Leadership: Athletes and Coaches in Sport

Authors: Dr. Sharon P. Misasi*, Dr. Gary Morin and Lauren Kwasnowski

Dr. Sharon P. Misasi is a Professor of Exercise Science at Southern Connecticut State University. Dr. Gary Morin is a Professor of Exercise Science, Assistant Athletic Trainer and Program Director of the Athletic Training Education Program. Lauren Kwasnowski is a Research assistant for this study, undergraduate student in the Allied Health Program at the University of Connecticut and a member/captain of the UCONN Division I Lacrosse team.

*Corresponding Author:
Sharon P. Misasi PhD, AT.
Southern Connecticut State University
501 Crescent Street
PE 002B
New Haven CT 06515
misasis1@southernct.edu

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the interpersonal aspects and perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship as it pertains to collegiate athletes at Division I and II universities and athletes and coaches of different genders. Electronic surveys were emailed to 50 NCAA Division I and 50 Division II head coaches in the Northeast. Coaches were requested to respond to the survey and email the athlete survey to their respective athletes. These surveys were completed by both coaches and athletes: Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q), Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS). The final instrument, Coaching Behavior Scale for Sports (CBS-S), was completed by only the athletes. There were no significant differences found with the CART-Q. The LSS illustrated several areas of significances in the categories of Training, Democratic Behavior, Autocratic Behavior and Social Support. Although there was no significance found in Positive Feedback there was an interesting finding in that female coaches felt they were less likely to provide positive feedback than their male counterparts. The CBS-S has subscales which include: physical training and planning, technical skills, mental preparation, competition strategies, personal rapport and negative personal rapport. Statistical significance was found in the following subscales: competition strategies, personal rapport and negative personal rapport. The coach is a meaningful person in the lives of athletes and the role they play is vital in the athlete’s sport experience. Our results indicate that the level of competitive division appears to play a role in how athletes perceive their coaches and how coaches perceive themselves. In addition, gender differences among coaches’ affect responses of the athletes and the coaches. Leadership is not a simple process. There is no one way to lead and what works for one may not work for all. Therefore, the best one can do is get to know their athletes and work hard to understand their goals, motivations and needs.

KEYWORDS: Coaching, Effective Leadership, Successful Leadership

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Strategies for Working with First Time Marathon Runners

Authors: Leeja Carter(1), John Coumbe-Lilley, Ph.D.*(2) Ph.D., Brenton Anderson(3)

(1) Leeja Carter, PhD is an Assistant Professor in the Division of Athletic Training, Health, and Exercise Science (ATHES) as well as the Director of the Performance Excellence in Applied Kinesiology Lab (PEAK) at Long Island University-Brooklyn. Dr. Carter also serves as the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) Diversity Committee Chair, AASP Women in Sports Special Interest Group coordinator, and sits on the AASP Foundation Committee. Such professional experiences allow Dr. Carter to promote issues of diversity in exercise and sport psychology.

(2) John Coumbe-Lilley, Ph.D. is a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition at the University of Illinois-Chicago. Dr Coumbe-Lilley, is a Certified Consultant with the Association of Applied Sport Psychology and a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist. He is a member of the USOC sport psychology registry and a seasoned sport psychology consultant.

(3) Brenton Anderson, is a graduate student at Adler University.

*Corresponding Author:
John Coumbe-Lilley, PhD, CC-AASP, CSCS
University of Illinois at Chicago
Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition
901 W. Roosevelt Road
MC 194
Chicago IL , 60608
Jcoumb1@uic.edu
312-320-3501

ABSTRACT
Marathon running has increased in popularity and first time participants. Novice marathon runners are often highly motivated with positive attitudes at the start of their training. However, they are often unprepared for the mental and emotional demands of training and the race itself. This paper discusses the common psychological experience of “hitting the wall” and a range of challenges a novice might face on their way to race completion. A case example shows how a marathon runner might prepare to complete a marathon race and a multi-modal mental skills training approach is recommended as a complementary race preparation strategy to physical and technical preparation.

KEYWORDS: marathon, mental skills training, novice
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Investigation of Corporate Social Responsibility Activities (CSR) of Fan Organizations

Authors: Ugur Sonmezoglu*(1)

(1) Ugur Sonmezoglu is a Research Assistant Dr. in the Department of Sport Management at the Pamukkale University, Turkey.

*Corresponding Author:
Ugur Sonmezoglu, Ph.D.
Faculty of Sport Sciences, Pamukkale University
Kinikli, Denizli, 20140
ugur_81@hotmail.com
+90-258-2961442

ABSTRACT
The aim of this research was to reveal purposes and effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of fan clubs. Qualitative research methods were used in the research. Interview and document analysis method were used as a data collection tool. 20 activities of Besiktas (BJK) Karadeniz Eregli Association, Fenerbahçe (FB) Biga Associations, FB Bolu Association, Trabzonspor (TS) Vira Fan Group and Galatasaray (GS) Ultraslan fan clubs, making up the sampling group of the research, were examined by document analysis method. Subsequently, interviews were held with the representatives of these fan organizations. According to the research results, it was revealed that the purposes of fan organizations in CSR activities were dissemination of social awareness, social benefit and realization of advocacy mission; and a process was followed up such as receiving requests from the needy for CSR activities, partnership with non-governmental organizations, fundraising, revenue item formation, and usage of social media and communication tools; and professional approach style in CSR activities, encouragement by the club and the size of fan organizations in social media access webs gave an advantage to CSR projects to succeed.

Moreover, it was observed that CSR activities of fan organizations had favorable effects on the soccer clubs such as strengthening of club image, increasing fan loyalty, gaining supporters and financial contribution to the club. Finally, it was observed that CSR activities had favorable effects on the approach of soccer club to fan organizations, differentiation of fan organization from other fan organizations, on forming good relationships with other fan organizations, on gaining respect, trust and image to fan organization, mingling in fan organizations, growth of fan organizations and increase in loyalty to fan organizations.

KEYWORDS: Fan Organizations, Corporate Social Responsibility, Qualitative Research
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Olympic Sports of the Future

Authors: Dr. Ray Stefani*(1)

(1) Dr. Ray Stefani is a Professor Emeritus, California State University, Long Beach

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Ray Stefani
25032 Via Del Rio
Lake Forest, CA, 92630
Raymond.stefani@csulb.edu
949-586-1823

ABSTRACT
This paper explores possible future Olympic sports by examining the past. The ancient Olympic Games began in 776 BC with just one running event. Over the centuries, five more Track and Field (Athletics) events were added as well as four other sports with 22 events. These new sports kept the Olympics relevant to the times and interesting enough that the Games survived until 277 AD, At least two emperors competed and became Olympic champions. During the modern Olympic Games though 1992, organizers provided flair by adding non-medal demonstration sports, albeit in a rather haphazard manner, some of which became permanent sports. As the number of events rose to fill the available time period of both the Summer and Winter Olympics, a rather rigid system was used to limit the number of sports. That system had less-than-ideal success in adding new sports, which had to be at the expense of deleting older sports. The International Olympic Committee recently enacted Olympic Agenda 2020, which includes a much more flexible system for adding new sports. Under control of the International Olympic Committee Executive Board, an organizing Committee may request to add medal sports for that Games and that same IOC Committee can add new sports permanently, by modifying the number of events, without necessarily dropping existing sports. This paper examines the recent request by the 2020 Tokyo Organizing Committee as well the complete list of recognized sports from which new sports must be drawn, to gauge the possible types of future Olympic sports.

Keywords: Olympics, Ancient Olympics, recreational sports, future Olympic sports, official Olympic sports, recognized Olympic sports
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The Multi-Sport Sampling Plan: A Price Bundling Option for Collegiate Athletics

Authors: Mark Mitchell*(1) and Dennis Rauch (2)

(1) Mark Mitchell (DBA, Mississippi State) is Professor of Marketing and Chair of the Department of Marketing and Hospitality at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.

(2) Dennis Rauch (PhD, University of Iowa) is Professor of Marketing at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.

*Corresponding Author:
Mark Mitchell, DBA
Chair, Dept. of Marketing and Hospitality
Professor of Marketing
NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative (FAR)
Coastal Carolina University
P. O. Box 261954
Conway, SC 29528
mmitchel@coastal.edu
(843) 349-2392

ABSTRACT
This manuscript examines the potential for a Multi-Sport Sampling Plan as a price bundling strategy for collegiate athletics. Here, fans would receive entry to one game per sport to be used at their discretion. Such a sampling plan could increase current revenue and fan attendance while concurrently developing future ticket sales opportunities to these new fans based on their positive game day experience. This manuscript examines: (1) current price bundling strategies in the hospitality industry applied to athletics; (2) local market conditions that could aid in the successful development of a Multi-Sport Sampling Plan, and (3) implementation issues for athletic ticketing professionals.

KEYWORDS: ticket mini plans, athletic ticketing, price bundling Continue reading