The impact of relative age on sampling and performance in Swedish age-group swimming system

Authors: Torsten Buhre and Oscar Tschernij

Corresponding Author:
Torsten Buhre, PhD
Department of Sport Sciences
Malmö University
20506 Malmö
Sweden
+46-40-665845
torsten.buhre@mah.se

Torsten Buhre is the senior physiologist at the Department of Sport Sciences at Malmö University

The impact of relative age on sampling and performance in Swedish age-group swimming system

ABSTRACT
The phenomena of relative age effect (RAE) has been investigated thoroughly in the sport and school settings. However, different measures and research designs have been applied in the various settings. At the same time different constructs, such as sampling, participation, and performance have been investigated in separate studies. Most interpretations have been done in a de-contextualized manner. That is, results have not been interpreted based on the functioning of the age-grouping system over time, but rather on a general level of grouping individuals based on chronological age. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of RAE in sampling, competitive participation, and selection for national competition in the Swedish age-group swimming system based on a thorough understanding of the specific impacts of age and gender of this system over time.

Results show that there is inconclusive evidence suggesting that RAE occurs due to the age-grouping system in Swedish swimming. The system does not create a bias based on either relative age difference or gender. Based on this study and future suggestions the continued research on RAE should be expanded to include longitudinal studies following specific age by gender groups over time. In addition, measures of performance and criteria of selection should be investigated in order to draw conclusions if systematic discrimination is embedded within a specific country and sport age-grouping system in favor of athletes that could be attributed to a relative age.
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2018-10-22T15:24:56+00:00September 30th, 2018|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on The impact of relative age on sampling and performance in Swedish age-group swimming system

Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors in Sport: The Roles of Personality Traits and Moral Identity

Authors: Mevlüt YILDIZ (1), Ender ŞENEL (1), İbrahim YILDIRAN (2)
(1) Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.
(3) Gazi University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Turkey.

Corresponding Author:
Ender SENEL
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences
Kotekli/Mugla, 48000
endersenel@gmail.com
00902522111951

(1) Dr. Ender SENEL is a research assistant in Physical Education and Sport Teacher Education Department at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University, studying teaching and learning approaches in physical education and sport.

Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors in Sport: The Roles of Personality Traits and Moral Identity

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to examine the roles of personality traits and moral identity in displaying prosocial and antisocial behaviors by athletes actively participating in contact team and individual sports. In this study, two different models were hypothesized. In the first model, it was proposed that the positive effect of extraversion on prosocial and antisocial behaviors enhance with the moderator role of internalization of moral identity; in the second model, it was proposed that the adverse effect of psychoticism on prosocial and antisocial behaviors decrease with the mediator role of internalization of moral identity. There were 296 athletes recruited from various branches. Data were collected by using Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors in Sport Scale, developed by Kavussanu and Broadley (29), adapted to Turkish by Sezen-Balçıkanlı (45), Moral Identity Scale, developed by Aquino and Reed (3), adapted Turkish by Yılmaz and Yılmaz (57), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, developed by Francis et al. (19), adapted to Turkish by Karancı, Dirik and Yorulmaz (26). Models were analyzed in Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) program by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Internalization of moral identity was correlated with prosocial teammate positively, antisocial teammate, and opponent negatively. A positive correlation was found between extraversion and prosocial teammate and opponent, a negative correlation was found between extraversion and antisocial teammate. It can also be stated that extravert athletes exhibit more prosocial behaviors, however with the role of internalization of moral identity, the positive effect of extraversion on prosocial behaviors increases, the adverse effect of it on antisocial behaviors decreases. It is possible to conclude that extravert athletes will display more prosocial and less antisocial behaviors with the acquisition of internalization of moral identity. The support that athletes are taught to adopt internalization can lead to enhance prosocial behaviors and decrease antisocial behaviors.
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2018-07-31T14:48:48+00:00August 21st, 2018|Commentary, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors in Sport: The Roles of Personality Traits and Moral Identity

Coaching Golf – How skilled are we in ‘skill’?

Authors: Dr. David Grecic and Mr. Brendan Ryan, MS / MA

Corresponding Author:
Brendan Ryan
1304 Denman Ct
Wesley Chapel, FL
brendan@bmrgolfmanagement.com
407-233-6946

David Grecic is a princial lecture and head of sport at the University of Central Lancashire. David joined the School of Sport, Tourism and the Outdoors in August 2008 having previously worked in a variety of sport and education settings for 15 years. He is an active coach in a variety of sports including rugby union, swimming and golf. It is here that his specialist interest lies and that drives his academic research.

Brendan Ryan is a former college coach who know works closely developing junior golfers in their pursuit of college. He is also a well-established academic, with a pair of master’s degrees and the author of several books, published papers and popular articles.

Coaching Golf – How skilled are we in ‘skill’?

Abstract
There is much debate on how best to develop skilled performers in sport and which practices are most effective in achieving this aim. This paper’s interest is in the coaching of high-level golfers and how coaches utilise their knowledge base to select the methods they employ to develop skilled performance. With such a varied and sometimes dichotomous range of theories, concepts, ideas and practices, the coaching industry needs support to navigate through this vast field of work. Here, the major theories of skill learning and development are presented and explored in relation to the game of golf. Due to the importance of skill acquisition, retention and transfer decisions, coaching action needs to be carefully grounded in the environment and context in which it occurs. To support this, two models are presented for consideration that can guide coaches’ skill acquisition reflections and future skill development decisions. Golf specific examples are provided to bring these models to life but the utility of both frameworks has value to sports coaching in its many varied contexts. (176 words)
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2018-07-12T16:49:58+00:00August 14th, 2018|Sports Coaching, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Coaching Golf – How skilled are we in ‘skill’?

Relationship Between Physical Training, Ratings of Perceived Exertion, and Mental Toughness in Female NCAA Division I Volleyball Players

Authors: Mathieu Castello, Jacob P Reed, Robin Lund, Mick Mack
Kinesiology, Allied Health, and Human Services
University of Northern Iowa
Cedar Falls, IA 50614

Corresponding Author:
Jacob Reed
University of Northern Iowa
203 Wellness and Recreation Center
Cedar Falls, IA 50614
Phone: 319-273-2071
Email: jacob.reed@uni.edu

Relationship Between Physical Training, Ratings of Perceived Exertion, and Mental Toughness in Female NCAA Division I Volleyball Players


ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participating in a conditioning program, ratings of perceived exertion, heart rate (HR), and mental toughness. Thirteen Division I Volleyball players were recruited while 10 participated in an 8-week off-season conditioning program aimed at improving physical fitness. Before and after the training period, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory (MeBTough) were completed. While performing the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, heart rate was collected. During the 8-week program, session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) was obtained following each training session. Significant improvement in physiological capacity was observed following the 8-week training protocol; pre (844m ± 196.37) to post (980m ± 200.67), t(9) = -5.50, p = 0.00. Mental toughness scores (as assessed by the MeBTough) did not change significantly during that same time period; pre (145.2 ± 12.3) to post (144 ± 16.72), p > 0.05. Additionally, no significant correlation between the capacity to perform on the physical test, the mental toughness score, sRPE, or maximum HR was found.

Based on these observations, coaches should be cautious in their judgement of an athlete’s mental toughness based on fitness, sRPE, and HR. Finally, it appears that an 8-week conditioning program was not enough to elicit any changes in mental toughness. Mental toughness is a complex phenomenon. As such, coaches should be cautious when assessing an athlete’s mental toughness based solely on the results of a physical test or values provided from the session RPE. Furthermore, the researchers observation that mental toughness did not change over an 8-week training protocol demonstrates that hard physical training does not necessarily improve mental toughness. This result is not definitive but does warrant further investigation.
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2018-06-29T10:34:30+00:00August 9th, 2018|Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Relationship Between Physical Training, Ratings of Perceived Exertion, and Mental Toughness in Female NCAA Division I Volleyball Players

Experiencing a Super Bowl: The Motivations of Student Volunteers at a Mega-Event

Authors: Alan Ledford, Ed.D., Angela Mitchell, Ph.D., Travis Scheadler

Corresponding Authors:
Alan Ledford, Ed.D.
alan_ledford@wilmington.edu
(937) 481-2253
1870 Quaker Way
Pyle Box 1246
Wilmington, OH 45177
Wilmington College

Angela Mitchell, Ph.D.
angela_mitchell@wilmington.edu
(937) 481-2211
1870 Quaker Way
Bailey Hall 201
Wilmington, OH 45177
Wilmington College

Travis Scheadler
tscheadler@wilmington.edu
(937) 751-5799
6811 Oakland Rd
Loveland, OH 45140
Wilmington College

Experiencing a Super Bowl: The Motivations of Student Volunteers at a Mega-Event

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to explore the motivations of sport management students during an experiential excursion to Super Bowl LI. The study pulls from prior questionnaires on volunteer motivations. A quantitative approach was employed using a 47-item questionnaire completed by students who volunteered at the National Football League Experience and at Super Bowl LI. The findings revealed that students were motivated by professional development, altruistic motivations, and lastly by the general experience of the Super Bowl. Moreover, these results suggest that class rank, or more specifically student maturity, impacts the underlying motivations for volunteering at a mega-event such as the Super Bowl.
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2018-06-29T09:47:49+00:00July 31st, 2018|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Experiencing a Super Bowl: The Motivations of Student Volunteers at a Mega-Event