The Effect of Competition Level on Penalties and Injuries in Youth Soccer

Authors: Stephanie Walsh, Nicole Walden, and Tamerah Hunt

Corresponding Author:
Tamerah Hunt, Ph.D., ATC
Department of Health Sciences and Kinesiology
PO BOX 8076
Statesboro, GA 30460
thunt@georgiasouthern.edu
912-478-8620

Stephanie Walsh, BS, ATC is a 2nd year master’s student in the M.S in Kinesiology, concentration in athletic training at Georgia Southern University.

Nicole Walden, BS is a 2nd year master’s student in the M.S in Kinesiology, concentration in sport and exercise psychology at Georgia Southern University.

Dr. Tamerah Hunt, Ph.D., ATC is an Associate Professor and program coordinator of the M.S. Kinesiology concentration in athletic training at Georgia Southern University.

The Effect of Competition Level on Penalties and Injuries in Youth Soccer

ABSTRACT

There are an estimated 3 million youth soccer participants in the United States. As concern rises for the safety of youth athletes, organizations are changing the rules to make the game safer, potentially resulting in more penalized behaviors. Differences in competition levels may contribute to varying numbers of fouls and injuries. PURPOSE: Examine the effect of competition level on the number of fouls and injuries in youth soccer. METHODS: During the competitive season, two soccer organizations were observed to examine behaviors associated with sportsmanship, fouls, and injuries during a game situation. The organizations consisted of teams from a recreation department and a travel academy soccer club located in South Georgia. Teams consisted of male and female athletes ranging from 6-16 years old, whom were divided by pre-determined age groups within the leagues. Observational data was collected on game statistics which included spectator, coach and athlete behavior, as well as fouls and injuries, within the soccer organizations. A total of 86 recreational (n=52) and club (n=34) games were observed. RESULTS: Club soccer teams had a greater number of fouls (n=224, mean ± SD 1.22 ± 1.28, ranging from 0-18) compared to recreational teams (n=61, mean ± SD 1.22 ± 1.28, ranging from 0-5). The number of injuries were not affected by the level of competition in club (n= 26; 0.76 + 0.99, ranging from 0-3 per game) and recreation (n=27; mean ± SD 0.53 ± 0.83, ranging from 0-3) youth soccer teams. CONCLUSION: This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that competition level may be the driving force of behaviors that lead to penalties. Regardless of the number of penalties for both organizations, the number of injuries were minuscule; thus, severing the link between aggressive behaviors and injury in youth soccer. Therefore, it seems that a greater level of competition in youth soccer leads to more fouls, but not more injuries. Future research should consider situational factors that may impact these findings such as coaches and parent’s behaviors throughout the game.

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2020-06-02T13:39:47-05:00May 15th, 2020|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on The Effect of Competition Level on Penalties and Injuries in Youth Soccer

How the Perceived Effectiveness of a Female Coach is influenced by their Apparent Masculinity / Femininity

Authors: Paula Murraya, Rhiannon Lordb, & Ross Lorimerb (aLoughborough College, UK, bAbertay University, UK)

Corresponding Author:
Dr Ross Lorimer
Abertay University
Dundee, UK, DD1 1RG
Ross.Lorimer@Abertay.ac.uk
+44 (0)1382 308426

How the Perceived Effectiveness of a Female Coach is Influenced by their Apparent Masculinity / Femininity

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate how the apparent masculinity/femininity of a coach influenced others’ perceptions of their ability to interact successfully with their athletes.  Seventy-three participants (44 males, 29 females, Mage=23.8 SD= ± 8.41) watched four videos depicting a coach working with a group of athletes.  Each video was the same but featured the four combinations of masculinised/feminised coach and male/female athletes.  Participants rated the coach on perceived relationship quality, empathy, and competency.  There was a main effect in relationship quality (closeness) and three of four subscales of coaching competency, with the masculinised coach rated higher than the feminised coach.  There was also a non-significant trend for the feminised coach to score higher in relationship quality and competency when working with male athletes compared to female athletes, and the masculinised coach to score higher with females.  For affective empathy, there was a main effect for athlete sex, with both coaches rated higher working with male athletes.  There was also a non-significant trend for both coaches’ cognitive empathy to be rated higher when working with male athletes.  The perception of the masculinity/femininity of a coach influences how others understand their interactions even when the behaviors of that coach are similar across situations. Coaches need to be aware that gender-based stereotypes may influence how others perceive their competency. This could potentially affect coach effectiveness and career progression.

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2020-03-27T08:58:21-05:00April 24th, 2020|Research, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on How the Perceived Effectiveness of a Female Coach is influenced by their Apparent Masculinity / Femininity

An Empirical Investigation of the Variables Influencing Contributions in NCAA Division I Athletics: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Kyle J. Brannigan, University of Northern Colorado & Dr. Alan L. Morse, University of Northern Colorado

Corresponding Author:
Kyle J. Brannigan
4750 W29th Street APT 1210
Greeley CO, 80634
Kbrannigan429@gmail.com
845-216-0965

Second Author:
Dr. Alan L. Morse
Butler-Hancock 261A University of Northern Colorado Sports & Exercise Science
Campus Box 118
Greeley, CO 80639
Alan.Morse@unco.edu

An Empirical Investigation of the Variables Influencing Contributions in NCAA Division I Athletics: A Quantitative Analysis

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to identify variables that influence contributions to help athletic departments become more efficient with their fundraising efforts. In addition, this study was expected to provide a better understanding of the effect each explanatory variable has on contributions. The researchers conducted a multiple linear regression, using the data, which spanned over three years (2015, 2016, and 2017), to investigate what factors influence contributions to Division I, public schools, in the Power Five conferences. A regression was conducted to clarify further the studies significance. The researchers tested for assumptions, collinearity, correlations, normality, and variance. The significant variables in the study were 1) Average announced attendance for football 2) Enrollment, 3) Football winning percentage 4) Population of Metropolitan Statistical Area or MSA, 5) Fundraising years of experience. In addition, every conference was significant with the Southeastern Conference having the largest part correlation, which demonstrated influence for each variable. Other interesting findings in this study were overall ticket sales were almost significant and Texas A&M is an influential observation because its contributions are much higher than other institutions. The results of this study may aid athletic departments in determining focus to maximize donations. As enrollment was a significant factor, the results further strengthen the case that athletic departments should be using their alumni bases even more to solicit donations. Another implication is that getting into a Power 5 conference can help your contribution levels. In addition, it is crucial for athletic departments to focus on hiring experienced directors of fundraising to guide the staff in maximizing donations. Lastly, athletic departments may want to continue using ticket sales to solicit donations. If athletic departments take into consideration variables that affect donations the most and focus on these variables, they may be able to increase overall athletic donations.

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2020-06-02T13:41:08-05:00April 17th, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on An Empirical Investigation of the Variables Influencing Contributions in NCAA Division I Athletics: A Quantitative Analysis

Progressive Movement Training: An Analysis of its Effects on Muscular Strength and Power Development

Authors: Orrin Whaley, Abigail Larson, Mark DeBeliso

Corresponding Author:
Orrin Whaley, BS
568W 200N
Provo UT, 84601
orrinwhaley@yahoo.com
801-361-2390

Orrin Whaley is a student at Southern Utah University. Upon the completion of this research project he will earn a MS in Sports Conditioning and Performance.

Progressive Movement Training: An Analysis of its Effects on Muscular Strength and Power Development

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Muscular strength and power are important attributes in many sports, so research on training methods that may improve these attributes is of high interest. One such training method is PMT, which incorporates a partial ROM movement with a supramaximal load. This study attempted to compare PMT to traditional full ROM training by comparing 1 RM back squat, vertical jump height, and power output scores from the two groups. Methods: Thirty-six high school male subjects were randomized to participate in a 7-week squat program in either the PMT group (n=21) or the full ROM group (n=15). The subject’s weight, 1 RM back squat, and vertical jump were measured prior to and upon completion of the training program. Power output was calculated using the subject’s weight and vertical jump height (8). Results: The study included 36 male high school students who were enrolled in a weight training class (n=15 in the full ROM group and n=21 in the PMT group). The PMT group saw significant (p<.001) increases in vertical jump performance (cm) and power output (watts) from pretest to posttest, but the full ROM did not. Significant increases (p<.001) in back squat strength were observed in both groups from the pretest to the post-test. The percent improvement from pretest to posttest was compared between groups on all three performance measures, with no significant differences found (p>.05), indicating that both forms of resistance training provide comparable benefits for increasing lower body strength and power. Conclusion: PMT is as effective and may be more effective than full ROM training for increasing lower body strength and power.

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2020-06-02T13:47:07-05:00April 10th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Progressive Movement Training: An Analysis of its Effects on Muscular Strength and Power Development

The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Leadership Styles, and Burnout in NCAA Coaches

Authors: Luna Ugrenovic, M.S., West Virginia University, Kimberly Shaffer, Ph.D., Barry   University, Nataniel Boiangin, Ph.D., Barry University

Corresponding Author:
Luna Ugrenovic, M.S.
478 Harding Avenue Apt. 4
Morgantown, WV, USA, 26505
luna.ugrenovic@gmail.com
786-617-9425

Luna Ugrenovic is a first-year Ph.D. student at West Virginia University (WVU) studying Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology concurrently with Master’s in Clinical Mental Health Counseling. She is also a graduate teaching assistant and mental performance consultant trainee working with the WVU DI rowing team as well as WVU law school. 

The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Leadership Styles, and Burnout in NCAA Coaches

ABSTRACT 

Burnout in coaches has been a concerning issue for many years. It can lead to a host of medical, psychological, emotional and performance-related issues. One of the many factors that correlates with burnout is emotional intelligence (EI; 22). Additionally, research supports various leadership styles that correlate with perceived burnout in different ways (32). The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between EI, leadership styles, and perceived burnout as well as the moderating role of leadership styles on the relationship between EI and perceived burnout in NCAA coaches. The full range leadership model (2) was used in this study and proposes that there are transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership styles. A total of 244 (n = 140 male, n = 103 female, n = 1 undisclosed) coaches participated from across all three NCAA divisions. Represented sports were field/cross country, basketball, lacrosse, soccer, swimming, volleyball, and a variety of others. Consistent with previous research, the results indicated a significant moderate negative relationship between EI and perceived burnout (r = -.38, p = .000) as well as a significant weak negative relationship between transformational leadership style and perceived burnout (r = -.24, p = .000). Additionally, there was a significant weak positive relationship between passive-avoidant leadership style and perceived burnout (r = .25, p = .000). Furthermore, passive-avoidant leadership style showed a negative moderating effect on the relationship between EI and perceived burnout, accounting for 20% of the variance in perceived burnout. This means that passive-avoidant leadership weakened the negative relationship between EI and perceived burnout. Thus, coaches who are predominately passive-avoidant leaders may be more likely to experience burnout symptoms despite their high EI. Consequently, the results underline the importance of developing strong leadership competences as well as EI in NCAA coaches to decrease or even prevent burnout.  

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2020-03-04T11:00:03-06:00March 27th, 2020|Research, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Leadership Styles, and Burnout in NCAA Coaches