Examining Physical Activity and Affect Using Objective Measures: A Pilot Study of Anorexia Nervosa

Authors:
Trisha M. Karr, Ph.D., Brian Cook, Ph.D., Christie Zunker, Ph.D., Li Cao, M.S., Ross D. Crosby, Ph.D., Stephen A. Wonderlich, Ph.D., & James E. Mitchell, M.D.

Affiliation: Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, 120 8th Street, Fargo, ND 58103

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Christie Zunker, 260 River Valley Rd, Atlanta, GA 30328
christiezunker@hotmail.com
205-821-1499

ABSTRACT
This pilot study used accelerometers and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to objectively examine physical activity and affect among women suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN). Nine women with AN wore ActiGraphTM accelerometers and completed EMA recordings across seven days. Mixed-effects linear models revealed temporal associations between physical activity and affect within the same day, within the same hour, and within the next hour. Momentary measurement of physical activity and positive affect revealed reciprocal effects, in that physical activity enhanced positive affect, which in turn, facilitated further activity. Findings reflect the utility of objective assessment measures in real time for the link between physical activity and affect among women with AN. The implementation of a tailored physical activity program, coordinated by trained clinical and sports professionals, may be a valuable asset for the treatment of AN.
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Career and Educational Experiences of High School Athletic Directors: A Multi-level Perspective

Authors:
Brian Fowler – Sport Administration, University of Northern Colorado, CO, USA
Jimmy Smith, Ph. D – Sport & Physical Education, Gonzaga University, WA, USA
Jesse E. Croskrey – Sport & Physical Education, Gonzaga University, WA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Brian Fowler
1006 Lucca Dr.
Evans, CO 80620
brian.fowler@unco.edu
208-967-5793

Brian Fowler is a Ph. D student in Sports Administration at the University of Northern Colorado.
Jimmy Smith is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sport and Physical Education at Gonzaga University.
Jesse E. Croskrey is graduate of the Masters in Sport and Athletic Administration program at Gonzaga University. 
Career and educational experiences of high school athletic directors: A multi-level perspective

ABSTRACT
High school athletic directors (AD) play a crucial role in the administration of high school sports. Over the past several decades, participation in high school athletics has increased, placing ADs with additional responsibilities. Many duties include student-athlete development, transportation, technology, legal issues, marketing, fund-raising, and more recently, concussions. As duties and responsibilities increase, high school principals find the hiring of ADs more challenging. The current research reviewed career and educational experiences of high school ADs; looking at what principals look for in their ADs and comparing their responses to ADs resumés. A total of 112 Washington State high school principals completed surveys and 37 ADs submitted resumés for comparison. Results showed that principals preferred ADs to have coursework background in law, ethics, budget, and finance. Principals rated experience as a head coach the highest among professional experiences and results showed a majority of ADs had such experience. Implications of results suggested that principals can make more sound decisions as they hired ADs. Individuals looking to become an AD can shape their career path to meet the expectations of principals.
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Academic Fraud in Revenue and Nonrevenue Sports

Authors: John Adamek

Corresponding Author:
John Adamek, CSCS
4 Truman Place
Moonachie NJ, 07074
Jfadamek21@gmail.com
201-543-9142

John Adamek is a strength and conditioning coach owner of Sports Science Integration. He is also a graduate student at the United States Sports Academy.

Academic Fraud in Revenue and Nonrevenue Sports

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical overview of academic fraud in collegiate revenue and non-revenue sports, with a focus on distinguishing whether or not revenue sport programs are more likely to be at risk for academic fraud. The hypothesis is that as nonrevenue sports at universities begin over performing thus transitioning to a revenue sport, does an increased risk of academic fraud exist amongst those involved with the university. Method. The Legislative Service Database was used to gather data on academic infractions that occurred between 2003 and 2014 on universities participating in the FBS and FCS subdivisions. Data was then matched with the U.S. Departments of Education’s Equity in Athletics Data Analysis to identify the net generated revenue of the athletic department during the time of the infraction. Results show that traditional revenue sports (Men’s Basketball and Football) account for 73.9% of academic fraud cases. Of the total number of athletic programs involved in academic fraud over half, 56.5% were revenue generating. This paper should be used to educate and direct future researchers and the NCAA on developing a system to identify and manage the potential risks of academic fraud by sport and university.
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Money Management for Student Athletes Transitioning to Professional Sports: How to Plan When Cash Flows are Uneven and Uncertain

Authors: Stephanie R. Yates

Corresponding Author:
Stephanie R. Yates, PhD
University of Alabama at Birmingham
1150 10th Avenue S
BEC 310-B
Birmingham Al, 35294
sryates@uab.edu
205-934-8857

Stephanie Yates is the Director and Endowed Professor for the Regions Institute for Financial Education (RIFE) at UAB. The RIFE focuses on increasing financial literacy in students and adults throughout Alabama and beyond.

Money Management for Student Athletes Transitioning to Professional Sports: How to Plan When Cash Flows are Uneven and Uncertain

ABSTRACT
This paper provides financial guidance for student athletes transitioning to professional sports. Sound financial planning is important in the absence of professional assistance. This paper outlines key budgeting tasks for the professional athlete. This paper also provides a sample case to illustrate how an athlete might manage his or her finances and blank worksheets are also included. Adherence to a budget that is useful but not overly restrictive can help a young athlete manage income uncertainties and prepare for a stable financial future.
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Bullying in Sports: The Definition Depends on Who You Ask

Author: Charles R. Bachand

Corresponding Author:
Charles R. Bachand, MS
112 Rock Lake Road
Longwood, Florida 32750
charles.bachand@knights.ucf.edu
407-937-9284

Charles Bachand is a Doctoral Candidate at the University of Central Florida and an athletic coaching educator/lecturer.  

Bullying in Sports: The Definition Depends on Who You Ask

ABSTRACT
Research has been conducted regarding bullying in multiple fields of study for many years. The lack of a generally identified definition has limited not only the ability to compare research studies but the ability of organizations to promote rules and regulations consistently. The purpose of this literature review was to potentially find an existing definition that encompasses all aspects of bullying and if one was not identified, to create a comprehensive definition of bullying by using seminal definitions selected based on specific criterion. Methods used to identify these definitions included data base searches using key terms and criterion based in the subject area of education, medical, psychology, and sociology. Results show that there was no definition that included all ten coded indicators of bullying, which indicated there is no existing definition that fully identifies the action of bullying. The development of a complete definition of bullying was created using the coded indicators to assist in future research studies, data collection, coaching education, and the development of rules and regulations in athletic organizations as well as those organizations outside of athletics.
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