Did You Know?

The Olympic flag was conceived by Pierre de Coubertin. The flag consists of five colored interlocking rings on a white background. The rings are blue, yellow, black, green, and red. After more than a century the flag still maintains its symbolism.

At least one of the colors is found in all of the flags of the world. The Olympic symbol of the interlocking rings represents the union of the five continents and the meeting of the athletes of the world at the Olympic games.

Beginning in 776 B.C., the Olympic Games were held in the valley of Olympia in Greece every four years for almost 1200 years. Inspired by the ancient Games, Baron Pierre de Coubertin created the modern Olympic Games.

First staged in 1896, they attracted about 245 athletes (all men) in 43 events. At the Sydney 2000 games, more than 10,000 athletes took part in 300 events. The Olympic Movement has survived wars, boycotts, and terrorism to become a symbol of the ability of the people of all nations to come together in peace and friendship.

2013-11-26T22:19:09-05:00February 14th, 2008|Sports History|Comments Off on Did You Know?

FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions about the Ancient Olympic Games

  1. Where did the Olympic games come from?
  2. Why were they held at Olympia?
  3. Were there other contests like the Olympics?
  4. Who could compete in the Olympics?
  5. Were women allowed at the Olympics?
  6. How were the athletes trained?
  7. What prizes did Olympic victors get?
  8. Who were the Olympic judges?
  9. What was the penalty for cheating?
  10. Where did the marathon come from?

For further resources or information see www.perseus.tufts.edu/Olympics/faq1.html

 

  1. Where did the Olympic games come from?There are many different stories about the beginning of the Olympics. One myth says that the guardians of the infant god Zeus held the first footrace, or that Zeus himself started the Games to celebrate his victory over his father Cronus for control of the world. Another tradition states that after the Greek hero Pelops won a chariot race against King Oenomaus to marry Oenomaus’ daughter Hippodamia, he established the Games.

    Athletic games also were an important part of many religious festivals from early on in ancient culture. In the Illiad, the famous warrior Achilles holds games as part of the funeral services for his best friend Patroclus. The events in them include a chariot race, a footrace, a discus match, boxing, and wrestling.

  2. Why were the Olympic games held at Olympia?Olympia was one of the oldest religious centers in the ancient Greek world. Since athletic contests were one way that the ancient Greeks honored their gods, it was logical to hold a recurring athletic competition at the site of a major temple.

    Also, Olympia is convenient geographically to reach by ship, which was a major concern for the Greeks. Athletes and spectators traveled from Greek colonies as far away as modern-day Spain, the Black Sea, or Egypt.

    An international truce among the Greeks was declared for the month before the Olympics to allow the athletes to reach Olympia safely. The judges had the authority to fine whole cities and ban their athletes from competition for breaking the truce.

  3. Were there other contests like the Olympics?There were three (3) other games which were held on 2 or 4 year cycles: the Isthmean Games at Corinth, the Pythian Games at Delphi, and the Nemean Games at Nemea. Because it started 200 years before the other competitions, the Olympics remained the most famous athletic contest in the ancient Greek world.

    Many athletes competed at several athletic festivals. Inscriptions on victors’ statues at Olympia often describe victories in 2, 3, or even all 4 major athletic festivals. Pausanias’ description of Olympian architecture includes a list of the more famous victors’ statues, and summaries of the inscriptions.

  4. Who could compete in the Olympics?The Olympics were open to any free-born Greek in the world. There were separate mens’ and boys’ divisions for the events. The Elean judges divided youths into the boys’ or mens’ divisions based as much on physical size and strength as age.
  5. Were women allowed at the Olympics?Not only were women not permitted to compete personally, married women were also barred from attending the games, under penalty of death. (Maidens were allowed to attend.)

    Pausanias tells the story of Callipateira, who broke this rule to see her son at the Games:

    She, being a widow, disguised herself exactly like a gymnastic trainer, and brought her son to compete at Olympia. Peisirodus, for so her son was called, was victorious, and Callipateira, as she was jumping over the enclosure in which they kept the trainers shut up, bared her person. So her sex was discovered, but they let her go unpunished out of respect for her father, her brothers and her son, all of whom had been victorious at Olympia. But a law was passed that for future trainers should strip before entering the arena. (Pausanias 5.6.8ff)

    Athletic competitions for women did exist in ancient Greece. The most famous was a maidens’ footrace held at Olympic Stadium in honor of the goddess, Hera. There were three (3) separate races for girls, teenagers, and young women.

    The length of their racecourse was shorter than the mens’ track; 5/6 of a stade (about 160 meters) instead of a full stade (about 192 meters). The winners received olive crowns just like Olympic victors.

  6. How were the athletes trained?Athletics were a key part of education in ancient Greece. Many Greeks believed that developing the body was equally important as improving the mind for overall health. Also, regular exercise was important in a society where men were always needed for military service. Plato’s Laws specifically mention how athletics improved military skills. Greek youth therefore worked out in the wrestling-school (palaestra) whether they were serious Olympic contenders or not.

    The palaestra (wrestling school) was one of the most popular places for Greek men of all ages to socialize. Many accounts of Greek daily life include scenes in these wrestling-schools, such as the opening of Plato’s Charmides.

  7. What prizes did Olympic victors get?A victor received a crown made from olive leaves, and was entitled to have a statue of himself set up at Olympia.

    Although he did not receive money at the Olympics, the victor was treated much like a modern sports celebrity by his home city. His success increased the fame and reputation of his community in the Greek world. It was common for victors to receive benefits such as having all their meals at public expense or front-row seats at the theater and other public festivals. One city even built a private gym for their Olympic wrestling champion to exercise in

  8. Who were the Olympic judges?Unlike the modern Olympics, judges did not come from all over the Greek world, but were drawn from Elis, the local region which included Olympia. The number of judges increased to 10 as more events were added to the Olympics.

    Even though the judges were all Eleans, local Elean Greeks were still allowed to compete in the Olympics. The Elean people had such a reputation for fairness that an Elean cheating at the Games was a shock to other Greeks.

  9. What was the penalty for cheating?Anyone who violated the rules was fined by the judges. The money was used to set up statues of Zeus, the patron god of the Games of Olympia. It was the custom for athletes, their fathers and their brothers, as well as their trainers, to swear an oath, upon slices of boar’s flesh that in nothing will they sin against the Olympic games. The athletes take this further oath also, that for ten successive months they have strictly followed the regulations for training. An oath is also taken by those who examine the boys, or the foals entering for races, that they will decide fairly and without taking bribes, and that they will keep secret what they learn about a candidate, whether accepted or not. (Pausanias 5.24.9ff)
  10. Where did the marathon come from?

The marathon was never one of the ancient Olympic events, although its origin dates back to another episode in ancient Greek history.

In the 5th century B.C., the Persians invaded Greece, landing at Marathon, a small town about 26 miles from the city of Athens. The Athenian army was seriously outnumbered by the Persian army, so the Athenians sent messengers to cities all over Greece asking for help.

The traditional origin of the marathon comes from the story how a herald named Phidippides ran the 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to announce the Greek victory and died on the spot. Phidippides was sent by the Athenians to Sparta to ask for help. A man named Eukles announced the victory to the Athenians and then died. Later sources confused the story of Phidippides, also called Philippides, with that of Eukles. Although most ancient authors do not support this legend, the story has persisted and is the basis for the modern-day marathon.

Perseus Project at Tufts University

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu

2017-08-07T15:31:00-05:00February 14th, 2008|Sports History|Comments Off on FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions about the Ancient Olympic Games

The World Olympians Association Introduction

The World Olympians Asociation is an independent global organization representing Olympians. It was created following the Centennial Olympic Congress’ Congress of Unity in Paris in 1994. The WOA is formally recognized by the International Olympic Committee under Rule 4 of the Olympic Charter.

Upon his election as President of the WOA, Mr. Pal Schmitt expressed his goal to increase the number of members in order to achieve a universal representation of national associations of Olympic athletes in the WOA. It is his expressed desire to involve Olympians in Olympic activities in their own countries to educate young people, promote Ollympic ideals and strengthen the Olympic Movement. He believes that the WOA is becoming the fourth pillar of the Olympic Movement together with the other three: the International Olympic Committee ( IOC), the International Federations and the National Olympic Committee (NOC).

The officers of the WOA are:

Honorary President: Mr. Juan Antonio Samaranch, Spain

President: Mr. Pal Schmitt, Hungary

Vice Presidents: Dr. Elizabeth A.E. Ferris, Great Britain; Dr. William A. Toomey, United States

Secretary General: Dr. Liston D. Bochette, Puerto Rico

Executive Committee Members: Mr. Herb Elliot, Australia; Mr El Hadj, Amadou Dia BA, Senegal, and Mrs Irena Szewinska, Poland

The medium/long term objectives of the WOA, which the Executive Board is now pursuing, include the following:

Further growth in the membership with the ultimate goal being to include every country recognized by the IOC which has an Olympian living within its territory. The WOA has the names and brief information on every Olympian since 1896. Direct liaison with the National Association of Olympic Athletes (NAOA) to indicate both domestic and international activities in which Olympians may become involved. The WOA Executive Board has indicated its strong support for the involvement of Olympians worldwide in the IOC’s humanitarian and environment activities. The WOA is also active in supporting the IOC in its policy development regarding women in sport. The WOA has commenced discussions with the IOC and SOCOG with regard to the special interest of Olympians in connection with the celebration of a particular Games i.e. Olympians to be allowed to participate in the Torch Relay, have access (at normal cost) to tickets to their own event and to be included as volunteers as possible, etc. The IOC has initiated the concept of the Olympians Reunion Center in Atlanta – a great success that the WOA hopes to be able to promote in future Games.

The WOA hopes to be able to assist NAOAs in conjunction with NOCs in the development of Olympian affinity cards which may provide benefits to Olympians – hotels, travel etc. The WOA is currently working on a model to be used globally.

At its most recent meeting, the Executive Board resolved to work towards the globalization of the Olympic Job Opportunity Program which now operates in a small number of countries. The WOA feels that the program should include all Olympians – not only active elite competitors. This process will need to be developed via NOCs and the NAOAs.

Although the exact number of Olympians since 1896 is relatively clear, it is not clear as to the number of Olympians who are still alive. President Samaranch has sent letters to all Olympians via the NOCs – the only method of directly contacting the Olympians. This is apparently the first time that an IOC President has directly corresponded individually with all Olympians.

The IOC has guaranteed free admission to the Olympic Museum to all Olympians upon production of the IOC participants pin.

The WOA does not see itself as a bureaucracy to mirror the IOC but rather as a catalyst to stimulate involvement of Olympians in the activities of the Olympic Movement, particularly in the framework established by the IOC and the NOCs. Olympians are the greatest resource of the IOC and have an enormous potential contribution to make. As a group, they are the greatest role models in the world.

 

It is estimated that there are slightly more then 60,000 living Olympians around the world. To be an Olympian is one of the most significant achievements that any person can realize during his or her lifetime. Hopefully, the creation of the WOA and its respective members, the NAOAs, will retain and strengthen the involvement of Olympians around the world within the Olympic Movement.

The IOC may well regard the Olympians as its strongest arm in the quest to contribute to a more harmonious, peaceful, prosperous and enjoyable world.

2013-11-27T15:02:28-05:00February 14th, 2008|Contemporary Sports Issues, Sports History, Sports Management|Comments Off on The World Olympians Association Introduction

Olympism for the 21st Century: New Life to a Timeless Philosophy

Introduction

The Olympic Movement, sometimes referred to as Olympism, is a universal concept that is not defined simply. It is a philosophical ardor for life and the uncompromising pursuit of excellence. Just as individuals operate with a personal philosophy that guides their decision-making, Olympism, too, is philosophically directed through the elevated dimension of quality in how an individual conducts his/her life.

Olympism is an inner faith of a man in himself, a constant effort of physical and intellectual enhancement (Filaretos, 1993 p. 61). It is a general concept which emphasizes not only development of bodily strength, but generally healthier individuals with a happier attitude and a more peaceful vision of the world (The International Olympic Academy, 1997, p. 10). Olympism recognizes and extols individual effort and accepts no discrimination among nations, races, political systems, classes, etc. (The International Olympic Academy, p. 9). As we build awareness and highlight our commonality as human beings, we must realize we are all interconnected in this world. Though these connections are sometimes complex, elusive and difficult to recognize, examining our own patterns of behavior as world citizens will reduce our distance and allow us to find our common ground. All become part of the whole when members of nations learn about global perspectives and become familiar with national issues — this has been a long and historical pattern of the dynamics of relationships among many different people. The fact remains, Olympism involves not only active participants of the sport movement, but also the general public (The International Olympic Academy, p. 9). All people are relevant and interconnected among the diverse cultures of the world.

A Viewpoint on Olympism

The good intentions of Olympism are indeed well-established, but not necessarily well known. A prevailing challenge in today’s world is how to capture people’s attention long enough to convey important and life enhancing messages. Being the difficult job it is, merely sharing information only illustrates the size of the challenge it is to effectively educate people. Education takes quality time and the perception, too often, is that simply receiving information is the same as education. Education is the process of learning conceptual ideas that leads to behavioral awareness or change. A clear distinction needs to be understood on this matter; learning occurs only through practice. Our desire to educate young people regarding the values within the Olympic Movement runs deep and has long existed within a few select people all around the world. Accomplishing the goal of educating others about the Olympic Movement requires recognition of the major reorganization that must occur: 1) there must be an open willingness for revision of the Movement’s principles/values to be better understood in today’s reality; 2) we must package the valuable principles/values in numerous effective ways for appealing delivery; 3) advocates must first educate the deliverers (e.g., teachers, coaches, administrators, etc.) on the importance of the values within Olympism; 4) we must interrupt long existing educational patterns by convincing these systems to provide a window of opportunity for educational time to be devoted to the teaching of Olympism.; and 5) we should provide simulated, lifelike environments in which to apply the practice of the principles/values.

What is Valuable about Olympism Today?

Olympism encourages exploration of self and how self relates to community in a local sense. The smallest local actions accumulate and make an important global contribution. Also, Olympism is a tool that can better unify the people of the world. As experience is gained, the ability to see and think about the global picture becomes a natural outcome. Finally, everyone could be a role model to someone. If we have more people living with the concepts of Olympism in their daily lives, the philosophy will permeate our world at an exponential rate.The evolution of the principles of the Olympic Philosophy is essential. More importantly, there are necessary changes to be made in the moral standards and the values of people, their mentality and sentiments. The inherent values of Olympism that seem to have lost their meaning in our changing society must be identified and revised so that they match the continuous advancement of today’s world. People gain experience and perspective as they advance along the continuum of life. The birth of the Modem Olympic Games spawned a formal sporting event and the growth and change that has occurred from 1896 until today is almost immeasurable. As philosophy directs individual lives and the spirit of Olympism affects those lives around the globe, the common thread the two has is embedded in founding principles. These principles are anchoring and timeless values that have endured. From where or whom we are born, the principles of life that parents teach affect their children throughout their future. The Olympic Movement is much more than just the parent of the Modem Olympic Games, it is a choice that people can undertake by which to conduct their lives.

Gain More Widespread Respect For Olympism

To gain placement within an educational curriculum, the Olympic values must be progressive and command widespread public support and respect. For all of the positive stories that exist within the Olympic Movement, unfortunately, those stories told most frequently and with greatest sensationalism are the negative ones. Often this is said to sell more magazines, newspapers, to keep more television viewers, radio listeners, internet browsers, etc. Modem man is easily influenced by the somewhat contradictory information coming from a myriad of sources. This makes the individual lose his/her intellectual and spiritual independence and lowers the level of healthy self-analysis, which is imperative for self-improvement. Such an individual does not concentrate on the personal spiritual world; rather, he/she develops a tendency to suppress the thoughts and ideas that do not coincide with the interests of other people and society in general. The negative stories and constant reliance on other sources is in conflict with the development of a self-determined individual with unwavering moral standards. By the time an athlete becomes an Olympic-level performer, his/her character and value system has long been formed. In turn, these values are the reflection of the moral standards of society where the athlete has been raised. Reality shows that violence in sport and the use by top athletes of prohibited means of increasing their physical capacity are contradictory to the Olympic concepts of excellence and achievement. Contemporary competitive sport, with its emphasis on the materialistic benefits for individuals and societies, can create elite athletes with an individualistic, egocentric mentality and an excessively self-sufficient attitude (Dellamary, 1994, p. 210). So many adjunct sources contribute to the “win-at-all cost” acceptance of the Olympic Games, that the values of Olympism are often overlooked by the participants, spectators and organizers. It seems we espouse philosophical statements and then act contradictorily toward them. We most naturally reward the outcome rather than the process. Life’s journey is a process and cannot be ignored. The values of Olympism can be taught only through constant practice. Theory without practice is utopian. In Olympism, the principles and values that do not have a connection with an application to real life will not live long in people’s minds. When this connection is established, then Olympism will become not just a philosophy, but a beneficial lifestyle.

Improved Ways To Package The Message Of Olympism

Incorporating the values of Olympism into current curriculums and practices that develop athletes is better than to develop something entirely separate. This enhances the already existing curriculums and athletic practices and can contribute throughout the participation phase. Individuals must be practical and conceptual in the process of learning, understanding and most importantly, experiencing Olympic values. The worth of values is determined by their practice. That is why the education of Olympism should not be a promotion of statements; rather, it should teach the implementation of the values in life situations. Create ways to practice and reinforce these values; extend and apply them to today’s real life. Coaches are the instrumental and influential figures in the promotion of Olympism among young athletes. To develop a uniform and global reinforcement procedure has limited feasibility. It is best if the nations contribute within their cultural means and understanding of how to reach and reward their people in the best possible manner. An excellent program that is successfully operating to this end is the United States Olympic Committee’s Champions in Life program, which is targeted to include the disadvantaged children through youth recreational organizations. The program addresses the benefits of staying in school, staying drug-free, avoiding gangs and violence and being good citizens by being the best one can be. The concept of being a productive member of a society should be promoted as the prerequisite to being a good citizen of the world with global awareness. Sports, therefore, offer us a great opportunity to promote Olympic principles and values, but this opportunity is often under-utilized. Constant reminders of what we believe in are needed. Even simple things (T-shirts, pins, posters, banners, etc.) could have messages written in a simple but thought provoking and heart warming way. We should make a point to devote a few minutes at sporting events to recognizing our belief in the importance of Olympic values (messages in game programs, banners in the gym, public address announcements, athlete or coach comments at the end of the competition, etc.). It could be a valuable contribution if famous athletes and coaches, in their interviews, would sincerely include their support of the Olympic Movement in their commentary.

Improved Ways To Deliver The Message Of Olympism

There are three necessary steps in promoting new concepts and values:

  1. Delivery of the message: the message must be clear, simple to understand and deliver the intended values through sport activities at different levels;
  2. Education and reinforcement of the message: the application process should have reinforcement so the message is taken seriously and the learner comprehends the merits of the message and accepts them as desirable guidelines; and
  3. Consistency which promotes the philosophy in all activities: continuous emphasis is a key to show how much the promoters care about their message.

This will require sincerity regarding why one is teaching/coaching and careful rationale as to what one is teaching/coaching. Concentrated educational experiences such as the International Olympic Academy are an effective model for delivery of Olympism as a valuable curriculum to study. The atmosphere and revered respect that the Olympic Movement is afforded changes lives and perspectives in a short amount of time. Undoubtedly, each and every individual who studies at Olympia becomes a lifetime activist for the movement. Disseminate teacher lesson plan guides beyond the formal educational system. Include children’s museums, national chain daycare centers, Girl and Boy Scouts and other youth organizations where quality children’s activities are valued and sought after. Incorporate the teaching of Olympism in the educational background of coaches.

These teachings must educate coaches how purposefully teaching about Olympic values will contribute to more balanced individual athletes and ignite their personal desire to find their own personal excellence and how Olympic values will strengthen and improve team interaction and success. Administrators, teachers and coaches should show personal interest and reward the adherence to the principles and make the experiences personal and valuable. There is a fine line between competition and cooperation — both are essential and the fine line must be identified and honored for sport to be optimized successfully as an asset to society. Today’s Olympic Movement must be challenged to assist with the removal of all barriers in allowing competitive excellence to be available to all. Sport within the Olympic Movement changes lives positively when performance excellence is sharply focused upon and established as a founding principle in life. When the fine line is blurred and disrespected to the point of allowing competition to be used only for personal gain (as in the pursuit of money or recognition), those driving pursuits are shallow and short-lived. They offer no lasting substance for a quality life from which our new generations will be born.

Suggestions For Gaining Educational Time

Traditions are a base for the formation of values. When people forget their traditions, they interrupt the connection between the past and the present and, as a result, lose the values. The revival of the traditions of Olympism will help to return the essence of the true values to our world.

Transcendence

Contemporary Olympism is influenced by the interaction of many factors that may cause its progressive decline (Dellamary, p. 209). There are two major threats that may prevent the progress of Olympism. They are excessive commercialism and the active involvement of governmental politics in sports (Filaretos, p. 61). The Olympic Movement will always be able to be improved. Implications for our Future Will teaching and thus interweaving these values into society uplift us and provide an eagle-eye view so that we may bring solutions to our varied world problems, which include: Asian economic instability, hyper-urbanization in Brazil, environmental degradation in China, civil war in Rawanda, starvation in North Korea, violence and drugs in the schools of the USA? Is Olympism powerful enough to make a difference to the even bigger issues in our world? Adherents of Olympism cannot influence the human tendency for violence, war, destruction and aggression among nations and groups. Advocates cannot stop economical and political changes of nations. They are helpless in the face of the commercialization of sports and the gigantism and luxury of the Olympic Gaines. But with all of their limits, they have a powerful instrument in their hands that can revive Olympism with its unique philosophy of ideal social coexistence. Only through the education of our youth and the establishment of high moral standards that unite the human race and disregard grounds for discrimination can the dissemination of a true universalization of Olympism become possible.

2013-11-27T15:02:50-05:00February 13th, 2008|Contemporary Sports Issues, Sports Coaching, Sports History, Sports Management, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Olympism for the 21st Century: New Life to a Timeless Philosophy

A Modern Perspective of the Ancient Olympic Events

Today’s Modern (Summer) Olympic Games have 32 different categories of competitive events. When you consider that of these many, like track and field, have several events within the category and then break down further to men’s and women’s and team and individual competition, it is nearly impossible to keep track of the Games as they progress. Things were simpler in the old days. The Ancient Olympics had 13 events divided into 6 main categories. Of course they were for men only.

The main categories were boxing, equestrian events, pnkration, pentathlon, running and jumping. The Equestrian events were broken down into two sub-categories: chariot racing and riding. The Pentathlon was a combination of five events: discus, javelin, jump, running, and wrestling.

Boxing in ancient Greece had fewer rules than boxing today. There were no rounds and boxers fought until one of them was knocked out, or admitted he had been beaten. There was no rule that prevented a boxer from hitting an opponent when he was down. There was no weight class in either the men’s or boy’s divisions and the contestants were chosen randomly. The boxers did not wear gloves but wrapped their hands and wrists with leather straps called himantes. Their fingers were left free.

Equestrian events were divided into classes of chariot racing and riding. The chariot races consisted of both the 2-horse chariot and the 4-horse chariot and there were separate races for chariots drawn by foals. There was a race of carts included in this event that consisted of competition between carts drawn by teams of 2 mules. The length of the chariot races was 12 laps around the stadium track which was approximately 9 miles.

Riding was the other equestrian event and the course was 6 laps around the stadium track which equaled 4.5 miles. The jockeys rode without stirrups and the races were broken down into competition between foals and full-grown horses. Because it was so expensive to train, feed and equip the participants the owners were awarded the olive wreath of victory instead of the riders.

Probably the most physical event of the Ancient Olympic Games was the pankration. This grueling event consisted of both boxing and wrestling. The hands were not wrapped in the leather himantes. The only limitations on physical brutality were the rules against biting and gouging the opponent’s eyes, nose, or mouth with fingernails. Kicking in any part of the body was allowed. There were separate divisions for men and boys, but like in boxing there was no weight division and the opponents were chosen at random.

The pentathlon, like the modern event, consisted of a 5-event combination. The 5 events of the Ancient Olympic Games were discus, javelin, jumping, running and wrestling. The Greeks considered this the most beautiful of the contests because it combined the endurance of the race course and the bodily strength necessary for the other physical events. The discus was made of iron, stone, bronze, or lead and was shaped to resemble the discus of today. The sizes varied and the boys competed with a lighter weight than the men. The ancient Greeks thought the precision and rhythm of an athlete throwing the discus as important as his strength.

The javelin was a throwing event as in the modern games and like the discus the competition was based on the distance the object was thrown and in the case of the javelin the precision. The javelin was made of wood, with either a sharpened end or an attached metal point. The javelin had a thong for the throwers’  fingers that was attached close to the center of gravity of the instrument that increased the precision and distance of the throw.

The jump event was similar to the modern long jump but with a major exception. The jumpers carried stone or lead weights called halteres. These weights, shaped like telephone receivers, were carried out in front of the jumper when they jumped the weights were thrust backward and dropped during the descent to increase the distance of the jump.

Running was broken down into 4 types of races in the Ancient Olympic Games. The stadion was the oldest of the events and consisted of a sprint covering one stade (192 meters) which was the length of the stadium. Other races were the 2-stade race and the long distance run ranged from 7 to 24 stades. The most grueling of the races was the warrior race designed to build and test the speed and stamina Greek men needed for military service. The race was 2 to 4-stades in distance and was run by an athlete wearing armor. The standard armor of that time weighed approximately 50-60 pounds and of course included a helmet and shield.

Wrestling was similar to the modern sport in that the athlete was required to throw his opponent to the ground landing on a hip, shoulder, or back for a fair fall. To win a match required 3 fair falls or throws. Genital holds and biting were not allowed and breaking your opponent’s fingers was also not permitted.

The art and sculpture of ancient Greece is alive with the depictions of the Olympics and the events described in this article. One can feel the excitement and spirit of the Ancient Olympic Games in that art. In modern games the spirit of the Olympism of old is recreated in the ceremonies and competitiveness of the event.

2015-10-24T01:31:30-05:00February 13th, 2008|Contemporary Sports Issues, Sports History|Comments Off on A Modern Perspective of the Ancient Olympic Events