The coaching profession is ever-changing and coaches at each level of sport competition need to know more than just the Xs and Os in order to be successful. As the primary individuals tasked with developing athletes and helping them achieve their goals, coaches should acquire a working knowledge of all areas affiliated with performance enhancement. Specifically, the disciplines of sports administration, sports medicine, strength and conditioning, and sports psychology can assist coaches while physically and mentally training their athletes. This article illustrates six primary components of these disciplines: risk management, injury prevention, communication, nutrition, goal setting, and athlete development. It is imperative coaches gain a familiarity with these aforementioned components in order to teach athletes about skill development and prepare them to achieve peak performance.
Key words: athlete development, coaching, peak performance, training, sport
Since the beginning of sport competition, athletes have sought to acquire the skills and knowledge of sport in order to become “champions.” As sport evolved into organized activity, coaches began working more closely with athletes on sport skill development. Education and training programs have been created, over the past 30 years, in an effort to assist coaches and athletes with the development of methods and strategies for achieving peak performance. When designing a coaching education program, however, one must ask what do coaches need to know; what are the essential elements of athletic coaching?
In the 1960s, Dr. Thomas P. Rosandich, founder of the United States Sports Academy, outlined what he called the American Training Patterns (personal communication, April 2010) which focused on physical components of training; namely, speed, skill, stamina, strength, and suppleness (i.e., flexibility). Over time, our knowledge of how to train these five components has become more comprehensive and has been expanded into other disciplines as coaches continue striving to develop exceptional athletes (i.e., “champions”). Though early emphasis in coaching focused on athletic performance enhancement and basic physiology, other disciplines of human performance eventually became components of training athletes. The purpose of this article is to examine the aforementioned components and introduce the world to the United States Sports Academy’s newly revised American Coaching Patterns.
American Coaching Patterns is a six-course program, encompassing six fundamentals of training: stamina, strength, suppleness or flexibility, agility, speed and skill. The six courses focus on sports administration, coaching methods, sports medicine, strength and conditioning, sports psychology, and athlete development. With the addition of these new disciplines, training athletes has become a holistic activity focusing on the entire athlete (i.e., mental and physical aspects).
Participating in sports involves a certain level of risk, even when reasonable precautions have been implemented (17). Coaches have some level of responsibility for all aspects of their athletic program. For example, coaches need to be concerned about the welfare of their players and the maintenance of athletic equipment and facilities. These responsibilities fall under the umbrella of risk management and the controlled evaluation of the athletic environment. Evaluating risk management in the athletic environment is a significant administrative element for coaches. While risk can never be fully eliminated, these individuals must be aware of, and must seek to limit the chances liability exposure. Hence, coaches must exert significant effort to monitor all components of their athletic programs.
Coaches must realize they will encounter facility and/or equipment risk on a constant basis. A substantial amount of time is required to assess sport facilities and equipment in order to prevent injury to sport participants during competition. Numerous sport facilities continue to be built in order to house athletic competitions making facility risk management a top priority of coaches (11). In order to create a regular routine that will lead to a safe environment, coaches should follow five guidelines set by Dougherty and Bonanno (16): 1) implement regular inspection and maintenance of schedules for facilities and equipment used, 2) ensure that facilities exceed regulatory safety standards, 3) ensure that equipment used exceeds regulatory safety standards, 4) ensure that the installing of new equipment is completed by a professional, and 5) ensure that all equipment used is safe and appropriate for the participants involved in the sport activity.
Several risk management measures can be employed by coaches in order to minimize external risks. Examples include reviewing sport participants’ insurance coverage twice per year, reporting sport-related incidents in a timely manner to proper authorities (e.g., insurance companies, medical personnel), identifying potential hazards to the proper authorities (e.g., facility management), and confirming sport participants have obtained medical examinations and authorization to play (23). Even though peak athletic performance (e.g., wins and losses) can become a focal point for coaches, attention to detail and organization are primary responsibilities when attempting to decrease the potential negative impact of external risks on an athletic program.
Therefore, coaches should be aware of the factors associated with risk management. Coaches can limit the amount of risk involved with their programs by implementing effective management processes and staying up-to-date on changes occurring in the external environment. It is important for coaches to have a positive outlook concerning the future of their programs. In order to gain additional knowledge and remain current with issues concerning risk management, coaches should review literature published by their school or university, athletic associations, or national sport governing bodies regularly. This will help coaches minimize external risks while preparing their athletes for competition which is critical for the development of a successful program.
According to the National Federation of State High School Associations, an estimated 7.6 million individuals in the United States participated in high school sports during 2009-10 (35). These participation rates are a cause for hope that the increasing effort to get adolescents to be physically active can be successful. Unfortunately, competing in athletics increases the opportunity to experience a sport injury. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated more than 1.4 million injuries occurred in high school sport participants during the 2005-06 school year (12).
Therefore, coaches should gain knowledge concerning first aid care and the prevention of injury. When coaches teach their athletes sport skills, these athletes must develop precise technical movements in order to produce peak athletic performance. Such movements, along with the demands placed on athletes’ muscles when accelerating, decelerating, or changing direction, increase the risk of injury (44). These performance demands create internal forces on athletes’ bodies and when combined with external forces (e.g., body contact), injury risk can significantly increase (33). Coaches need to be aware of these potential risks when developing training regimens for participants competing at any level of sport.
Today, young athletes train like elite professional athletes. Specifically, many adolescents are undertaking physical and mental conditioning regimens for several hours a day in order to produce peak athletic performance. Additionally, some individuals are specializing in one sport at an early age (15) and participating on several teams during a single athletic season. While others participate in several different sports year-round (15) without allowing the body and mind enough time to sufficiently recover from the rigors of athletic competition.
Thus, sport participation and demanding athletic training regimens can produce significant sport injuries for athletes. Experiencing a sport injury may affect an athlete physically and psychologically once the individual returns to athletic competition (36). Without question, coaches should realize athletes need athletic healthcare. In addition, this healthcare should be considered an investment toward individuals maintaining a physically active lifestyle in the future.
Proper management only comes from being prepared and trained on how to respond prudently to a situation (32). Coaches and medical personnel (e.g., athletic trainers) must provide a safe environment for sport participation and be prepared to respond when an injury occurs (13). In order to accomplish these objectives, communication among all individuals associated with sport participation must be accomplished. “Coaches are key members of the sports medicine team and have a great deal of interaction with ATCs (i.e., certified athletic trainers) at all levels of competition (31, p. 338).”
Besides interacting with medical personnel, coaches must be exceptional communicators with their athletes in order to be effective teachers. The ability to communicate is a critical component in becoming a successful coach and developing elite athletes. “Communication is a process through which two entities exchange formal messages in a common code by using one or more transmission channels …” (2, p. 415). It is the foundation upon which coaches build their team. Coaching without effective communication is like trying to play basketball without a ball; it just is not a successful endeavor. “In fact, effective communication is often cited as a critical element in the success of athletic teams,” (41, p. 80). Team members must learn how to communicate with each other both in and out of the playing arena so that they can become one cohesive unit and ultimately increase their level of success.
Coaches can be extremely knowledgeable in the technical skills of the sport and have the perfect game plan; but if they cannot communicate this information to their team, the likelihood of a victory will be greatly reduced. Sullivan (41) indicated “there is a positive correlation between enhanced interpersonal communication skills and higher levels of team performance” (p. 90). An athlete and coach speak the common language of the specific sport in which they are involved, but “the communication must be articulated in a fashion that the athletes will not only hear, but also instantly understand” (30, p. 44). Joe Torre, former Major League Baseball manager who led the New York Yankees to four World Series titles, emphasized that “communication is the key to trust, and trust is the key to teamwork in any group endeavor, be it in sports, business, or family” (42, p. 71).
Coaches have the opportunity to teach their players many life skills and effective communication may be the most valuable one, yet time is not always in the coach’s favor. From limits on practice time or set times for half-time and timeouts during athletic competition, coaches encounter several constraints which can limit the time allowed to convey messages to their players. Therefore, coaches should organize their messages efficiently in hopes of developing positive relationships with players. Without question, establishing a positive athlete-coach relationship is a critical component to achieving effective communication between these individuals. Communicating effectively will allow coaches to teach their athletes the necessary sport skills to produce peak performance and increase the possibility of having a successful athletic program.
No relationship, whether on the playing field or off, can blossom without communication and the relationship between players and coaches is no different. Players need to feel that their coach cares about them as a person; not just as an athlete who can help them win games and establish a successful athletic program. Players are people first and great coaches make time for the person as well as the player.
‘You could go into the coach’s office and he would be all ears (p. 6).’ This helped to create an atmosphere that was comfortable for the athletes: ‘You never felt like you were stepping over a boundary if you were to walk into their office and ask them a question (p. 9)’ (14, as cited in 4).
Being available to athletes and other team personnel is only as effective as the communication that takes place. Coaches must remember that communication is a two-way street; it requires listening as well as talking because it involves both inputs and outputs. If managed effectively and by making an effort to develop positive relationships with their players, coaches can increase the chances of team success.
Whether it’s the end of a close game, during practice, or at a meeting unrelated to the team or even the sport, it is incumbent on the coach to create an environment that fosters communication. “Effective communication is apparent when team members listen to one another and attempt to build on each other’s contributions” (41, p. 79). Coaches should incorporate communication into every practice because it is one of the fundamentals of sport.
As coaches establish a positive relationship with their athletes, many athletes begin to realize the importance of training the body physically in order to produce peak performances. Hence, every coach should consider performance enhancement to be the number one priority when developing a strength and conditioning program. However, without adequate nutrition, training results may be suboptimal due to a lack of recovery and reduced ability to perform due to depleted energy. Therefore, nutrition is the foundation of performance enhancement. Without optimal nutrition, athletes cannot compete to their full potential.
Over the last few decades the nutritional requirements of athletes have been researched extensively. Sports nutrition has come a long way from the “take a salt tablet” days. We now understand the importance of specific nutrients and when and how they need to be ingested, as well as how much should be consumed. A good place to start is the standard food guide pyramid (43). While the pyramid as we know it has been modified over the last decade, the principles of a well-balanced diet remain the same. For an athlete, these principles still apply; however, they need to be modified based on the sport and type of athlete and the intensity of his training.
Water is also a key nutritional component for athletes. It is recommended that six to eight ounces of water be consumed every five to 15 minutes during exercise. Athletes should not rely on thirst as an indicator of when to drink water (21), and coaches should not restrict water as punishment, as this could lead to a reduction in performance and possible serious health consequences. In an effort to stay hydrated athletes can weigh themselves before and after physical activity. Based on every pound lost, the athlete should consume three cups of water (21). Additionally, coaches need to be aware of environmental conditions that can increase the rate of dehydration, such as hot and humid environments, and schedule water breaks at specific times during practice.
Key nutrients that need to be increased for all athletes include carbohydrates (e.g., bread, oats, and grains) and proteins (e.g., meat, nuts, and dairy). Intense exercise significantly depletes the body of stored carbohydrates and causes significant muscle damage. Coaches need to ensure athletes consume extra carbohydrates and protein after completing intense physical activity. Extra carbohydrates replace the lost carbohydrates stored in the body and drive cellular activity for repair. Protein helps muscles repair and grow. Increasing protein intake to between 1.4 and 2.0 g/kg of body weight per day is suggested for both endurance and strength athletes, while carbohydrates should be increased to as much as eight to 10 g/kg of body weight per day (10,20,21). Often, an athlete’s diet consists of 55-65% carbohydrates, 10 to 15 % protein, and 25-35% fat (21). These percentages are often modified based on the sport and body type of the athlete. Using grams per kilogram of body weight to develop a nutritional plan for an athlete is ideal. Athletes need to eat well-balanced meals and to supplement with additional proteins (i.e., powders/drinks) and carbohydrates (i.e., sugary drink such as Gatorade/Powerade) only when they are not reaching the minimum requirements in their regular diet. Supplementing with vitamins and minerals may be needed for some athletes with specific nutritional needs, such as vegans. Nutrient timing also plays an important role during training and should be practiced by coaches wishing to optimize training results and promote recovery (20). Specifically, carbohydrates and protein need to be consumed immediately after exercise (20). A nutrient timing review with suggestions for different types of athletes is available for free at http://www.jissn.com/content/5/1/17 (20).
Performance enhancing supplements also need to be considered when discussing the nutritional needs of athletes. Three ergogenic aids that are recommended for athletes include caffeine, creatine, and beta-alanine (6,18,40). These supplements work through specific physiological mechanisms that can improve performance. However, coaches need to be educated about these products before making recommendations to athletes. Several articles have been published indicating proper dosage and the specific benefits for each substance and can be accessed for free on the Internet (6,18,40).
Understanding nutrition is a start towards reaching optimal performance. Multiple factors can influence overall performance; however, starting with the basics, such as nutrition, can lead to greater improvements in performance regardless of the training program. Utilizing an ideal training program while implementing a proper nutritional program will enable athletes to realize optimal enhancements in performance.
When completing a strength and conditioning program, a coach may instruct an athlete to complete “another repetition.” Coaches have a responsibility to prepare their athletes physically and mentally for athletic competition. Thus, many athletes develop a desire to produce successful performance and gain mastery of any task completed. For example, an athlete may not only want to win the contest but may also aspire to perform sport skills exceptionally well in order to produce peak performance. Without question, coaches have an opportunity to assist athletes with performance enhancement.
Locke and Latham (24) explained that an individual’s level of success in athletic competition is primarily dependent upon skill and motivation. Therefore, a primary responsibility of coaches is to motivate their athletes to perform at optimal levels. Sage (38) indicated motivation is the direction and intensity of an individual’s effort.
Some coaches use motivational techniques when establishing their athletes’ training regimens. One technique, which has been used to promote commitment, perseverance, dedication, and effort to create an individual’s long-term self-motivation is goal setting (39). An objective goal refers to “attaining a specific standard of proficiency on a task, usually within a specified time” (29, p. 145); while a subjective goal (e.g., I want to enjoy playing in the game) can be vague and difficult for coaches and athletes to measure.
As Locke and Latham (26) stated, practitioners and researchers have examined empirical research concerning goal setting for almost four decades. During this time, Locke and Latham (25,26) developed a goal setting theory that is well established on the review of approximately 400 laboratory and field research investigations. Even though a majority of these investigations occurred in industrial/organizational psychology, “goal setting can be used effectively on any domain in which an individual or group has some control over the outcomes” (27, p. 267). Goal setting investigations examining Locke and Latham’s theory have occurred in sports settings (see 8,9 for reviews of these investigations). Results indicate assigned specific, difficult goals (i.e., hard goals) lead to a higher level of performance in comparison to easy and vague goals (i.e., “do your best”). Interestingly, a positive, linear relation between goal difficulty and performance is evident when an individual is committed to the goal, has developed the ability (i.e., talent) to attain the goal, and no conflicting goals are present (27).
As a positive athlete-coach relationship develops, many athletes begin considering their coaches to be role models. Hence, coaches should communicate with their athletes in order to assist them with the development of personal goals. An athlete’s personal goals can lead to skill development and ultimately peak performance. In a professional manner, a coach may provide an athlete with constructive feedback concerning skill development, safety, nutrition, or injury prevention. Thus, an athlete can use this communication to establish a personal SMART goal which is specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time-bound; such as, reducing one’s running time to complete a 5K race by 15 seconds within the next 12 months. The formation of SMART goals can provide an athlete with the motivation and commitment to yield athletic success.
Coaches need to be aware athletes should develop a series of short-term goals which allow measurable progress toward achieving a long-term goal. Using the previous SMART goal (i.e., reducing one’s running time to complete a 5K race by 15 seconds within the next 12 months) as a “long-term” goal, a coach can communicate with an athlete to create short-term goals. For example, one may create a goal to reduce running time to complete a 5K race by 5 seconds within the next 4 months. After four months, a coach can assist the athlete with evaluating athletic performance and determine if the short-term goal was accomplished. If the goal is accomplished, establish another short-term SMART goal. If the goal is not achieved, reevaluate the athlete’s performance and assist with developing another short-term SMART goal. Make certain the athlete possesses the skill and motivation to successfully pursue the established long-term SMART goal.
Coaches should also realize group goal setting may be an effective strategy for enhancing group performance in sport and physical activity (19,7). For example, members of a team may establish a goal to score at least 50 points per game for the next four weeks. As goal setting research continues, Locke and Latham’s goal setting theory can provide coaches with additional knowledge concerning individual and group performance enhancement (27,28).
As described in previous sections, coaching education includes knowledge from several disciplines. The nature of a coach’s job is affected by the athlete’s stage of development. This will determine what kind of knowledge the coach needs and how it will be applied. The final piece of the coaching puzzle centers on how to make the coaching process athlete centered. No matter what the specific training discipline, a coach needs to understand the stages of athletic development in addition to knowledge of how individuals grow and mature.
Athletes progress through several training stages as they get older and become more accomplished in their sport. For the most part training stages are age related (3,5). Each stage’s curriculum should help athletes transition to the next stage by providing what they will need at their present training stage as well as preparing them for the proceeding one.
Training stages also take advantage of periods of accelerated adaptation for various training components. For example, significant increases in aerobic capacity occur after the onset of peak height velocity so aerobic training should take priority during this period which generally lasts for 12 to 18 months (3). The accelerated period for learning skills occurs from about 8 to 11 years of age for girls and 9 to 12 years of age for boys, so during this period it makes sense to focus on skill development (3). Speed has two periods of accelerated adaptation, one as a result of changes in the central nervous system (6 to 9 years of age), and the other resulting from changes due to training stimuli (11 to 13 years of age for girls and 13 to 16 years of age for boys) (3). By periodizing on a career scale, coaches can take advantage of these various periods and be assured that athletes are being provided with training appropriate with developmental goals.
Most countries use an athlete development system that focuses on performance outcomes. This involves getting as many young athletes as possible into training programs and then focusing on the elite performers. The problem with this method is that sport governing bodies rely on early maturing youngsters—those who are simply bigger and stronger than their peers and who, almost inevitably, perform better in sport. However, only an estimated 25% of youngsters identified as ‘elite athletes’ at an early age were identified the same way at a later date; indicating late maturers can also become ‘elite athletes’ if given enough time to develop (22).
The outcome model tends to quickly discard those who do not measure up, and while this may not be by design it happens often enough to be considered a characteristic of the model itself. In the outcome model young athletes are treated as small adults, following the same training and competition patterns as older athletes. Late maturers are discouraged from continued sport participation since the outcome model rewards early maturers with more coach contact, encouragement, and social recognition due to their early ability (i.e., athletic-talent).
A better model might focus on the process of developing an athlete. This model is more inclusive because the path from instruction, to training, and finally, to competition is paved with intentionally stage-appropriate activities and training. Early maturing or physically precocious youngsters do not affect this model. In a process model, stages of physical and athletic development are paired so that athletes are receiving the instruction and training they need at times when it is most beneficial. By deliberately focusing on process rather than outcome providers of youth sport will be able to keep youngsters involved in programs for longer periods. Over the long term this will help athletes develop an appreciation for physical activity and sport. It will also help sport governing bodies reduce the early vs. late maturer problem.
By making a conscious effort to keep all athletes involved through stage-appropriate modifications in training and competition, sport governing bodies will provide a better sport experience for everyone and increase the likelihood of developing elite athletes from those who might otherwise have dropped out from participating in sport. Not only will this enlarge the pool of talent available to national sport governing bodies but it will also increase the likelihood that athletes will continue to be physically active throughout life. Specifically, as youths progress into adulthood, these individuals will have the competence to use skills and knowledge they acquired in organized sports to remain healthy and physically fit.
The terms “burnout” and “dropout” are frequently used as if they mean the same thing. However, burnout refers to the long-term effects of overtraining or inappropriate training based on the age of the athlete. Symptoms of burnout are frequent or chronic injury, lack of progress in training and competition, and general dissatisfaction with the sport (1); the key component is long-term involvement in training programs. Dropout refers to the phenomena of athletes simply quitting their sport participation prematurely. Coaches should realize dropout is more detrimental to the athlete and the sport governing body. Following accepted athlete development guidelines and constructing career periodization plans which adhere to these guidelines, coaches can reduce both dropout and burnout.
In 2008 over 44 million youth participated in youth sport activities throughout the United States (34). Although this is an increase of over 6 million participants since the National Council of Youth Sports report in 2000 it is estimated that 35% of youth involved in such athletic programs drop out each year (37). Since millions of young athletes participate in adult organized and supervised activities coaches must gain a solid understanding of performance enhancement and proper coaching methods. By providing a better sport experience for all participants more children will have the skills and knowledge needed to participate in life-long activity. Maintaining a physically-active lifestyle may help alleviate present-day mental and physical health issues associated with youth obesity.
Ultimately, coaches should be passionate about teaching sport skills to their athletes. Coaches must be life-long learners of sport in order to properly train their athletes for peak performance. As the profession of sport coaching has evolved and sport has become a multi-billion dollar industry, many coaches have discovered sport incorporates both physical and mental training. Therefore, in today’s sports world, several disciplines have been integrated into the science and art of training athletes.
Based on the guidance and leadership of Dr. Thomas P. Rosandich, the United States Sports Academy has created the American Coaching Patterns; a six-course program, embracing six basic fundamentals of training: stamina, strength, flexibility, agility, speed, and skill. This article presented information which coaches should utilize when training their athletes. These six courses, which comprise the American Coaching Patterns, emphasize sports administration, coaching methods, sports medicine, strength and conditioning, sports psychology, and athlete development. Training athletes to become “champions” in sport, and more importantly life, can provide many individuals with opportunities to produce peak performance.
Baker, J., Cobley, S., & Fraser-Thomas, J. (2009). What do we really know about early sport specialization? Not much! High Ability Studies, 20(1), 77-89.
Balint, G., & Balint, N. T. (2010). Study regarding the verbal and nonverbal communication during the training of the Romanian national ski jumping team. Science, Movement and Health, 2, 415-418.
Balyi, I., & Williams, C. (2009). Coaching the young developing performer. Leeds, England: Sport Coach UK.
Becker, A. J. (2009). It’s not what they do, it’s how they do it: Athlete experiences of great coaching. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 4(1), 103.
Bompa, T. (1999). Periodization (4th ed.). Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.
Buford, T. W., Kreider, R. B., Stout, J. R., Greenwood, M., Campbell, B., Spano, M., et al. (2007). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4, 6. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-4-6
Burke, S. M., Shapcott, K. M., Carron, A. V., Bradshaw, M. H., & Estabrooks, P. A. (2010). Group goal setting and group performance in a physical activity context. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 8, 245-261.
Burton, D., Naylor, S., & Holliday, B. (2002). Goal setting in sport. In R. N. Singer, H. A. Hausenblaus, & C. M. Janelle (Eds.). Handbook of sport psychology (2nd ed., pp. 497-528). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Burton, D., & Weiss, C. (2008). The fundamental goal concept: The path to process and performance success. In T. Horn (Ed.). Advances in sport psychology (3rd ed., pp. 339-375). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Campbell, B., Kreider, R. B., Ziegenfuss, T., La Bounty, P., Roberts, M., Burke, D., et al. (2007). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: protein and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4, 8. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-4-8
Case, R., & Branch, J. D. (2003). A study to examine the job competencies of sport facility managers. International Sports Journal, 7(2), 25-38.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). Sports-related injuries among high school athletes: United States, 2005-06 school year. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 55(38), 1037-1040.
Clover, J. (2007). Sports Medicine Essentials: Core concepts in athletic training & fitness instruction (2nd ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.
Dieffenbach, K., Gould, D., & Moffett, A. (1999). The coach’s role in developing champions. Olympic Coach, 12(2), 2-4.
DiFiori, J. P. (2002). Overuse injuries in youth athletes: An Overview. Athletic Therapy Today, 7(6), 25-29.
Dougherty, N. J., & Bonanno, D. (1985). Management principles in sport and leisure services. Minneapolis, MN: Burgess Publishing.
Fuller, C., & Drawer, S. (2004). The application of risk management in sport. Sports Medicine, 34(6), 349-356.
Goldstein, E. R., Ziegenfuss, T., Kalman, D., Kreider, R., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., et al. (2010). International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7(1), 5. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-7-5
Johnson, S. R., Ostrow, A. C., Perna, F. M., & Etzel, E. F. (1997). The effects of group versus individual goal setting on bowling performance. The Sport Psychologist, 11, 190-200.
Kerksick, C., Harvey, T., Stout, J., Campbell, B., Wilborn, C., Kreider, R., et al. (2008). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: nutrient timing. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5, 17. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-5-17
Kreider, R. B., Wilborn, C. D., Taylor, L., Campbell, B., Almada, A. L., Collins, R., et al. (2010). ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 7, 7. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-7-7
Lawrence, M. (1999). Sport science summit report. Colorado Springs, Colorado: USA Swimming.
Leonard, R. L. (2008). The administrative side of coaching: Applying business concepts to athletic program administration and coaching (2nd ed.). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1985). The application of goal setting to sports. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7, 2005-222.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705-717.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 265-268.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2009). Has goal setting gone wild, or have its attackers abandoned good scholarship?, Academy of Management Perspectives, 23, 17-22.
Locke, E. A., Shaw, K. N., Saari, L. M., & Latham, G. P. (1981). Goal setting and task performance: 1969-1980. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 125-152.
Mahoe, S. (2007). Five ways to improve communication with your players. Coach & Athletic Director, 76(7), 44.
Mensch, J. Crews, C., & Mitchell, M. (2005). Competing perspectives during organizational socialization on the role of certified athletic trainers in high school settings. Journal of Athletic Training, 40(4), 333-340.
Miller, M.G., & Berry, D. C. (2011). Emergency Response Management for Athletic Trainers. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Mueller, F. O. (2010). National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research Report. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC.
National Council of Youth Sports. (2008). Report on trends and participation in organized youth sports. Retrieved December 8, 2010, from http://www.ncys.org/publications/2008-sports-participation-study.php
National Federation of State High School Associations. 2009-10 High school athletics participation survey. Retrieved November 28, 2010, http://www.nfhs.org/content.aspx?id=3282&linkidentifier=id&itemid=3282
Podlog, L. P., & Eklund, R. C. (2006). A longitudinal investigation of competitive athletes’ return to sport following serious injury. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 18, 44-68.
Ryska, T., Hohensee, D., Cooley, D., & Jones, C. (2002). Participation motives in predicting sport dropout among Australian youth gymnasts. North American Journal of Psychology, 4(2), 199-210.
Sage, G. (1977). Introduction to motor behavior: A neurophysiological approach (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Silva III, J. M., & Weinberg, R. S. (1984). Psychological foundations of sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Smith, A. E., Walter, A. A., Graef, J. L., Kendall, K. L., Moon, J. R., Lockwood, C. M., et al. (2009). Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 6, 5. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-6-5
Sullivan, P. A. (1993). Communication skills training for interactive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 7, 79-91.
Torre, J. (1999). Joe Torre’s ground rules for winners: 12 keys to managing team players, tough bosses, setbacks, and success. New York, NY: Hyperion.
U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2010). MyPyramid.gov. Washington, DC: Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Retrieved December 3, 2010 from http://www.mypyramid.gov
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2004). Bone Health and Osteoporosis: a Report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General. Retrieved November 30, 2010 from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/bonehealth
Scott R. Johnson, Ed.D., M.B.A.
United States Sports Academy
One Academy Drive
Daphne, AL 36526
(251) 626-3303 ext. 7138
Scott Johnson is the Chair of Sports Coaching at the United States Sports Academy. All contributing authors are residential faculty members at the United States Sports Academy.