Athlete Perceptions of a Monitoring and Strength and Conditioning Program

Authors: Jacob P Reed(1), Mauro Palmero(2), Kimitake Sato(3), Cheng-Tu Hsieh(4), Michael Stone(3)

(1)Kinesiology, Allied Health, and Human Services
University of Northern Iowa
Cedar Falls, IA 50614

(2)Hospitality Management Department
University of Missouri Columbia
Columbia, MO 65211

(3)Center of Excellence for Sport Science and Coach Education
Department of Exercise and Sport Science
East Tennessee State University
Johnson City, TN 37614

(4)Departmet of Kinesiology
California State University, Chico
Chico, CA 95929

Corresponding Author:
Jacob P. Reed
University of Northern Iowa
203 Wellness and Recreation Center
Cedar Falls, IA 50614
Phone: (319)-271-8090

Athlete Perceptions of a Monitoring and Strength and Conditioning Program

Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to assess athlete perceptions of a monitoring program.

Methods: Athletes currently participating in the monitoring program were invited to participate. Reliability for the questionnaire and principle components analysis (PCA) were completed in the spring of 2013. To analyze changes throughout the academic year, the questionnaire was administered six times throughout the fall 2013 and spring 2014 semesters.

Results: The questionnaire was considered reliable. PCA revealed a three-component model (KMO = .798, Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity = p < .001) with eigenvalues over one explaining 68.88% of total variance. Statistical differences between pre and later time points were noted for of overall performance, skill, strength, speed, power and understanding of the monitoring protocols. Conclusion: The questionnaire was shown reliable and can be considered for future use. The first component of the PCA revealed that perceptions of overall performance are influenced by perceptions of strength, skill, power, and agreement that testing data reflects performance. Second, aerobic and anaerobic endurance and speed are all highly correlated. Finally, athletes understanding of the program monitoring increased with the return of data. Overall, perceptions of the programs influence the questionnaire components were positive ranging from no different to much better.

Applications in Sport: The athlete monitoring program seems to be a beneficial model for enhancing athlete’s perceptions of certain aspects of performance.

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Body Image in Division I Male Athletes: Why is Baseball High and Outside?

Authors: Lorraine Killion & Dean Culpepper

Corresponding Author:
Lorraine Killion, Ed.D.
Associate Professor
Texas A&M University-Kingsville
700 University Blvd.
Kingsville, TX 78363-8202

Lorraine Killion is an Associate Professor in the Health & Kinesiology Department at Texas A&M University-Kingsville. She is also the EC-12 Physical Education Program Coordinator.

Dean Culpepper is in the Health and Human Performance Department at Texas A&M University-Commerce and is a Certified Sports Psychology Consultant with the Association for Applied Sport Psychology.
Body Image in Division I Male Athletes: Why is Baseball High and Outside?

Body image research has largely focused on females and a drive for thinness. Recent research has investigated males and a drive for muscularity indicating an increasing concern for males’ appearance of their body. A desire to enhance their physical image has increased pressure to meet a body ideal for their sport. The purpose of this study was to examine Division I male athletes’ body perceptions. Upon IRB approval, ninety four (N=94) athletes volunteered for the study. To determine body image differences, three sports were considered: football (n = 51), basketball (n = 14), and baseball (n = 29). Demographic and anthropometric measures were taken by the researchers. The Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ-AS) was administered and five subscales were examined. ANOVAs documented differences between Body Area Satisfaction [F(2, 92) = 20.61, p> .001], Appearance Evaluation [F(2,92) = 6.50, p =.002], and Appearance Orientation [F(2, 92) = 9.84, p < .001]. Bonferroni post hoc tests showed baseball players demonstrated a unique difference from their football and basketball cohorts: AE (p=.002), AO (p= .000), & BASS (p= .000). Findings shed additional light onto male body image. While Fitness Orientation showed no significant differences, Appearance Orientation yielded a more meaningful score for baseball players. Baseball has a history and infamous past concerning the need to “bulk up.” Regulations and legal efforts have diminished drug abuse in the sport, but the psychological need to obtain a larger upper body still exists. Researchers and coaches should further examine the baseball culture so the behavioral determinants can be better understood. Continue reading

Utilizing Imagery to Enhance Injury Rehabilitation

Author: Marty Durden

Marty Durden, Ed. D., United States Sports Academy
M. Ed., Troy University

Athletic Director
Presbyterian School
5300 Main Street
Houston, TX
(706) 681-5904

Marty Durden is the Director of Athletics and Director of the Presbyterian Outdoor Education Center in Houston, TX. He serves as adjunct professor in Sports Management for Concordia University, Austin TX. He also serves as adjunct professor in Educational Leadership at Bellhaven University in Jackson, MS.


Recovering from injury is an unfortunate byproduct of athletic participation. The rehabilitation process can be an arduous experience full of discouragement. The athlete who approaches rehab with a positive attitude and a goal-oriented plan can turn the tough task of recovery into an affirmative experience. Therapy can result in the athlete being better prepared for future obstacles and in a better position to succeed. The athlete who takes charge of the rehabilitation process in a proactive manner has an improved chance to overcome the debilitating effects of injury.

A proven method that enhances the rehabilitation process is the utilization of mental imagery. Wise use of imagery techniques streamlines the recovery period and minimizes the psychological damage to the athlete. Imagery allows the athlete to participate actively in the progression and assume ownership for recovery. Utilizing imagery techniques allows a locus of control that lends hope for a timely return to competition. Visual imagery allows the athlete to see the movements that lead to restoration. Emotive imagery allows the athlete to see the possibilities that lead to recuperation. Healing imagery allows the athlete to sense and see the transformational process of recovery as the body responds via the natural effects of the healing. Utilization of imagery allows the athlete to be stronger than before, armed with a positive self-image, and satisfied with the efforts that brought them through this tough struggle.

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The Impact of Perceived Value, Satisfaction, Service Quality on Customer Loyalty in Women’s Fitness Clubs

Authors: Jon Lim, Bryan Romsa, & Suzannah Armentrout
Jon Lim is an Associate Professor of Sport Management at the Minnesota State University, Mankato.
Bryan Romsa is an Assistant Professor of Sport Management at the South Dakota State University.
Suzannah Armentrout is a Professor of Sport Management at the Minnesota State University, Mankato.

Corresponding Author:
Jon Lim, Ed.D.
Minnesota State University, Mankato
1400 Highland Center
Mankato, MN 56001

While the importance of customer loyalty has been recognized in the marketing literature, empirical research on the antecedents of customer loyalty and their relative importance to predict loyalty in the health and fitness club context has been lacking, especially for women-only clubs. Thus, this study investigated the impact of customer perceived value, satisfaction, and service quality on customer loyalty in women-only health and fitness clubs. The participants for this study consisted of 221 adults who were current members at women-only health and fitness clubs in a major metropolitan area in the Midwest. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that customer perceived value, satisfaction, and service quality significantly influence customers’ psychological commitment and behavioral intentions of membership renewal and customer referrals. Therefore, the higher customer perceived value, satisfaction, and service quality, the higher customer loyalty. The findings suggest that customer loyalty can be generated through improving customer value, satisfaction, and service quality.

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A Comparison of Perceived Physical Fitness and Objective Measurements

Elizabeth K. Wells, Exercise Science Department, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC, USA
Megan L. Avery, Valencell Inc., Exercise Science Department, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC, USA
L. Chris Eschbach, Valencell Inc., Raleigh, NC 27609
Jennifer Bunn, Department of Physical Therapy, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC, USA

Corresponding author:
Jennifer Bunn
Campbell University, Department of Physical Therapy
4250 US 421 South
Lillington, NC 27546

A Comparison of Perceived Physical Fitness and Objective Measurements

The purpose of this study sought to analyze the contribution of perceived physical fitness compared to one’s actual level of fitness. In this study, participants subjectively assessed their own cardiovascular fitness (CVF; n = 85) and body composition (BC; n = 110) on a scale of one (poor) to ten (excellent). The participants then underwent body composition testing, via 7-site skinfold, and completed a maximal graded exercise test on either a treadmill or cycle ergometer. Data from the exercise and body composition tests were compared to normative data to determine their percentile rank. Cohen’s Kappa Statistic was used to determine congruence between the predicted and observed CVF and BC values. Results indicated that the participants’ perceived BC had poor agreement (κ < 0.20), and perceived CVF had no agreement (κ < 0), when compared to actual measurements taken. These results suggest that an individual’s perception of their CVF and BC were not accurate. Similarly to how participants will provide inaccurate reports of diet and physical activity, these individuals are likely to have an inaccurate report of their fitness level. While most research suggests these discrepancies are due to pressures from society and a desire to conform, other research demonstrates that society is uneducated and unable to report an accurate fitness level. Keywords: body composition, cardiovascular fitness, maximal oxygen consumption, fitness

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