An Exploration of State and Trait Anger, Anger Expression and Perfectionism in Collegiate Springboard Divers

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the
dimensions of perfectionism and various aspects of anger, such as state,
trait, and the expression of anger, for collegiate springboard divers.
The role of gender was also investigated. Forty women and 19 men were
administered the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2; Spielberger,
1999) and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (F-MPS; Frost,
Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). Data analysis showed no significant
differences between genders for any scales or subscales of anger or perfectionism.
State anger and its subscales were not significantly correlated with any
subscales of perfectionism. Anger expression scales were not found to
be significantly correlated with the subscales of perfectionism. Only
trait anger, and the subscale trait anger/ angry reaction, were found
to have significant relationships with the concern over mistakes dimension
of perfectionism. The perfectionism personal standards subscale was also
correlated with trait anger/ angry reaction.

Introduction

Many athletes strive to reach the highest levels of competition possible.
Competitors dream of the perfect game, performance, or skill execution
required of sport. Much time is invested into practice, conditioning,
and competition to provide athletes the best opportunity for a quality
experience. With such emphasis placed on attaining so difficult a goal,
resulting failures are to some extent inevitable. Individuals who exhibit
qualities characteristic of the construct “perfectionism”
may be significantly affected by these failures. How people experience
and react to failure is directly associated with the level and type of
perfectionism possessed. Those who demonstrate more adaptive perfectionistic
reactions to failures are more likely to express positive, or success
oriented, thoughts about sport. Those whose reactions align with maladaptive
perfectionism likely will exhibit negative, or failure oriented, behaviors
following failure in sport (Frost & Henderson, 1991; Hamachek, 1978).

The most common components present in the various definitions of perfectionism
are the engagement of actions and behaviors that lead to the setting of
exceptionally high standards for the purpose of being the best in a chosen
endeavor. These actions are often accompanied by highly self-critical
evaluations by the perfectionist (Burns, 1980; Frost, Marten, Lahart,
& Rosenblate, 1990; Hill, Zrull, & Turlington, 1997; Lombardi,
Florentino, & Lombardi, 1998).

Hamachek (1978) has characterized perfectionism as either normal (adaptive)
or neurotic (maladaptive). According to him, adaptive perfectionists are
those who set extremely high personal standards, are highly motivated
to do their best on every task attempted, experience pleasure while working
hard, and are able to recognize weaknesses which enable the individuals
to perceive themselves as successful, even when those high standards are
not met. In contrast, maladaptive perfectionists are characterized as
those who set unrealistic and inflexible goals, are driven by an intense
fear of failure, are extremely self-critical, and are unable to experience
satisfaction from accomplishments.

To measure perfectionism, a number of scales have been constructed (Anshel
& Eom, 2002; Burns, 1980; Garner, Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983; Randolph
& Dykman, 1998), two of which have been used the most consistently:
The Hewitt and Flett Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (HF-MPS; Hewitt
& Flett, 1991) and the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale
(F-MPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). The HF-MPS measures
three dimensions of perfectionism: Self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented
perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism. The F-MPS examines
an overall perfectionism score, and six independent dimensions of perfectionism:
Concern over mistakes, personal standards, doubts about actions, parental
expectations, parental criticism, and organization.

Perfectionists, maladaptive and adaptive, require that certain standards
for themselves, others, and situations be met. When results are not perceived
to be adequate by the perfectionist, an emotional response may be elicited.
One such emotion is anger (Saboonchi & Lundh, 2003). Anger can be
described as a state emotion, or as a trait personality characteristic.
Spielberger, Jacobs, Russell, and Crane (1983) have conceptualized state
anger as the experience of negative feelings similar to being annoyed
or irritated, or to a greater extent, filled with rage. During this experience,
the autonomic nervous system can become aroused to different degrees depending
on the situation. Spielberger et al. describe trait anger as how frequently
state anger is experienced.

An exploration of perfectionism and anger by Hewitt and Flett (1991)
was one of the first to examine how these constructs may be related. Using
data from 91 university students, the study concluded that self-oriented
and socially prescribed perfectionism were correlated with anger, with
socially prescribed perfectionism being more strongly related. These results
were inconsistent with Saboonchi and Lundh (2003) who found that in a
randomly selected sample of adult men and women with a mean age of 37
years, self-oriented perfectionism had a weak correlation with anger,
but other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism had no significant
relationship. This study concluded that anger in perfectionists was manifested
more so because of high goals not being achieved, than by any perception
regarding treatment by others. The age difference in the samples may have
confounded these results, as evidenced by another study (Hewitt et al.,
2002) using children which resulted in dissimilar conclusions. Unlike
earlier research, this study found no correlation between self-oriented
perfectionism and anger, but did indicate a relationship between socially
prescribed perfectionism and aspects of anger. This type of perfectionism
was shown to be positively correlated with outward expressions of anger
and negatively correlated with actions indicative of anger suppression.
This lack of a relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and anger
may be explained by children not holding themselves as accountable for
their actions as an adult might, and instead, lashing out at others who
are perceived to be placing unfair perfectionistic demands upon them.

The results of these studies, albeit somewhat inconclusive, do provide
evidence that socially prescribed perfectionism may have a slightly stronger
relationship with anger than with other dimensions of perfectionism. This
interesting association has seemingly been unexplored within the realm
of sport, despite consistent findings of perfectionism in athletes (Owens
& Slade, 1987) and an association between poor performances precluded
by high goal setting and anger (Fazackerley, Lane, & Mahoney, 2004).

Recently researchers began to examine perfectionism, anger, and sport
collectively. Valance and Dunn (2002a), using their newly developed sport-specific
version of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost, Marten,
Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990), found that with adolescent ice hockey
players, trait anger was highly correlated with the subscales concern
over mistakes and perceived coach pressure. Perceived coach pressure,
a subscale of the sport oriented version of the F-MPS, is similar to the
parental expectations subscale of the F-MPS. The results of this study
demonstrated a significant relationship between maladaptive perfectionism
and trait anger. A follow up study examining state anger and perfectionism
implemented a situation criticality variable. Youth ice hockey players
were measured for perfectionism and state anger in two scenarios which
had different degrees of criticality to the outcome of the competition.
The results indicated that maladaptive perfectionists had higher state
anger and experienced greater levels of anger following mistakes than
adaptive perfectionists during competition, particularly during a critical
time period. The study also concluded that situation criticality, or the
extent to which a situation within a competition is perceived as critical
to the outcome, was positively correlated with emotional responses during
competition (Vallance & Dunn, 2002b).

An aesthetic sport such as springboard diving has innate characteristics
that focus on attaining perfectly executed performances. As a subjectively
scored athletic event, there is a set “perfect” score, for
which divers aim. It is plausible to believe that this standard may draw
competitors in this sport towards perfectionistic thoughts and behaviors,
which in turn may lead to situations conducive to experiencing greater
levels of anger and anger expression. If an athlete who experiences anger
consistently while engaged in sport can become more aware of how that
anger may be stemming from maladaptive perfectionism, a greater understanding
regarding the ensuing dysfunctional beliefs and actions may be attained.
This may lead to a greater control over anger, more appropriate expressions
of anger, and potentially, performances that are less affected by experiences
of anger.

Statement of Purpose

The primary purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between
the concern over mistakes and personal standards dimensions of perfectionism
with the various scales and subscales of anger, as measured by the State-Trait
Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2; Spielberger, 1999). Secondary purposes
were to: a) examine how the parental criticism and parental expectations
subscales of perfectionism relate to state anger, trait anger, and anger
expression, and b) to explore how gender relates to the perfectionism-anger
relationships.

Methodology

Participants

Fifty-nine springboard divers, 19 men and 40 women, from varsity collegiate
teams throughout the United States participated in this study. The divers’
ages ranged from 18-26 years, had competed the previous two years, and
had a minimum of two years competitive experience. Competitive experience
was operationally defined as a minimum of six United States Diving sanctioned
meets or six NCAA Collegiate meets per year.

Instrumentations

The Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost, Marten, Lahart,
& Rosenblate, 1990) was used to assess the dimensions of perfectionism.
This scale consists of 35 items that use a five-point Likert scale ranging
from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 5 (Strongly agree). The scale measures overall
perfectionism and six independent dimensions of perfectionism. The subscales
are concern over mistakes (CM), personal standards (PS), parental expectations
(PE), parental criticism (PC), doubts about actions (DA), and organization
(ORG). The CM subscale measures the extent to which an individual reacts
negatively to one’s own mistakes. PS measures the extent to which
a person sets high standards. The PE subscales indicates the strength
of an individual’s perceptions regarding his or her parents’
setting of high standards for the individual. PC is a measure of how a
person perceives criticism from his or her parents regarding their performances.
The subscales DA and ORG measure how satisfied or dissatisfied an individual
is with a performance or project, and how important order and neatness
is to an individual, respectively. For greater interpretation of the scores,
a directional scale was added by the primary investigator of this study.
This seven-point Likert scale measures how an individual feels perfectionism
affects his or her performance. Overall internal reliability for F-MPS
has been reported at .90 (Parker & Adkins, 1995) and has been concurrently
validated by Frost et al. with the HF-MPS (Hewitt & Flett, 1991) and
the Burns Perfectionism Scale (Burns, 1980). Frost et al. also demonstrated
a Cronbach’s alpha of .91 for this scale.

The State Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (Spielberger, 1999) was
used to measure trait anger, state anger, and anger expression. The STAXI-2
is a 57-item scale which uses four-point Likert scales. The first part
of the STAXI-2 is the state anger (SANG) scale. It consists of fifteen
items measuring how intensely an individual experiences anger during either
the testing period, or a time or situation specified by the test administrator.
For this study, the individuals were directed to indicate how he or she
generally feels during a competition or practice. The Likert scale for
the state anger scale ranges from 1 (Not at all) to 4 (Very much so).
The state anger scale consists of three subscales: state anger / feeling
angry (SANGF), state anger / feel like expressing anger verbally (SANGV),
and state anger / feel like expressing anger physically (SANGP). The second
part of the STAXI-2 is the trait anger (TANG) scale. This scale consists
of ten items measuring an individual’s proneness to experience angry
feelings. The Likert scale for this measure ranges from 1 (Almost never)
to 4 (Almost always). Two subscales are used to comprise the TANG scale:
Trait anger / angry temperament (TANGT) and trait anger / angry reaction
(TANGR). The final part of this inventory measures the ways in which an
individual expresses and controls anger. These scales consist of 32 items
using the same Likert scale as the TANG scale. The following scales make
up this final part of the STAXI-2: The anger expression-out (AX-O) scale,
the anger expression-in (AX-I) scale, the anger control-out (AC-O) scale,
the anger control-in (AC-I) scale, and the anger expression index (AX).
Like the F-MPS, and additional seven-point Likert directional scale was
added to measure how an individual feels anger positively or negatively
affects performance. The three primary components of the STAXI-2 have
been concurrently validated by Spielberger with various subscales of the
Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (Buss & Durkee, 1957), Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory (Hathaway & McKinley, 1967), Spielberger’s
(1979) State-Trait Personality Inventory (as cited in Spielberger, 1999)
and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975).

Procedures

A packet containing a cover letter, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism
Scale, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, informed consent
forms, directions for the administration of the surveys, and a self-addressed
stamped envelope, was sent to university teams. The letter included a
rationale for the study and the possible benefits to springboard diving,
in addition to information on the length of time necessary to complete
the scales. A requested return date was also noted in the cover letter.
The informed consent form addressed issues regarding an assurance of confidentiality
and anonymity. The information in the packet was to be read by those administering
the scales.

The diving programs were contacted by either phone or email prior to
receiving the surveys. The scales were administered primarily in the practice
facilities for each team. Data were also collected at a diving competition
from those individuals who met the prerequisites. In this case, the packets
were distributed at a pre-competition meeting and were to be returned
as soon as possible. Most were returned by mail several weeks later.

A reminder email was sent two weeks prior to the return date. Packets
were mailed a second time to those programs who had requested an additional
packet. Collection ceased soon after the deadline had passed.

Results

Multiple Pearson’s Correlation analyses were conducted to examine
the relationships between: a) the F-MPS subscales CM and PS with all scales
and subscales of the STAXI-2, and b) the F-MPS subscales PE, PE, DA, and
ORG with the STAXI-2 scales SANG, TANG, and the AX Index. Because there
were 35 correlations examined and 10 independent t-tests analyzed, the
alpha level was adjusted to p < .01.

The subscale CM resulted in two significant correlations. TANG showed
a weak, positive relationship (r = .374, r2 = .140, p < .01), while
TANGR (r = .490, r2 = .240, p < .01) demonstrated a moderate, positive
relationship. No other scales or subscales of the STAXI-2 were found to
be significantly correlated with CM, and only one other scale approached
significance; AX-I (r = .310, r2 = .096, p = .019). Results for all correlations
for CM are shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3.

For the F-MPS subscale PS and the STAXI-2 scales and subscales, only
one significant correlation surfaced. TANGR was found to have a weak,
positive relationship with PS (r = .408, r2 = .166, p < .01). Two other
STAXI-2 scales approached significance: TANG (r = .307, r2 = .094, p =
.019) and AC-I (r = .310, r2 = .096, p = .018). The correlations for PS
are shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3.

For all other correlations examined, only one was found to be significant
at the alpha level of p < .01. PE was found to have a weak, positive
relationship with TANG (r = .397, r2 = .158, p < .01) as shown in Table
4.

To examine the differences between genders for the F-MPS subscales CM,
PS, PE and PC, four two-tailed independent t-tests were utilized. These
independent t-tests, along with all others used in this study, had an
alpha level adjusted to p < .01. Results show no significant differences
between men and women for the above constructs. See Table 5.

Three one-tailed independent t-tests revealed no significant differences
between genders on SANG, AX-I, and AX-O. See Table 6.

For the STAXI-2 scale TANG, a two-tailed independent t-test again resulted
in no significant differences between genders. See Table 7.

The directional scales added to the F-MPS and the STAXI-2 surveys also
resulted in no significant differences between genders. See Table 8.

To examine the differences between the correlations specified in the
hypotheses, a Fisher’s zr transformation was utilized. However,
only a single transformation contained at least one significant correlation,
thus essentially nullifying any significant results for all others, of
which there were none. The one Fisher’s zr transformation that did
contain a significant relationship, CM and PS for TANG, also resulted
in a non-significant difference between correlations.

Discussion

The data analysis on the relationship between the perfectionism subscales
and SANG resulted in unexpected outcomes. Individuals who score highly
on the CM subscale have an increased focus on errors (Frost, Marten, Lahart,
& Rosenblate, 1990) and have a greater desire to self-present positively
to others (Hamachek, 1978). Because athletes fitting this criterion are
less able to remove negative athletic related images from his or her mind
(Frost & Henderson, 1991) it was hypothesized that SANG would be positively
correlated with CM. Additionally, Hewitt and Flett (1991) found a correlation
between socially prescribed perfectionism and a measure of anger, which
although not specified, appeared to be more closely related to state anger.
Socially prescribed perfectionism has been found to be significantly correlated
with CM (Frost, Heimberg, Holt, Mattia, & Neubauer, 1993) but unexpectedly,
CM was not found to have a significant relationship with SANG for the
current study despite its correlation with AX-I approaching significance
(r = .310, r2 = .094, p = .019). This may lead to the conclusion that
those who score highly on CM may experience angry feelings, but perhaps
not during diving practice or competition, as only the SANG scale of the
STAXI-2 (Speilberger, 1999) inquires about emotions coinciding with the
diving experience.

Examining the subscales of SANG, and the relationships present with the
CM and PS subscales of perfectionism, resulted in additional counter-intuitive
findings. Vallance and Dunn (2002b) found that maladaptive perfectionists,
or those who’s CM score was high, had significant correlations with
SANGF and SANGV. The current study’s hypothesis proved to be incorrect,
in that CM did not have a significantly stronger correlation with these
subscales than did PS. In fact, PS had a stronger correlation with SANGF,
although none of these correlations were significant at p < .01.

The final SANG subscale, SANGP, also resulted in relationships with PS
and CM that were not significant. It was presumed that participating in
a sport in which the participant is under water and out of view immediately
following a performance, in addition to having the opportunity to leave
the immediate vicinity of the competitive venue during a competition or
practice, would increase the incidence of a diver’s desire to express
anger in a physical manner. Examples of these expressions might be hitting
walls under water, clenching fists or other muscles, or slamming lockers.
However, this proved not to be the case, and may be due to the fact that
two of the five items of the STAXI-2 (Spielberger, 1999) which measure
SANGP describe acting violent toward “somebody.” The participants
of this study may have interpreted “somebody” as someone else
in the practice or competition setting. In springboard diving, this is
not socially acceptable, as it may be in a few other sports, and would
potentially result in greater negative consequences.

TANG, and its subscale TANGR, were found to have the greatest number
of significant correlations. TANGR was significantly correlated with both
CM and PS, with CM having a stronger relationship. These results were
not unexpected as it follows logic that those who are most concerned with
how they appear to others naturally might experience greater levels of
anger in frustrating situations, or following a negative evaluation. However,
it was unexpected that CM had a significant relationship with TANG, but
PS did not. Hewitt and Flett’s (1991) self-oriented dimension of
perfectionism, which is significantly correlated with PS, has been found
to be positively correlated with TANG, but socially prescribed perfectionism,
which correlates with CM, was not (Saboonchi & Lundh, 2003). Because
of these previous findings, it was believed that PS would have a stronger
relationship with TANG than CM. However, results of this study showed
the opposite. These findings demonstrate some support the premise that
springboard divers who are more concerned about mistakes and how a performance
is evaluated may experience a greater frequency of angry emotions than
those who are more concerned with eclipsing self-imposed standards.

The perfectionism subscales examining perceptions of parents also resulted
in interesting findings. TANG was found to be significantly correlated
with PE, however PC was not. It appears that within the springboard diving
community, anger may be experienced in greater frequency by those who
perceive parents as having extremely high standards imposed on him or
her, than by those who perceive parents as overly critical for not meeting
certain standards. Perhaps this is due to other emotions being elicited
by those with overly critical parents, such as sadness, apathy, or resignation.
More research is needed in this area for a greater understanding of this
dynamic.

Examining gender in the context of perfectionism, anger, and springboard
diving also brought about interesting findings. Based on previous literature
(Anshel, & Eom, 2002; Flett, Hewitt, Endler, & Tassone, 1995;
Frost, Heimberg, Holt, Mattia, & Neubauer, 1993; Gotwals, Dunn, &
Wayment, 2003; Saboonchi, & Lundh, 2003) it was believed that perfectionism
would not be significantly different between genders. The results of this
study supported conclusions drawn in earlier research regarding the similarities
between how men and women experience perfectionism. What was surprising
were the differences between genders for the various scales and subscales
of anger.

Results for TANG and gender were consistent with the findings of Spielberger’s
(1999) investigation. There were no significant differences between gender
and the two subscales of TANG. This was also true for SANG and its subscales,
despite Spielberger’s findings demonstrating significantly higher
scores for men than women on each construct. In addition to Spielberger
(1999), Forgays, Forgays, and Spielberger (1997) revealed results supporting
the belief that men and women experience anger differently.

One possible explanation for the incongruence of SANG scores between
the current study and those cited above is that for Spielberger’s
(1999) study, survey items were to address the participant’s state
at the time of the test administration in a controlled setting. The participants
used in this study were asked to recall and indicate how he or she generally
felt during a competition or practice. It is possible that while diving,
similar state anger emotions may be elicited between genders, regardless
of how state anger is experienced in a more controlled setting.

With regard to anger expression, it was hypothesized that women would
score significantly higher on the AX-I scale, and men would score significantly
higher on the AX-O scale. Results showed neither to be supported, with
women actually scoring slightly higher on AX-O. It is less surprising
that AX-I scores were not significantly different, as Spielberger (1999)
had similar results. However, the assumption in this case was based on
previous findings that women experience shame with greater frequency,
and that shame is positively correlated with AX-I (Lutwak, Panish, Ferrari,
& Razzino, 2001). It was thought that being an elite athlete on display
in an individual sport such as diving, may have lead to increased instances
of shame if the athlete were to perform poorly. If this were the case,
women may experience shame with greater frequency than men, thus leading
to a greater propensity for experiencing and suppressing anger, as measured
by the AX-I scale. It appears, though, that participating in springboard
diving is not sufficient enough to alter the extent to which men and women
typically experience and suppress angry feelings.

Interestingly, women did score higher on AX-O, although not significantly.
These results refute the findings of Spielberger (1999) that men scored
significantly higher than women on this scale, and are even more noteworthy
when juxtaposed with Forgays, Forgays, and Spielberger’s (1997)
conclusion that the outward expression of anger is a more distinctive
and significant event for women than men. It is possible that the lack
of significant differences within this sample may be due to the disparity
in the number of men and women participants, but greater research is needed
regarding the uniqueness of the similarities between genders for these
typically asymmetric constructs.

Overall, findings in this study produced unexpected results. The similarities
between genders prompts the need for future research on how springboard
divers differ with samples derived from other sport populations. The relatively
small number of participants and the difference in the number of men and
women who participated may have affected these findings. Having only 59
participants may have decreased the power for the correlations and independent
t-tests to such an extent, that few correlations and independent t-tests
resulted in significance. Despite this possibility, it may be that there
is an aspect of springboard diving that either draws in a certain type
of individual to participate, or fosters similar personality characteristics
through participation.

The lack of variability in this sample decreases the ability of the results
of study to be generalizable to individuals who participate in other sports.
Because of this, differences between team and individual sports should
be examined in future studies. There appears to be a very small amount
of research examining perfectionism and anger in an athletic setting and
comparisons between team and individual sport participants has not been
a focus. With social evaluation and individualized standards, cornerstones
of the dimensions of perfectionism, varying greatly between team and individual
sports, anger and perfectionism may prove to be experienced very differently
through participation in diverse settings. More research of this kind
may lead to a greater understanding of how the perfectionism-anger dynamic
is uniquely experienced in springboard diving.

Although not specifically scrutinized in the current study, there did
appear to be differences in scores between the normal population and springboard
divers. Greater research is needed comparing the relationships of anger
and perfectionism between these groups. Understanding how these populations
differ on these constructs may shed light on the presence of conditions
that lead to the formation of relationships between the various dimensions
observed in this study.

Finally, research that has a deeper focus on the trait anger-perfectionism
dynamic is needed. This study found the strongest and greatest number
of correlations between these dimensions, and understanding why this is
the case could prove to be useful. Perfectionism is also a trait characteristic
and examining the development of these qualities, and the ties between
them, could lead to greater insight into how they may be fostered or discouraged.

Table 1
Correlations for the F-MPS subscales Concern Over Mistake (CM) and Personal
Standards (PS) and the STAXI-2 scale State Anger (SANG) and subscales
State Anger / Feeling Angry (SANGF), State Anger / Feel Like Expressing
Anger Verbally (SANGV), and State Anger / Feel Like Expressing Anger Physically
(SANGP)

 

SANG SANGF SANGV SANGP
CM .189 .139 .217 .120
PS .209 .202 .160 .210

Table 2
Correlations for the F-MPS subscales Concern Over Mistake (CM) and Personal
Standards (PS) and the STAXI-2 scale Trait Anger (TANG) and subscales
Trait Anger / Angry Temperament (TANGT) and Trait Anger / Angry Reaction
(TANGR)

TANG TANGT TANGR
CM .374** .187 .490**
PS .307* .123 .408**

**Correlation is significant at the .01 level (two-tailed)
*Correlation is significant at the .05 level (two-tailed)

Table 3
Correlations for the F-MPS subscales Concern Over Mistakes (CM) and Personal
Standards (PS) and the STAXI-2 scales Anger Control-In (AC-I), Anger Control-Out
(AC-O), Anger Expression-In (AX-I), and Anger Expression-Out (AX-O)

 

AC-I AC-O AX-I AX-O
CM -.092 -.177 .310* .135
PS .310* .113 .234 .136

*Correlation is significant at the .05 level (two-tailed)

Table 4
Correlations for the F-MPS subscales Parental Criticism (PC), Parental
Expectations (PE), Doubts About Actions (DA), and Organization (ORG) and
the STAXI-2 scales State Anger (SANG), Trait Anger (TANG), and the Anger
Expression Index (AX)

 

PC PE DA ORG
SANG .178 .159 .035 -.078
TANG .274* .397** .165 .031
AX .179 .176 .030 -.054

**Correlation is significant at the .01 level (two-tailed)
*Correlation is significant at the .05 level (two-tailed)

Table 5
Results for independent t-tests for gender on the F-MPS subscales Concern
Over Mistakes (CM), Personal Standards (PS), Parental Expectations (PE),
and Parental Criticism (PC)

Subscale Gender (Number) Mean Standard Deviation Sig.(2-tailed)
CM Men (19)Women (40) 24.7923.33 9.076.57 .483
PS Men (19)Women (40) 26.6825.03 5.575.07 .260
PE Men (19)Women (40) 13.7914.65 4.383.98 .455
PC Men (19)Women (40) 6.958.20 3.923.09 .188

Table 6
Results for independent t-tests for gender on the STAXI-2 scales State
Anger (SANG), Anger Expression-In (AX-I), and Anger Expression-Out (AX-O)

Scale Gender (Number) Mean Standard Deviation Sig. (1-tailed)
SANG Men (19)Women (40) 26.8924.40 8.778.10 .286
AX-I Men (19)Women (40) 17.8917.26 4.563.44 .554
AX-O Men (19)Women (40) 14.4214.56 3.664.22 .900

Table 7
Results for independent t-test for gender on the STAXI-2 scale Trait Anger
(TANG)

Scale Gender (Number) Mean Standard Deviation Sig. (2-tailed)
TANG Men (18)Women (40) 17.2817.25 4.744.67 .983

Table 8
Results for independent t-tests for gender on the directional scales added
to the F-MPS (PERDIRECT) and the STAXI-2 (ANGDIRECT)

Scale Gender (Number) Mean Standard Deviation Sig. (2-tailed)
PERDIRECT Men (18)Women (38) 1.33.76 1.331.73 .223
ANGDIRECT Men (18)Women (39) -.28-.62 1.021.31 .339

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