Investigation of Corporate Social Responsibility Activities (CSR) of Fan Organizations

Authors: Ugur Sonmezoglu*(1)

(1) Ugur Sonmezoglu is a Research Assistant Dr. in the Department of Sport Management at the Pamukkale University, Turkey.

*Corresponding Author:
Ugur Sonmezoglu, Ph.D.
Faculty of Sport Sciences, Pamukkale University
Kinikli, Denizli, 20140
ugur_81@hotmail.com
+90-258-2961442

ABSTRACT
The aim of this research was to reveal purposes and effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of fan clubs. Qualitative research methods were used in the research. Interview and document analysis method were used as a data collection tool. 20 activities of Besiktas (BJK) Karadeniz Eregli Association, Fenerbahçe (FB) Biga Associations, FB Bolu Association, Trabzonspor (TS) Vira Fan Group and Galatasaray (GS) Ultraslan fan clubs, making up the sampling group of the research, were examined by document analysis method. Subsequently, interviews were held with the representatives of these fan organizations. According to the research results, it was revealed that the purposes of fan organizations in CSR activities were dissemination of social awareness, social benefit and realization of advocacy mission; and a process was followed up such as receiving requests from the needy for CSR activities, partnership with non-governmental organizations, fundraising, revenue item formation, and usage of social media and communication tools; and professional approach style in CSR activities, encouragement by the club and the size of fan organizations in social media access webs gave an advantage to CSR projects to succeed.

Moreover, it was observed that CSR activities of fan organizations had favorable effects on the soccer clubs such as strengthening of club image, increasing fan loyalty, gaining supporters and financial contribution to the club. Finally, it was observed that CSR activities had favorable effects on the approach of soccer club to fan organizations, differentiation of fan organization from other fan organizations, on forming good relationships with other fan organizations, on gaining respect, trust and image to fan organization, mingling in fan organizations, growth of fan organizations and increase in loyalty to fan organizations.

KEYWORDS: Fan Organizations, Corporate Social Responsibility, Qualitative Research
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Olympic Sports of the Future

Authors: Dr. Ray Stefani*(1)

(1) Dr. Ray Stefani is a Professor Emeritus, California State University, Long Beach

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Ray Stefani
25032 Via Del Rio
Lake Forest, CA, 92630
Raymond.stefani@csulb.edu
949-586-1823

ABSTRACT
This paper explores possible future Olympic sports by examining the past. The ancient Olympic Games began in 776 BC with just one running event. Over the centuries, five more Track and Field (Athletics) events were added as well as four other sports with 22 events. These new sports kept the Olympics relevant to the times and interesting enough that the Games survived until 277 AD, At least two emperors competed and became Olympic champions. During the modern Olympic Games though 1992, organizers provided flair by adding non-medal demonstration sports, albeit in a rather haphazard manner, some of which became permanent sports. As the number of events rose to fill the available time period of both the Summer and Winter Olympics, a rather rigid system was used to limit the number of sports. That system had less-than-ideal success in adding new sports, which had to be at the expense of deleting older sports. The International Olympic Committee recently enacted Olympic Agenda 2020, which includes a much more flexible system for adding new sports. Under control of the International Olympic Committee Executive Board, an organizing Committee may request to add medal sports for that Games and that same IOC Committee can add new sports permanently, by modifying the number of events, without necessarily dropping existing sports. This paper examines the recent request by the 2020 Tokyo Organizing Committee as well the complete list of recognized sports from which new sports must be drawn, to gauge the possible types of future Olympic sports.

Keywords: Olympics, Ancient Olympics, recreational sports, future Olympic sports, official Olympic sports, recognized Olympic sports
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The Multi-Sport Sampling Plan: A Price Bundling Option for Collegiate Athletics

Authors: Mark Mitchell*(1) and Dennis Rauch (2)

(1) Mark Mitchell (DBA, Mississippi State) is Professor of Marketing and Chair of the Department of Marketing and Hospitality at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.

(2) Dennis Rauch (PhD, University of Iowa) is Professor of Marketing at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.

*Corresponding Author:
Mark Mitchell, DBA
Chair, Dept. of Marketing and Hospitality
Professor of Marketing
NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative (FAR)
Coastal Carolina University
P. O. Box 261954
Conway, SC 29528
mmitchel@coastal.edu
(843) 349-2392

ABSTRACT
This manuscript examines the potential for a Multi-Sport Sampling Plan as a price bundling strategy for collegiate athletics. Here, fans would receive entry to one game per sport to be used at their discretion. Such a sampling plan could increase current revenue and fan attendance while concurrently developing future ticket sales opportunities to these new fans based on their positive game day experience. This manuscript examines: (1) current price bundling strategies in the hospitality industry applied to athletics; (2) local market conditions that could aid in the successful development of a Multi-Sport Sampling Plan, and (3) implementation issues for athletic ticketing professionals.

KEYWORDS: ticket mini plans, athletic ticketing, price bundling Continue reading

Examination of Gender Equity and Female Participation in Sport

Author: Joshua A. Senne*(1)

(1) Joshua A. Senne is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy located in Daphne, Alabama. His doctoral emphasis is sports fitness and health, with a specialization in sport marketing. He currently holds a master of science in recreation and sport management from Indiana State University, a business credential from the Harvard Business School, and is a Stanford Certified Project Manager.

*Corresponding Author:
Joshua Senne, MS, SCPM
5068 Argus Dr. Apt 1
Los Angeles, CA 90041
jasenne@students.ussa.edu
225-202-6787

ABSTRACT
This paper presents an overview of five topics related to gender equity and sports. These topics include (a) history of gender equity in sports and Title IX, (b) gender equity in sport governance, (c) gender equity issues in athletics, (d) gender equity, sports participation, and Title IX, (e) and gender equity in coed sports. For each topic, the author presents an overview as well as a reason for selecting the topic. Further, the author presents information about the importance of each topic to gender equity in sports, plus any relevant social, ethical, or legal concerns.

KEYWORDS:gender equity, sports, sports governance, Title IX, coed sports.
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An Investigation into Factors that Contribute to the Perception of Disparities between Academic Achievement and Athletic Participation in High School Student-Athletes

Submitted by Dr. Kechia Seabrooks Rowles*(1)
(1)Athletic Coordinator for Rockdale County Public Schools in Conyers, Ga.

*Corresponding Author
Dr. Kechia Seabrooks Rowles
United States Sports Academy
85 Fox Glove Drive
Covington, GA 30016
krowles@rockdale.k12.ga.us

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare various factors that contribute to the attitudes and perceptions held by public high school student- athletes towards academic achievement. During the 2014-2015 academic year, 323 student-athletes completed a 110 question survey packet that included, the Non Cognitive Questionnaire (NCQ), the Athletic Identity Measure Scale (AIMS), the Student Athletic Motivation Survey and Questionnaire (SAMSAQ), the Student-Athlete Role Conflict Scale and the Sport Commitment Model (SCM), providing information about different aspects of the academic achievement and athletic participation relationship, including level of educational aspirations and academic self-concept, the internal struggle between the student and athlete identity complexes, and motivational drives of student-athletes. Student Participation was strictly voluntary and contingent upon the willingness of coaches and parental consent. Student-athletes generally viewed themselves as student-athletes and believed it is worth the effort to achieve athletic success but not at the expense of their academic performance. Analysis showed that gender may play a statistically significant role in student-athletes’ perception of academic performance and athletic participation while grade level, age and race were less meaningful. The researcher hopes these findings may encourage further research, and potentially aid parents, coaches, counselors and teachers in assisting student athletes with maintaining a balance between academics and athletics.
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