Mindfulness Meditation Intervention with Male Collegiate Soccer Players: Effect on Stress and Various Aspects of Life

Authors: Zeljka Vidic, Mark St. Martin, Richard Oxhandler

Corresponding Author:
Zeljka Vidic, Ph.D.
1903 West Michigan Avenue
Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5426

Zeljka Vidic is an Assistant Professor/Program Coordinator for the M.A. Coaching Sport Performance and the Undergraduate Coaching Minor at Western Michigan University

Mindfulness Meditation Intervention with Male Collegiate Soccer Players: Effect on Stress and Various Aspects of Life

Collegiate athletes face a unique set of challenges in an environment that demands their best in the athletic, academic, and personal arenas of their lives. In recent years, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has increased its attention towards the enhancement of collegiate athletes’ overall mental health with the goal of helping athletes cope more effectively on- and off-the court. One technique that has gained attention in the sport setting due to its all-around beneficial effects on health and well-being and athletic performance is the practice of mindfulness. This mixed-method study investigated the effects of a 6-session mindfulness meditation intervention on a United States NCAA Division III men’s soccer team’s (n=18; ages 18-22) stress levels and various aspects of their lives. Qualitative results revealed that athletes had overall positive perceptions of the mindfulness meditation intervention across various aspects of their lives in the form of: enhanced focus, increased calmness, improved awareness, and being more present-oriented. Quantitative results demonstrated overall decreases in stress over the course of intervention, however these findings did not reach statistical significance. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation training has the potential to be an effective approach to assisting athletes derive positive benefits on- and off-the court.
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Proposing and Testing Models for Assessing Student Engagement, Self-Regulation and Psychological Need Satisfaction in Ethiopian Sports Academy Setting

Authors: Tefera Tadesse, Aemero Asmamaw, Sirak H/Mariam, Diane Mack

Corresponding Author:
Tefera Tadesse
POBOX: 5110
Jimma, Ethiopia
teferatadsse@gmail.com or tefera.tadesse@ju.edu.et

Dr. Tefera Tadesse, PhD, is Associate Professor of Curriculum and Instruction in the Department of Teacher Education and Curriculum Studies, Jimma University.
Dr. Aemero Asmamaw, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Education Psychology and works in the College of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Gondar. asmamawam@gmail.com
Dr. Sirak H/Mariam, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Sports Science in the Sport Science Academy, Kotebe Metropolitan University, Ethiopia. sirakha@yahoo.com
Prof. Diane Mack, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University. dmack@brocku.ca

Proposing and Testing Models for Assessing Student Engagement, Self-Regulation and Psychological Need Satisfaction in Ethiopian Sports Academy Setting

This study was conducted to investigate the score validity and reliability of three constructs assessing student engagement, self-regulation, and psychological need satisfaction of students in two Ethiopian sports academies. A multi-method validation approach was used comprising first of expert judgment and pilot testing. The tenability of the conceptual model was examined on student athletes (N = 257) using structural equation modeling. The main finding illustrated empirical support for the three-factor engagement model, four-factor self-regulation model, and three-factor psychological need satisfaction model. Implications of the study are also discussed.
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Concussion: Video Education Program for High School Football Players

Authors: Gillian Hotz, Ph.D.; Raymond Crittenden, M.S.; Bryan Pomares, M.H.S.; Jonathan Siegel, B.S.; Kester Nedd, D.O.;

Corresponding Author:
Gillian Hotz, Ph.D.
1095 NW 14th Ter
Miami, FL 33136

Gillian A. Hotz, PhD is a research professor at the University Of Miami Miller School Of Medicine and a nationally recognized behavioral neuroscientist and expert in pediatric and adult neurotrauma, concussion management, and neurorehabilitation. Dr. Hotz is the director of the KiDZ Neuroscience Center, WalkSafe and BikeSafe programs, and has been co-director of the Miller School of Medicine’s Concussion Program since 1995. She continues to assess and treat many athletes from Miami-Dade County public and private high schools, University of Miami, and from other colleges and the community.

Concussion: Video Education Program for High School Football Players

The aim of this study was to use technology to improve participant’s knowledge about concussions. The study also collected attitude and behavior data regarding concussions.

During the 2015-2016 football season, three high school football teams were presented with a comprehensive concussion education video. A student iClicker response system were used to answer concussion-related questions during pre-, post-, and 3-month post-testing periods. In addition, a set of attitude and behavioral questions at the 3-month post-testing period were added. Athletes who participated in all testing periods were included in the analysis.

A total of 152 high school football players were educated about concussions. Overall, mean test scores showed a significant difference in gained knowledge across the three testing periods (p<0.002). Athletes reported that receiving education about concussions promoted safer play; however, most athletes reported a willingness to continue playing despite having symptoms of an injury.

The use of a concussion education video and iClicker response system were beneficial for improving concussion knowledge. However, it had minimal effects on symptom-reporting behavior for high school football players in Miami-Dade County. Further research is needed to evaluate the impact of concussion education programs and the best methods of dissemination. Future studies should evaluate the team culture and prevailing attitudes on reporting symptoms.
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Athletic trainers in employment leadership positions at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institutions

Authors: Dr. Lindsey H. Schroeder

Corresponding Author:
Lindsey H. Schroeder Ed.D., LAT, ATC, CES
601 S. College Rd.
Wilmington NC, 28403-5956

Dr. Schroeder is an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina Wilmington in the Athletic Training Program. She is a licensed and certified athletic trainer and is also an alumnus of the United States Sports Academy.

Athletic trainers in employment leadership positions at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institutions

The purpose of this exploratory study was to determine the percentage, by sex, of athletic trainers (AT) in employment leadership positions at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I (DI) institutions. This percentage was analyzed specifically in the power five conferences. Participants were 351 institutions in 32 conferences. A list of institutions by conference was obtained from the NCAA website. Each institution’s athletic webpage was used to locate the name, picture, and employment bio of the athletic trainer with the upmost authority. Manifest coding was used to note the sex of each athletic trainer holding a leadership position. One institution did not list who was responsible for its athletic training program resulting in a final sample of 350 institutions. Results found 286 institutions had male ATs (81.71%), 60 had a female AT (17.14%), and four had dual representatives (1.14%) in positions such as Assistant/Associate AD for Sports Medicine, Director of Sports Medicine, or Head Athletic Trainer. When separated by the power five conferences, 60 male ATs (92.3%) held leadership positions. For the remaining five institutions, Female ATs held four positions (6.15%) with one institution having dual representatives (1.54%). Currently, the National Athletic Trainers’ Association membership consists of a greater number of females ATs (55.16%) than male ATs (44.67%). Even with more female ATs in the profession, the representation of female ATs in the position of upmost authority in NCAA DI member institutions has not increased in the last 20 years.
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Sample Distribution and Research Design Are Methodological Dilemmas When Identifying Selection and Using Relative Age as an Explanation of Results

Authors: Torsten Buhre and Oscar Tschernij

Corresponding Author:
Torsten Buhre, PhD
Department of Sport Sciences
Malmö University
20506 Malmö

Torsten Buhre is the senior physiologist at the Department of Sport Sciences at Malmö University

Sample distribution and research design are methodological dilemmas when identifying selection and using relative age as an explanation of results

The use of a statistical test, such as the chi-squared test, to determine if selection has occurred within a sport has been used frequently in research. The assumed distribution of a sample could influence the occurrence of significant outcomes. The occurrence of significance is generally interpreted as RAE and explained as a result of selection within the sport. Most studies in this field have been done using a cross-sectional design. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of using different types of distribution when testing for significance, in swimming as an example, over a nine-year period of six cohorts in age by gender groups.

Results show that using either an assumed uniformed distribution or a proportional distribution of the national population distribution will lead to an increased number of significant results, in comparison to using either a distribution of the actual sample of the specific age by gender group or the distribution of the previous year within the age by gender group. In addition, when using a longitudinal design over a nine-year period, the occurrence of significance decreased over time. In order to interpret significant results as a consequence of selection within a sport the use of a sport specific and age by gender distribution and a longitudinal design is proposed.
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