How Mindfulness Training may mediate Stress, Performance and Burnout

Submitted by  P. Furrer1*, Dr. F. Moen2*,  and. Dr. K. Firing3*

1* Master student; Faculty of Teacher Education; The Nord-Trøndelag University College; Levanger, Norway

2* Associate Professor; Department of Education; Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Trondheim, Norway

3*Associate Professor; Department of Leadership; The Royal Norwegian Air Force Academy; Trondheim, Norway

Frode Moen is currently the head manager of the Olympic Athlete program in central Norway, where he also has a position as a coach / mental trainer for elite athletes and coaches.  He also is an associate professor at the Department of Education at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.  He previously has worked as a teacher in high school where sport was his major subject, and he has been a coach for the national team in Nordic combined in Norway for several years.  Frode received his Ph.D.  in coaching and performance psychology from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.  His research focuses mainly on coaching in business, coaching in sport, communication, performance psychology and relationship issues.

ABSTRACT

The aim of this article was to explore the influence of mindfulness training on stress, perceived performance in school and sports, and athlete burnout among junior elite athletes.  One goal was to determine the usefulness of mindfulness training in performance enhancement and burnout prevention in junior elite sports.  A mindfulness-training program (MTP) was conducted with 29 junior elite athletes over a period of 12-weeks.  Six of the athletes who were participating in the MTP were randomly chosen to voluntarily participate in a semi structural interview that explored possible effects from the MTP.  Our qualitative analyses showed that the mindfulness intervention had a positive impact on the athletes’ awareness and recovery.  The authors also discuss positive effects on the athletes’ focus and performances.  The findings are discussed against the usefulness of mindfulness training in athlete burnout prevention.

Key words: mindfulness, stress, athlete burnout, sport

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2015-07-16T13:25:18+00:00July 15th, 2015|Contemporary Sports Issues|Comments Off on How Mindfulness Training may mediate Stress, Performance and Burnout

High School Coaches’ Continuing Education Delivery Preferences

Submitted by Brooke E. Forester, Ph.D.1*; Shelley L. Holden, Ed.D.2*; Christopher M. Keshock, Ph.D.3*

1* Assistant Professor of Health, Physical Education and Leisure Studies, University of South Alabama

2* Associate Professor of Health, Physical Education and Leisure Studies, University of South Alabama

3* Associate Professor of Health, Physical Education and Leisure Studies, University of South Alabama

Dr. Forester’s current position is with the University of South Alabama as a professor of Sport and Recreation Management.  Her research interests are focused on coach education, corporate social responsibility in the sport industry, and sport politics. Previously, Dr. Forester taught as a visiting faculty member at The Florida State University.

Abstract

According to the National Federation of High State High School Associations (NFHS), there are approximately 7.6 million high school athletes across the country (14).   These athletes are led by coaches who often seek continuing education opportunities to further their professional development.  The purpose of the study was to examine the preferences of continuing education delivery methods among high school coaches. Data were collected through online surveys.  Both male (n = 74) and female (n = 29) head and assistant coaches participated in the study.  The participating coaches (N = 103) were presented with six options of content delivery methods.  Data were analyzed using a 5×2 mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA). The within subjects factor was delivery method (1. live, 2. books, 3.on-line, 4. hybrid, and 5. DVD/video) and the between subjects factor, gender. Results showed a significant main effect for delivery method F(4,404)=13.198, p<.001 but not gender (males M=3.343±1.08; females M=3.345±1.12; p>.05). Post Hoc comparisons found the highest rated delivery method (live course M=3.991±1.378) to be significantly different (p≤.05) from books (M=2.709±1.218), on-line, on-demand (M=3.325±1.182), and live courses on-line (M=3.250±1.283) methods but not DVD/video (M=3.530±1.136). To date, there has been little research conducted with American high school coaches’ continuing education.  Continuing education research including other subjects however provides contrasting results.  Nurse practitioners prefer in-person conferences most (3) while Canadian sport coaches seem to prefer to learn from a variety of sources (5).  Results of the current study would be useful for the development of continuing education content for coaches and to assist academicians in better understanding the intricacies of coaching education.

Keywords:  Coaching, continuing education, coaching education

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2015-07-17T11:25:54+00:00July 15th, 2015|Contemporary Sports Issues|Comments Off on High School Coaches’ Continuing Education Delivery Preferences

How to Effectively Manage Coach, Parent, and Player Relationships

Submitted by: Shelley L. Holden, Ed.D1*, Brooke E. Forester, Ph.D2*, Christopher M. Keshock, Ph.D3*, Steven F. Pugh, Ph.D.

1* Associate Professor of Health, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Ala.

2* Assistant Professor of Health, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Ala.

3* Associate Professor of Health, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Ala.

4* Professor of Health, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Ala.

Shelley Holden  is an associate professor in the Health, Physical Education, and Leisure Studies Department at the University of South Alabama in Mobile, Ala.

ABSTRACT

Youth sports are an integral part of the culture in the United States and directly impact the lives of many children and adolescents. Parents play a major role in a child’s athletic development and are members of the athletic triangle.  The athletic triangle consists of the coach, athlete, and parent and the relationships within this triad can have significant impact on the psychological development of the child (6, 23. 27). The following article aims to provide a general overview of the athletic triangle in the context of youth and high school sports with a focus on the role of effective communication for optimal athletic success.

Keywords: coaching, athletic triangle

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2018-10-25T10:22:16+00:00June 29th, 2015|Contemporary Sports Issues|Comments Off on How to Effectively Manage Coach, Parent, and Player Relationships

Physiological and Psychological Effects of Testosterone on Sport Performance: A Critical Review of Literature

Submitted by: Mr. P.J. Vanny1*, Dr. Jordan Moon2*.

1* P.J. Vanni, M.S., NSCA-CPT

2* MusclePharm Sports Science Center Research Institute Director, Distance Learning Faculty member, Department of Sports Exercise Science, United States Sports Academy. 

P.J. Vanni is a third year Sports Management Doctorate Student at the United States Sports Academy, an Independent Distributor for Advocare Nutrition Company, and is also a faculty member in the Health and Physical Education Department at The Haverford School in Haverford, PA.

Dr. Jordan Moon is the MusclePharm Sports Science Center Research Institute Director, as well as a Distance Learning Faculty member for the Department of Sports Exercise Science at The United States Sports Academy. 

Introduction

The emergence of testosterone (Te) use in sports has increased drastically since its inception, spawning a “cat and mouse game” between athletes and regulating bodies.  Once a means for detection is developed, scientists are developing new forms or compounds of Te which are undetected by current testing or mask increased Te in some way to make the testing inefficient.

Athletes that can improve their level of play through supraphysiological doses of Te are willing to risk getting caught because they believe the pros outweigh the cons (20).  If an athlete can avoid getting caught using Te, the benefits to their performance can include notoriety, increased individual and possibly team success, and increased salaries.

The endocrinology of Te release is based on homeostatic regulations.  A human will release Te based on the need to grow as during infancy and puberty, and based on exercise demands explained in the proceeding research. Increasing the amount of Te in the body will have an increased effect on the already potent and beneficial outcomes of natural Te.

As you will see in this review, the effects of Te use in athletes can improve their physical strength, stature, and possibly performance.  Much research has proven the effects of Te doping on an individual, whether they are an athlete or not; although, these benefits do not ensure success in certain sports.  This review will discuss the endocrinology and origins of Te, the physiology behind how Te works, the effects, the relationships of these effects to sports, the ethics of Te use in sports, and the relationship between Te and sports related skills.

Keywords: testosterone, supraphysiological doses, Te (more…)

2015-06-29T10:34:20+00:00June 29th, 2015|Contemporary Sports Issues|Comments Off on Physiological and Psychological Effects of Testosterone on Sport Performance: A Critical Review of Literature

How to Achieve Team Cohesion through Competition in Sport: An Organizational Model

Submitted by Jay K. Smith1*

1* Battalion Executive Officer, 3-13 IN BN, 193rd IN BDE, Fort Jackson, South Carolina

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a practical method for coaches of any sport team to improve team performance and cohesion through inter-squad competition and intra-squad cooperation.  While the concept of intra-team competition to improve cohesion and team performance is not new, this paper describes a practical, task driven approach for coaches to use.  For purposes of clarity, American football is the example used to describe this approach.  Although, this task driven competition format can be applied to other sports teams, American football has more distinctive task oriented positions than other sports, thus providing simplicity.  Also, football teams use the most formal off-season competitive scrimmage strategies in which the first team offense and first team defense play each other in order for the coaching staff to assess players and test game schemes.  This widespread tactic is useful for coaches, but it can be argued this creates division with the rest of the team.  In-fighting among the individuals in each squad (i.e. wide receivers, offensive line, etc…) can prevail, and a counter-productive attitude may develop that breaks any cohesive advantage gained as players begin to focus on the amount of playing time they get in relation to their teammates.  However, if coaching staffs adopt a task oriented system in which the squad coaches encourage group success and teamwork, and the coordinator level harnesses the competitive spirit, players will be more likely to encourage each other to become better.  Pre-season scrimmages should not be scored in a traditional, regular season-like format.  Instead, scrimmages should be scored by accumulating points for successful plays executed by any player from a specific squad against any opposing squad with naturally opposing tasks.  This means receivers would be competing two levels up at the Coordinator level, and not among themselves.  Building off past research, this should also diffuse anxiety levels of players since each cohesive group will be focused on building up the less talented players, instead of trying to dominate them for increased playing time.

Keywords: competition, cooperation, group dynamics, motivation, team cohesion (more…)

2015-07-24T09:45:14+00:00June 29th, 2015|Contemporary Sports Issues|Comments Off on How to Achieve Team Cohesion through Competition in Sport: An Organizational Model