Leadership: Athletes and Coaches in Sport

Authors: Dr. Sharon P. Misasi*, Dr. Gary Morin and Lauren Kwasnowski

Dr. Sharon P. Misasi is a Professor of Exercise Science at Southern Connecticut State University. Dr. Gary Morin is a Professor of Exercise Science, Assistant Athletic Trainer and Program Director of the Athletic Training Education Program. Lauren Kwasnowski is a Research assistant for this study, undergraduate student in the Allied Health Program at the University of Connecticut and a member/captain of the UCONN Division I Lacrosse team.

*Corresponding Author:
Sharon P. Misasi PhD, AT.
Southern Connecticut State University
501 Crescent Street
PE 002B
New Haven CT 06515
misasis1@southernct.edu

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the interpersonal aspects and perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship as it pertains to collegiate athletes at Division I and II universities and athletes and coaches of different genders. Electronic surveys were emailed to 50 NCAA Division I and 50 Division II head coaches in the Northeast. Coaches were requested to respond to the survey and email the athlete survey to their respective athletes. These surveys were completed by both coaches and athletes: Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q), Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS). The final instrument, Coaching Behavior Scale for Sports (CBS-S), was completed by only the athletes. There were no significant differences found with the CART-Q. The LSS illustrated several areas of significances in the categories of Training, Democratic Behavior, Autocratic Behavior and Social Support. Although there was no significance found in Positive Feedback there was an interesting finding in that female coaches felt they were less likely to provide positive feedback than their male counterparts. The CBS-S has subscales which include: physical training and planning, technical skills, mental preparation, competition strategies, personal rapport and negative personal rapport. Statistical significance was found in the following subscales: competition strategies, personal rapport and negative personal rapport. The coach is a meaningful person in the lives of athletes and the role they play is vital in the athlete’s sport experience. Our results indicate that the level of competitive division appears to play a role in how athletes perceive their coaches and how coaches perceive themselves. In addition, gender differences among coaches’ affect responses of the athletes and the coaches. Leadership is not a simple process. There is no one way to lead and what works for one may not work for all. Therefore, the best one can do is get to know their athletes and work hard to understand their goals, motivations and needs.

KEYWORDS: Coaching, Effective Leadership, Successful Leadership

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On Ditching the Watch while Training: Re-examining the Pace-based Approach to Training Long-distance Runners

Authors: Patrick M Whitehead*

Patrick Whitehead is an assistant professor of psychology at Darton State College in Albany, Georgia. He has published widely in fields of psychology, philosophy, and biology. In his free time he is a recreational long-distance runner and coach.

*Corresponding Author:
Patrick M Whitehead, PhD
Division of Social Sciences
Darton State College
2400 Gillionville
Albany, GA, 31707
Patrick.whitehead@darton.edu
229-317-6809

ABSTRACT
This paper presents two arguments against the pace-based approach to running, defined as the reduction of training intensity to measures of distance/time (that is, pace). The experimental data of Daniels (5) is presented as an example of this. It is argued that the pace-based approach ignores many variables that are important in understanding the physiology and psychology of training long distance runners. The first argument examines the assumption that pace may be used as a general approximation of intensity. This ignores the role of confounding environmental factors like altitude, temperature, and wind. The second argument examines the assumption that any measure of intensity is as good as or better than another. Heart rate, blood-lactate levels, and volume of oxygen consumption are physiological markers that provide useful information for understanding levels of intensity, but their relationship is not certain.

KEYWORDS: Long-distance running, training, running by feel, Ratings of Perceived Exertion

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Great British Athletes’ Perceptions of Competing at the London 2012 Olympic Games

Author: Rachel Kent*

*Corresponding Author Address:
Rachel kent
E-mail: coach_kent@hotmail.com

Abstract
To review Great British (GB) athletes’ perceptions of home court advantage and competing ahead of the 2012 London Olympic Games a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted. The seven topics discussed in the interview were based on previous research. Five female GB Olympic sprinters were interviewed at their training facility in West London as they trained for the 2012 Olympic Games. Athlete responses were coded into categories then analysed using phenomenological analysis.

Athletes had a range of reasons why they believed they had a ‘home advantage.’ All athletes agreed that media representation could be good if media was positive but was bad when the media coverage was negative. Athletes reported a range of expectations some expressing high expectations and associated higher levels of performance anxiety. Athletes reporting lower levels of expectations had lower levels of performance anxiety. Athletes reported different sources of expectations and the significance of the source to them and their anxiety. The implications of the research findings suggest recommendations for media and sponsors, coaches, family, and friends to help provide the athletes with the optimum levels of unconditional support to aid in performance and prevent pressure, stress and pre-competitive anxiety.

KEYWORDS: Olympic Games, Olympics, Home Court Advantage, Expectancy Theory, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Media bias, Athletes, Phenomenological Analysis

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The Effect of Momentum on the NBA Point Spread Market

Authors: Thomas T. Byrnes (1) and Joseph Anthony Farinella, Ph.D.*(2)

(1) Thomas Byrnes is a graduate from the Honors College at the University of North Carolina Wilmington. Mr. Byrnes is currently working as a financial advisor. 

(2) Joseph Farinella is an Associate Professor of Finance at the University of North Carolina Wilmington. Dr. Farinella is also a Chartered Financial Analyst and consultant.

*Corresponding Author:
Joseph Anthony Farinella, Ph.D.
University of North Carolina Wilmington
Department of Economics and Finance
601 South College Road
Wilmington, NC 28409
farinellaj@uncw.edu

ABSTRACT
The notion of “momentum” and its effect on the outcome of sports games has been a point of contention for decades. This paper tests if a simple betting strategy based on momentum can be used to generate a consistent profit. The momentum strategy is applied to the National Basketball Association; we examine 30 teams spanning the 2001-2013 seasons. The results show that the momentum strategy generates a significant profit over this period. The momentum strategy is often referred to as the hot hand strategy. The strategy requires betting on teams to win that are already on a hot streak of at least four games, while betting on teams to lose that are already on a cold streak of at least four games. The results show that the momentum betting strategy yields an average overall winning percentage of 56.5%, which is significantly above the 52.4% required to break-even.

KEYWORDS: Sports wagering, Market efficiency, Momentum
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Player and parent concussion knowledge and awareness in youth Australian Rules Football

Authors: Mark Hecimovich*(1), PhD, ATR; Doug King, PhD(2); Ida Marais, PhD (3)

(1) Division of Athletic Training, University of Northern Iowa, 003C Human Performance Center, Cedar Falls, Iowa, United States of America, mark.hecimovich@uni.edu

(2) Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ) at AUT Millennium, Faculty of Health and Environmental Science, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand, doug.king@clear.net.nz

(3) University of Western Australia, Graduate School of Education, M428, 35 Stirling Highway, Mount Crawley, Western Australia, ida.marais@uwa.edu.au

*Corresponding Author:
Mark Hecimovich, PhD, ATC
Division of Athletic Training, University of Northern Iowa, 003C Human Performance Center, Cedar Falls, Iowa, United States of America
mark.hecimovich@uni.edu
Phone: 1.319.273.6477

Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure concussion knowledge and awareness of youth Australian Rules Football players and parents. Secondary aims were examining if player’s maturity in age, history of concussion and years played and parents who have undergone first aid and concussion training would increase knowledge.
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