Disordered Eating, Eating Attitudes, and Reasons for Exercise among Male High School Cross Country Runners

Submitted by Guy Wadas, MS, Southern Utah University and Mark DeBeliso, PhD, Southern Utah University

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE:  This study investigated the prevalence of disordered eating behaviors among male high school cross country runners.  The study identified behaviors and feelings about being an athlete, and determined relationships between motivations to exercise and disordered eating behaviors.  METHODS:  Sixty-eight male high school cross country runners from 12 high schools in one urban school district completed three questionnaire packets on one occasion pre-season.  The EAT-26 questionnaire was used to determine prevalence of disordered eating.  The ATHLETE questionnaire was used to determine psychological factors for relationships with disordered eating.  The EMI-2 was used to determine motivations to exercise and the relationship to disordered eating.  EAT-26 scores and data from the EMI-2 and ATHLETE questionnaires were analyzed via a Pearson Correlation Coefficient.  RESULTS:  A modest positive relationship existed between exercising for disordered eating behaviors versus exercising for weight management (r = 0.31: p < 0.05), the Your Body in Sports subscale (which measured drive for thinness and performance) (r = 0.36: p < 0.05), and the Feelings about Performance subscale (or Performance Perfectionism) (r = 0.26: p < 0.05).  CONCLUSIONS:  Risk factors associated with eating disorders exist in high school male cross country runners.  Underreporting and lack of recognition of disordered eating may affect prevalence rates.  Recommendations include a longitudinal study of male high school runners across the school year to determine relationships with the timing of questionnaire administration.  APPLICATIONS IN SPORT:  Disordered eating behaviors should be acknowledged as more than a “female only” issue.  Parents, teachers, coaches, and athletic trainers may be better able to understand and help male athletes with disordered eating behaviors or an active eating disorder.

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Caffeine Improves Sprint-Distance Performance among Division II Collegiate Swimmers

Submitted by David F. Vanata, Ph.D., RD, CSSD, LD; Nick Mazzino, B.S.;Robert Bergosh, Ph.D. and Paul Graham, B.S. of Ashland University in Ashland, Ohio.

ABSTRACT

Caffeine has been identified as a possible ergogenic aid for athletic performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on sprint-distance swim trials. Caffeine dosages of 3 milligrams per kilogram (mg.kg-1) of body weight and placebos were administered via vegan capsules to 30 Division II collegiate swimmers, (60.0% males, n=18), in a single blind, crossover study design. Capsules were administered 30-minutes prior to completing a 50-yard time trial using electronic touch-pads. Urine samples were collected and analyzed via High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine the amount of caffeine excreted in the urine. Significant improvements were observed between caffeine and placebo time trials, M=27.27 seconds, SD=3.65 vs. M=27.51 seconds, SD=3.74, t(29)=2.81, p=.009, respectively. Overall, 70.0% of all swimmers improved 50-yard swim times (n=21), with 61.1% (n=11) of males improving and 83.3% (n=10) of females. There was a significant difference between urinary caffeine levels after ingesting the placebo vs. the caffeine capsules, M=.733 micrograms per milliliter (mg.ml-1), SD=1.29 vs. M=2.69 mg.ml-1, SD=2.02, t(29)= -5.34, p<.001, respectively. Following supplementation, female swimmers excreted significantly more urinary caffeine than males, M=3.59 mg.ml-1, SD=2.23 vs. M=2.09 mg.ml-1, SD=1.68, t(28)= -2.11, p=.044, respectively.

Overall, caffeine supplementation was found to significantly improve time trials of trained colligate swimmers. Additional studies are needed to identify factors associated with the variation of urinary caffeine excretion values observed between female and male athletes.

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Differences of body dimensions in female volleyball players (cadets) in relation to volleyball playing position

Submitted by Aleksandra Vujmilović and Tamara Karalić

ABSTRACT
This research presents a test of the hypothesis that there are differences in morphological characteristics, which affect effective realization of the elements of the game, which are influenced by many factors from the area of anthropological status of the volleyball players. The study examines the relations of body-dimensions of cadet female volleyball players and provides the answers to a question of how different are they in that segment, depending on which position in the team they play. The research was conducted on a sample of 55 female volleyball players. The sample was grouped as follows: opposites, middle blockers, outside hitters, setters and liberos. To determine the physical size differences between groups, the authors used the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA), while for the precise determination of the sources of variability between groups the authors used a Post Hoc analysis, Tukey HSD test as a method of multiple comparisons. A model of physical dimensions was used, that contains the five (5) variables: body height (ATV), range of hands (RAR), body weight (ATT), maximum reach with one hand from a place (MDOH1RM) and maximum reach with two hands from a place (MDOH2RM). With this model the differences have been found in body height (ATV) p=0.001, range of hands (RAR) p=0.003, maximum reach with one hand from a place (MDOH1RM) p=0.000, and maximum reach with two hands from a place (MDOH2RM) p=0.000. Based on the results of a post hoc analysis, statistically significant differences have appeared between the group Liberos and other groups of specialists. In scientific research practice there is a lack of research of this kind. In this sense, this research is conceived as a small contribution to the advancement of the profession especially in the domain of training technologies and optimal functioning of female volleyball players in training process, and manner of its planning and programming.
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World Masters Games: North American Participant Medical and Health History Survey

Submitted by Mark DeBeliso, Joe Walsh, Mike Climstein, Ian Timothy Heazlewood, Jyrki Kettunen, Trish Sevene and Kent Adams

ABSTRACT

Athletes competing at the World Masters Games have either initiated exercise later in life or pursued a physically active lifestyle for an extended period.  There is a paucity of information regarding the prevalence of chronic health disorders for this unique cohort of mature adults.  PURPOSE: To investigate the different aspects of health of the Sydney 2009 World Masters Games North American participants.  METHODS: An online survey was developed to investigate participant demographics, physiological measures of health, and medical health history.  Questionnaire responses were collected from competitors representing 95 countries in 28 sports.  Data were culled to focus on North American participants for comparison purposes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention).  RESULTS: A total of 928 participants from Canada and the United States (age 52.6±9.8 yrs) completed the survey, with 55% reported having previously competed in the World Masters Games.  The top five sports were football (25.6%), track and field (15.4%), swimming (8.4%), volleyball (8.2%), and softball (7.8%).  Very few (2.5%) reported currently smoking with an average of 65 cigarettes per week, while 13.6% were ex-smokers.  Alcohol consumption (82.0% of the participants) averaged 4.7 drinks week, while 0.6% were ex-drinkers.  The top five chronic disorders were rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis (10.0%), hypertension (HTN 9.1%), hyperlipidemia (8.0%), asthma (6.5%), and depression (5.3%).  Top three operative treatments were knee replacement or repair (12.2%), hernia repair (6.1%), and herniated disc surgery (2.0%).  Top four prescription medications were anti-HTN (6.9%), thyroid hormones (6.6%), hypolipidaemic (6.0%), and medications to increase bone strength (5.9%).  Prevalence was significantly lower versus the general US population for HTN, hyperlipidemia, arthritis, asthma, and depression (all p-values <0.01).  CONCLUSION: Chronic disease and disorder indicators reported by participants of the 2009 World Masters Games were significantly lower versus the general US population.  APPLICATIONS IN SPORT: Competitive sport in mature aged participants requires adherence with physical activity.  Exercise adherence in competitive masters sport may promote successful aging and a counter measure to many chronic diseases.
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Position-Specific Task, Strength, and Performance Comparisons between NCAA Division I Offensive and Defensive Linemen

Submitted by Garrett M. Hester, Bert H. Jacobson, Ty B. Palmer, Doug B. Smith and Matthew S. O’Brien

ABSTRACT

The ultimate goal of strength and conditioning practitioners is to improve performance on the field.  To date, little data exist that provides evidence of strong relationships between selected exercises and sport-specific tasks.  PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a position-specific task on the MAXX Football Sled Device (MX) between NCAA Division I offensive (OL) and defensive linemen (DL) and to determine the associations among selected strength and performance variables with results on the MX.  METHODS: Offensive (n = 12) and defensive linemen (n = 14) (age 20.11 ±1.49 yrs) performed 10 “fire-off-and-drive” repetitions on the MX from a three-point stance.  Data relative to force (N) and movement time (MT) was collected for each repetition on the MX.  The duration between each repetition was automatically randomized between 6 to 10 sec.  Strength and performance data including 1 RM of the squat, bench press, and power clean, along with vertical jump, 10 yd sprint, 40 yd sprint, and body fat percentage were gathered as part of seasonal standard assessment.  RESULTS: Results yielded significant differences in body weight, sprint performances, 1 RM squat, and a near significant difference in MT (p = 0.052) between OL and DL.  With respect to performance on the MX, there were no significant associations among selected strength and performance measures and MT on the MX.  Although insignificant, force on the MX was found to have moderate associations with the 10 yd sprint (r = .457) and 1 RM power clean (r = .463).  CONCLUSIONS: Primarily, these results point out that little carry over exists between the standard exercises performed and the task performed on the MX.  Further research for the purpose of finding exercises that correlate with a position-specific task in these athletes is warranted.  APPLICATION IN SPORT: A priority among practitioners is to remain cognizant of the positional role differences and distinct physical characteristics between OL and DL.  The OL and DL positions should be categorized separately so that specific evaluative and training needs can be met for each position.
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