Attendance Still Matters in MLB: The Relationship with Winning Percentage

Authors: Mitchell T. Woltring, University of South Alabama

Corresponding Author:
Mitchell T. Woltring, Ph.D.
171 Jaguar Drive
HKS 1016
mitchellwoltring@southalabama.edu
251-461-1925

Dr. Mitchell Woltring is an assistant professor of Sport Management at the University of South Alabama. He teaches undergraduate classes in the Leisure Studies program which serves both sport management and therapeutic recreation students. He received his Ph.D. in Human Performance from Middle Tennessee State University, an M.S. in Sport Management from Middle Tennessee State University, and a B.S. in Sport Management from Minnesota State University, Mankato. He has worked in the sport industry with several baseball teams at the MLB, college, and amateur levels, as well as coaching at the high school level.

Attendance Still Matters in MLB: The Relationship with Winning Percentage

ABSTRACT
The relationship between average attendance and winning percentage for Major League Baseball (MLB) teams across a 16-year period, from 1998-2013 was investigated. Attendance in baseball is an important topic because with a schedule at least twice as long as any other major North American league, MLB has the potential to gain a competitive advantage by maximizing attendance.

The relationship between attendance and winning percentage has been researched by looking at how winning percentage affects future attendance (3, 7). However, there is also evidence of a bidirectional relationship between attendance and winning percentage which suggests that attendance could be acting on winning percentage (3, 6). The excitement caused by a capacity crowd has the potential to influence the home team to perform better, which is exhibited by Baade and Tiehen’s postulation that attendance of at least 75% of stadium capacity can, “generate a different sense of excitement” (1).

An innovative method to examine attendance was used; rather than relying on aggregate attendance numbers, average attendance was recorded as a proportion of total stadium capacity. MLB stadiums range in capacity from 34,078 to 56,000, so aggregate numbers do not accurately reflect the potential differences in attendance between teams.

Four different statistical analyses were run which controlled for year, stadium capacity, and team payroll to determine the relationship between average attendance measured as a proportion of stadium capacity and winning percentage. Analyses of crosstabs, ANOVA, regression, and logistic regression all found a significant relationship between average attendance as a proportion of stadium capacity and winning percentage. Based on the research question, regression analysis proved to be the most applicable of the results. Regression results showed that average attendance as a proportion of stadium capacity was positively related to winning percentage, R2 = .242, p <.001.

The results indicate that attendance has the potential to increase winning percentage, which should be of interest to any MLB team. It should especially be of interest considering that over the course of the present study, MLB stadiums were only filled to 67% capacity.

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2018-11-06T10:01:57+00:00November 22nd, 2018|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Attendance Still Matters in MLB: The Relationship with Winning Percentage

The Working Alliance and Satisfaction with the Coach-Athlete relationship among Norwegian elite swimmers

Authors: F. Moen(1), R. Anstensen(1), M. Hrozanova(2), T. C. Stiles(3)

Corresponding Author:
Frode Moen, PhD
Department of Education and Lifelong learning, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
frode.moen@ntnu.no
+47 93 24 87 50

Frode Moen is a mental trainer for elite athletes and coaches at the Norwegian Olympic Sports Center in the Mid-Norway region, where he also is the manager. He is also an associate professor at the Department of Lifelong Learning and Education at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology where his research focuses on coaching in business, coaching in sport, communication, performance psychology, athlete burnout, attention, motivation, education, and relationship issues.

1) Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Education and Lifelong Learning, Faculty of Social and Educational Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
2) Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
3) Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Educational Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

The Working Alliance and Satisfaction with the Coach-Athlete relationship among Norwegian elite swimmers

ABSTRACT
The current study investigates how the three dimensions of the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI); bond, goal and task, uniquely explain the perceived satisfaction among Norwegian swimmers with their coach-athlete relationships. The current study uses regressions analysis to investigate the research question and the analysis shows that only the bond dimension uniquely explains the swimmers’ satisfaction with their relationships with their coaches. Bond explains 50% of the variance in athletes’ satisfaction with their coaches. The results are discussed in regard of applied implications and possible future research. (more…)

2018-10-29T14:44:22+00:00November 15th, 2018|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on The Working Alliance and Satisfaction with the Coach-Athlete relationship among Norwegian elite swimmers

Measuring ice hockey skills in a repeated measures testing context: The effects of fatigue on skating efficiency, passing, agility, and shooting

Authors: Gaetan Martini, M.Sc., JF Brunelle, M.Sc., François Trudeau, Ph.D., & Jean Lemoyne PhD

Corresponding Author:
Jean Lemoyne, Ph.D.
Department of Human Kinetics [Sciences de l’activité physique]
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
3351, des Forges, Trois-Rivières (Québec) Canada G9A 5H7
jean.lemoyne@uqtr.ca

Gaetan Martini is a graduate student (master degree in exercise) and works in the field of fitness testing and sport training. Jean Lemoyne is professor at the Department of Human Kinetics at Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (Canada), and work in the domain of quantitative research in sport sciences. JF Brunelle is a graduate student and physical preparation specialist who work with the UQTR varsity teams. François Trudeau is a professor at UQTR (Human Kinetics), and a certified exercise physiologist.

Measuring ice hockey skills in a repeated measures testing context: The effects of fatigue on skating efficiency, passing, agility and shooting

ABSTRACT
Purpose: Ice hockey testing traditionally consists of isolated, skills-specific tests that are performed in less realistic contexts. Global testing approaches should offer an improved assessment of players’ skills and performance fluctuations during a hockey game. This study aims to measure ice hockey players’ skills and analyze their fluctuations via a protocol that reproduces the demands of a hockey game. Methods: Fifty-nine hockey players (14.6 ± 2.1 years) participated in the study. The protocol involved four repeated measures assessing five components: speed, acceleration, passing, agility, and shooting, with supervised, 2-minute rest periods. Descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOVAs were used to analyze performance fluctuations. Results: Findings revealed that the best scores were obtained at the first and second repetitions. A significant decline in performance was observed for speed, acceleration, and shooting (p < .01). Inversely, participants seemed to adapt to puck control and passing stations, as they became faster without decreasing skating abilities. Perceived exertion and recovery time increased during the protocol. Conclusions: In summary, performance was affected by fatigue starting the third repetition of the testing protocol, and should be considered when assessing players’ skills. This study demonstrated the feasibility of an on-ice testing protocol to evaluate players in a hockey-specific context. Applications in sport: This study demonstrated the feasibility of an “on-ice” testing protocol that represents a more realistic context for measuring players’ abilities. Such protocols allow coaches to evaluate the effects of fatigue on multiple determinants associated with performance in ice hockey.

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2018-10-24T08:06:41+00:00November 8th, 2018|Research, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on Measuring ice hockey skills in a repeated measures testing context: The effects of fatigue on skating efficiency, passing, agility, and shooting

Movement Competency Screen Predicts Performance in Female Military Academy Recruits

Authors: Alex M. Warshaw1, David D. Peterson2, Sharon M. Henry1
1 Rehabilitation and Movement Science Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
2 Kinesiology and Allied Health Department, Cedarville University, Cedarville, OH, USA

Corresponding Author:
David D. Peterson, EdD, CSCS*D
Cedarville University
251 N. Main Street
Cedarville, OH 45314
ddpeterson@cedarville.edu
(937) 766-7761

Dr. Peterson is an associate professor of kinesiology at Cedarville University (CU) and currently serves as the Director of the Multi-Age Physical Education (MAPE) program at CU.

Movement Competency Screen Predicts Performance in Female Military Academy Recruits

ABSTRACT
Musculoskeletal injuries in military populations are a leading cause for reduced physical readiness (15). Utilizing a screening tool that predicts physical performance and injuries could help identify recruits who need remedial training or conditioning. The Movement Competency Screen (MCS) identifies poor movement patterns and suggests safe load levels for individuals (8). This study sought to establish the predictive ability of the MCS for injuries and performance in United States Naval Academy (USNA) recruits over four years. Fifteen female and 26 male recruits completed the MCS upon entry into the academy. The recruits’ Physical Readiness Test (PRT) scores and injury data were collected for eight semesters. Correlations between MCS scores and recruits’ number of injuries, missed “duty days”, and region of injury were identified using Pearson correlation coefficients. Additionally, correlations between MCS scores and recruits’ overall PRT score, number of push-ups, curl-ups, and their 1.5-mile run time were calculated. Within the first year at USNA recruits’ MCS scores correlated with the number of injuries and missed “duty days”; however, this correlation was not sustained. Recruits also experienced the most injuries in the first year. For female recruits, higher MCS scores correlated with better PRT scores, number of push-ups, and 1.5 mile run times. With its high inter- and intra-rater reliability (12), the MCS could be used to identify poor movement patterns and guide remedial training to help prevent future injury. Further research should focus on a larger military population to determine if the MCS’s predictive abilities go beyond a military academy population.
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2018-10-23T16:39:58+00:00November 1st, 2018|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Movement Competency Screen Predicts Performance in Female Military Academy Recruits

Examining Perceptions of Baseball’s Eras: A Statistical Comparison

Authors: Mitchell T. Woltring, Jim K. Rost, Colby B. Jubenville

Corresponding Author:
Mitchell T. Woltring, Ph.D.
171 Jaguar Drive
HKS 1016
mitchellwoltring@gmail.com
251-461-1925

Dr. Mitchell Woltring is an assistant professor of Sport Management at the University of South Alabama. He teaches undergraduate classes in the Leisure Studies program which serves both sport management and therapeutic recreation students. He received his Ph.D. in Human Performance from Middle Tennessee State University, an M.S. in Sport Management from Middle Tennessee State University, and a B.S. in Sport Management from Minnesota State University, Mankato. He has worked in the sport industry with several baseball teams at the MLB, college, and amateur levels, as well as coaching at the high school level.

Examining Perceptions of Baseball’s Eras: A Statistical Comparison

ABSTRACT
Professional baseball has endured many changes in rules, equipment, and competitive strategy over the course of its history. Because of such shifts, the modern era of Major League Baseball has been segmented into distinct eras. The purpose of this research was to determine how the perceptions of each era compared with the statistical outputs based on the measure of On-Base Plus Slugging Percentage (OPS), beginning with the 1901 season. Results were segmented by each era to determine any significant differences between the eras. Multiple regression and ANOVA were used to determine if perceptions for each era aligned with statistical findings. Results showed that perceptions for five of the seven eras matched, while perceptions of two eras did not. Results also showed significant statistical differences between the eras, indicating the way in which hitting and pitching contributed to winning percentage were unique for each era.
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2018-10-25T08:15:22+00:00October 25th, 2018|Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Examining Perceptions of Baseball’s Eras: A Statistical Comparison