How Major League Baseball Teams Are Demonstrating Corporate Social Responsibility on Instagram

Authors: Kevin Hull & Joon Kyoung Kim

Corresponding Author:
Kevin Hull, Ph.D.
University of South Carolina
800 Sumter Street
Columbia, SC 29208

Kevin Hull (Ph.D., University of Florida) is an assistant professor of journalism at the University of South Carolina. Joon Kyoung Kim (M.A., Syracuse University) is a doctoral student in the School of Journalism and Mass Communications at the University of South Carolina.

How Major League Baseball Teams Are Demonstrating Corporate Social Responsibility on Instagram

For decades, professional sports teams have worked with local and national charitable groups. These efforts are frequently reported on by the media, but teams now have a chance to showcase their charity work themselves. Through Instagram, teams can post photos and videos about their charity directly to their timeline. This exploratory research study examined how Major League Baseball teams were using Instagram to demonstrate their charitable efforts. A content analysis of 50 posts from every team (N = 1,500) was conducted, with the post content, hashtags used, and fan response analyzed. Findings demonstrated that teams were posting few photos and videos that showcase their charitable work. Additional examination revealed that fans were less apt to like and comment on charitable posts when compared to other types of posts. Implications regarding how professional sports teams should be using Instagram to showcase their charity work are discussed.

Keywords: charity, corporate social responsibility, Instagram, Major League Baseball

Continue reading

General Managers and the Importance of Using Analytics

Authors: Dr. Rocco P. Porreca

Corresponding Author:
Rocco P. Porreca, Ed. D.
380 SE Mizner Blvd. Apt. 1718
Boca Raton, FL 33432

Dr. Porreca is an adjunct professor in the College of Business and Management at Lynn University.

General Managers and the Importance of Using Analytics

Albert Einstein defined insanity as “doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.” Sport is changing. Athletes are becoming faster and stronger. The rate and pace of play is steadily increasing. Therefore sport, as a result, adapts and evolves. Recently, the way in which franchises draft players and build rosters is beginning to change. In order to remain competitive, sport franchises are beginning to shy away from the conventional norm and are thinking outside of the box. Specifically, franchises are exploring analytics and how this type of statistical analysis can be beneficial.

Keywords: analytics, moneyball, moneypuck, statistics

Continue reading

Transformational Leadership Behaviors of Winning College Athletic Program Directors: A Qualitative Exploratory Study

Authors: Michael Northington, Ph.D.

Corresponding Author:
Michael Northington, Ph.D.
101 Montreal Drive
Hurst, TX 76054

Dr. Michael Northington is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Dallas in the Graduate School College of Business. Also, he is the Distribution Manager for Dart Container Corporation in Dallas, TX.


This research study examined the transformational leadership behaviors of college athletic directors. There have been many research studies on transformational leadership and influence on followers. Though there has been considerable research on transformational leadership behaviors, the studies primarily focused on leadership in a business environment. Very few studies have focused on the transformational leadership behaviors of college athletic directors. Most of the research studies on the transformational leadership behaviors of college athletic directors are quantitative studies. The purpose of this study was to use a qualitative exploratory methodology approach to explore the transformational leadership behaviors of college athletic directors of top-rated college athletic programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 college athletic directors from the NACDA 2013/2014 top-rated athletic programs to identify the transformational leadership behaviors demonstrated by the college athletic directors. The results of the study revealed the transformational leadership behaviors of the college athletic directors. All 20 college athletic directors of the NACDA 2013/2014 top-rated athletic programs actually demonstrate transformational leadership behaviors. Among all 20 college athletic directors, three main themes were revealed from the analysis of the data: taking care of the student athletes, supporting the coaches, and adhering to the NCAA and NAIA rules.

Keywords: idealized influence, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation

Continue reading

The 2011 National Football League Labor Dispute

Authors: Marcos A. Abreu, Brandon D. Spradley

Affiliations: United States Sports Academy

Corresponding Author:
Marcos Abreu
Doctoral Student
United States Sports Academy
One Academy Drive
Daphne, Alabama 36526

Marcos Abreu is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy studying sports management.

Collective Bargaining & Conflict Management

In 2011, after two years of negotiations since the NFL opted out of the league’s Collective Bargaining Agreement, conflict between the players and owners increased and the relationship between employee and employer became dysfunctional. As a result, the NFLPA that represents the players during collective bargaining, decided to decertify. By announcing that the NFLPA no longer represented the players in collective bargaining before the current CBA expired, the players were able to invoke the Sherman Act that allowed the NFL players to file class-action anti-trust lawsuits against the NFL.

Continue reading

Assessing the Impact of Service Quality Attributes on Customer Satisfaction: A Case of Private Golf Courses in South Korea

Author: Boyun Woo*

*Corresponding Author:
Boyun Woo
Associate Professor
Endicott College
School of Sport Science
376 Hale Street
Beverly, MA 01915
Phone: 978-335-9966

Responding to a highly competitive golf course environment in South Korea, it is important to investigate factors that influence customer satisfaction that will lead to a revisit. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of different service quality attributes on customer satisfaction among golf courses in South Korea. Service quality attributes included in this study were website reservation system, caddy competency, accessibility, physical environment, cost, course difficulty, and employee service. Data was collected from 609 recreational golfers who played golf in 12 private golf courses across South Korea. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that all the service quality attributes together, with an exception of convenience of website reservation system, explained 40.5% of the variance in customer satisfaction. In terms of the individual attributes of the service quality, caddy competency had the greatest influence on customer satisfaction followed by accessibility, physical environment, cost, course difficulty, and employee service. The findings suggest golf course managers on what service quality attributes they need to focus on in order to satisfy customers.

Keywords: service quality, customer satisfaction, golf, South Korea

Continue reading