (8) agrees with this and adds that the sports marketing
process is connected with the level of championships and the
performance level of players, teams and clubs. The investors’
opinions are limited to four games that procure success in
sports marketing of a percentage of 80% to 50%. They all agreed
that football is one of the most successful games among the
individual and group ones. This is in accord with Sari Ahmed
and Maha Adeep (8), who said that the most efficient activity
in sports marketing was football, while the least one was
we have answered the third question, which is: What are the
investors’ views about some individual and group games that
can be successful in sports marketing?
the light of the research results, the sample opinions, the
tools used and the objectives of the study, the researcher
could reach the following conclusions:
are a number of impediments that hinder work in sports marketing
from the points of view of the investors centering around
the following issues or pivots:
- The sports policy aspect:
This aspect focuses on the absence of concerns about the
sports field, deficiency in financing and the absence of
a long-term policy. This is besides the fact that the sports
level does not assure investment and there are no future
prospects for investment in this field.
- The laws & rules issue:
This is summarized in the unavailability of laws and rules
that organize work in sports marketing, the nonexistence
of a specific official body and bureaucracy that faces investors.
- Awareness of sports marketing importance:
This centers on the unawareness on the part of sportsmen,
the investors’ uncertainty of sports marketing value, not
popularity of sports and the withdrawal of responsible authorities.
- The technical and administrative aspect:
This aspect is summed up as the lack of media coverage of
sports events, the weakness of the technical standard, a
deficiency of experienced sports management, the weak standard
of clubs, the absence of specialized centers in studying
and conducting research, and the unavailability of information.
- Some suggested work opportunities concerning sports marketing
concentrated on commercial markets, marketing sports equipment
and hiring out playgrounds.
- Concerning the order of the main games that are useful in
marketing, football is ranked the first because of its popularity
and media coverage of this game like in satellite channels
and other means, which had an effect on its being selected
as the first. Following football are horse racing, volleyball
and track & field.
for a national conference at the state level whose participants
include officials, sports-people, investors and media officials
so as to discuss the present sports position, how to develop
it, and the role of sports marketing in improving it. It
must be taken into account the others’ experience in this
field and that this study is to be the pivot that the whole
discussion rotates about.
- The official bodies in the state should sketch a national
strategy for the sports events taking place in sports associations,
companies and school. This strategy should give more attention
to young and novice people, expanding the practice opportunities
and local or international competitions, and a good coordination
with the tourist strip and investors in order to exploit
tourist advantages in establishing festivals and competitions.
a thorough review of those organizing laws and rules in
the sports strip, besides the manner by which we could better
invest in the marketing field in a sense that it goes along
with the progress required in this field.
more importance to preparing those people who have abilities,
those can shoulder the burdens of functional and voluntary
work in the sports strip as well as sports marketing and
taking advantage of previous experiences conducted by those
countries who are the pioneers in this field.
the role of the media, the techniques of supporting the
sports process and presenting it in a way that it serves
investors in sports marketing and benefits the sports strip.
concern for what has been studied in sports marketing, for
those games that are prioritized and for popular competitions
and sports festivals.
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