The Benefits of Bidding and Hosting the Olympic Games are Difficult to Justify Due to the Overall Costs

Authors: Edward Burgo and Fred J. Cromartie

Corresponding Author:
Fred J. Cromartie
Director of Doctoral Studies
One Academy Drive
Daphne, AL 36526

In the final year of his doctoral coursework at the United States Sports Academy (USSA), Edward currently works as a counselor at Pascagoula High School in Pascagoula, Mississippi. Having run and coached the Nicholls State University cross country team, he has enjoyed working with adolescents in athletics and academics for the past 42 years. In sports, amateurism has always interested Edward; so the connection to Olympism turned into an obvious course of study making his choice to attend USSA a great decision. Son to Edward Senior and Janice Burgo, Edward was the oldest of five children and contributes his drive and passion to his parents and gives great credit to Dr. Fred Cromartie for encouragement to continue on the path of education. Special thanks given to Coach Eddie Cole, Coach M.T. Tatum and Brother John Hotstream for mentorship and contributions to the success Edward has been blessed to receive.

Dr. Fred J. Cromartie, is the Director of Doctoral Studies at the United States Sports Academy.

The Benefits of Bidding and Hosting the Olympic Games are Difficult to Justify Due to the Overall Costs

In examining the high cost of placing a bid or hosting the Olympic Games, cities face a dilemma. Benefits and risks may not be worth the investments. Data were used from past Olympic successes and failures with the addition of comparable events and outcomes. Tangible and intangible results were considered in establishing benefit justification. Studies find that bidding cities as well as host cities seem to benefit through world recognition; however, the cost is extreme and creates questions about financial risks. Poor countries seem to be apprehensive due to the capital investments involved leaving opportunity for the affluent countries to invest money in infrastructure. The attraction of world-wide attention allows the wealthy countries an opportunity to risk capital with the possibility of stimulating the economy through tourism and trade.
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Incorporating Professional and Executive Coaching with Sport Coaching

Authors: Jonathan Armold

Corresponding Author:
Jonathan Armold
1721 Riviera Drive
Plano TX, 75034

Jonathan Armold is a current professional baseball coach in the Texas Rangers baseball organization. He has graduated with a Master’s Degree in Organizational Behavior with a specialty in Professional and Executive Coaching from the University of Texas at Dallas.

Incorporating Professional and Executive Coaching with Sport Coaching

Sport coaching has long been a very traditional and dogmatic field that is often directive-oriented with a base of instruction that is very “one-size fits all.” Undoubtedly, there have been incredible improvements in the past couple of decades as it relates to sport and exercise sciences; our physical training methods and techniques have been enhanced as we develop world-class athletes at higher and higher levels. While the systems and methods for athletes’ physical development have been improved by coaches, the traditional method of coaching has remained somewhat unchanged. Through my own experiences as a former amateur and professional athlete, as well as a former amateur and current professional coach, sports athletes are often very specifically told what to do and how to do it, rather than allowed the freedom to learn and discover for themselves. While this type of coaching and instruction still may lead to success, as indicated by the wide number of professional athletes across multiple sports who have been coached and instructed in such a fashion, it is my contention that this coaching model is neither the most effective nor the most enjoyable for the athlete. Contrary to the generic, traditional method of coaching that occurs in sport coaching, executive and professional coaching is an inquiry-based approach to personal and professional development that aims to allow for self-discovery and awareness, eventually creating action and growth.
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Academic Accommodations for a Countywide Concussion High School Program

Authors: Ashley D. Lopez, M.S.; Michelle Shnayder; Bryan Pomares, M.H.S.; Jonathan Siegel; Kester Nedd, D.O.; Gillian Hotz, Ph.D.

Corresponding Author:
Gillian Hotz, Ph.D.
1095 NW 14th Ter
Miami, FL 33136

Gillian A. Hotz, PhD is a research professor at the University Of Miami Miller School Of Medicine and a nationally recognized behavioral neuroscientist and expert in pediatric and adult neurotrauma, concussion management, and neurorehabilitation. Dr. Hotz is the director of the KiDZ Neuroscience Center, WalkSafe and BikeSafe programs, and has been co-director of the Miller School of Medicine’s Concussion Program since 1995. She continues to assess and treat many athletes from Miami-Dade County public and private high schools, University of Miami, and from other colleges and the community.
Academic Accommodations for a Countywide Concussion High School Program


To describe a symptom-based distribution of Return to Learn school academic accommodations for adolescent student-athletes recovering from sports-related concussions that can be facilitated as part of their post-injury clinical care. The aim was also to explore demographic and recovery differences between those patients who received and did not receive accommodations.

Adolescent student-athletes from 35 public high schools were eligible for this study. Data collected included their demographics, clinical assessment, and ImPACT (ImPACT Applications, Inc.) testing performance prior to and following a concussion. Student-athletes receiving accommodations were compared with an age-matched comparison group that did not receive accommodations.

Between January 2014 and January 2017, 308 Miami-Dade County public high school student-athletes were seen at the University of Miami’s UConcussion Clinic. Of these, 72 received school accommodations and 236 did not. The first clinical visit for these athletes was a mean of 14 days post injury with mean recovery time and return to play of 25 days. Significant differences were found among female student-athletes as well as patients reporting more initial symptoms despite similar demographics and baseline ImPACT scores.

Concussed adolescent student-athletes, particularly females, reporting greater symptom complaints during their first clinical encounter, may benefit most from a collaborative treatment approach including school accommodations that are individualized and specifically targeted. Future research should continue to investigate accommodation adherence and long-term concussion recovery.

Applications In Sports
Student-athletes receiving academic accommodations may return to play sooner, as academic accommodations allow them to recover from injuries at a quicker pace.
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What Executives Can Learn from Pete Carril – Princeton’s Hall of Fame Men’s Basketball Coach

Francis Petit, Ed.D.
Associate Dean for Global Initiatives and Partnerships
Adjunct Associate Professor of Marketing
Fordham University
Gabelli School of Business
140 West 62nd Street – Room 222
New York, New York 10023
(212) 636 7429 – work
(646) 256 2991 – mobile

Francis Petit serves as associate dean for global initiatives and partnerships and also serves as an adjunct associate professor of marketing at the Gabelli School of Business where he teaches a Sports Marketing course. Dr. Petit has established executives programs in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

Corporations within the United States spend over $70 billion per year on corporate training with “Leadership Development” as the top expenditure. With this as a background, the purpose of this research was to provide an alternative mechanism for learning for today’s executive. More specifically, a historical study was conducted on the professional life of Coach Pete Carril, a legendary now retired Hall of Fame Men’s Basketball Coach from Princeton University. The findings of this study indicate that there are key learning takeaways, from a leadership development perspective, for today’s executive within areas such as Honesty, Innovation, Self-Awareness, and Perspective. The overall goal of this study was to determine if there existed key learning takeaways for today’s executive from a nontraditional but legendary coach and leader.
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Career and Educational Experiences of High School Athletic Directors: A Multi-level Perspective

Brian Fowler – Sport Administration, University of Northern Colorado, CO, USA
Jimmy Smith, Ph. D – Sport & Physical Education, Gonzaga University, WA, USA
Jesse E. Croskrey – Sport & Physical Education, Gonzaga University, WA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Brian Fowler
1006 Lucca Dr.
Evans, CO 80620

Brian Fowler is a Ph. D student in Sports Administration at the University of Northern Colorado.
Jimmy Smith is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sport and Physical Education at Gonzaga University.
Jesse E. Croskrey is graduate of the Masters in Sport and Athletic Administration program at Gonzaga University. 
Career and educational experiences of high school athletic directors: A multi-level perspective

High school athletic directors (AD) play a crucial role in the administration of high school sports. Over the past several decades, participation in high school athletics has increased, placing ADs with additional responsibilities. Many duties include student-athlete development, transportation, technology, legal issues, marketing, fund-raising, and more recently, concussions. As duties and responsibilities increase, high school principals find the hiring of ADs more challenging. The current research reviewed career and educational experiences of high school ADs; looking at what principals look for in their ADs and comparing their responses to ADs resumés. A total of 112 Washington State high school principals completed surveys and 37 ADs submitted resumés for comparison. Results showed that principals preferred ADs to have coursework background in law, ethics, budget, and finance. Principals rated experience as a head coach the highest among professional experiences and results showed a majority of ADs had such experience. Implications of results suggested that principals can make more sound decisions as they hired ADs. Individuals looking to become an AD can shape their career path to meet the expectations of principals.
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