The Roethlisberger Effect: Steelers Fans and the Marketing of a Regional Superhero

Submitted by Joshua Shuart, Ph.D.

ABSTRACT

This paper bridges a theoretical gap between early celebrity endorsement and hero worship literature.  Additionally, the model connects a successful, winning athlete with several established branding constructs.  The Roethlisberger Effect takes early theory proposed over 35 years ago in “The Namath Effect” and applies it with a modern touch.  Given that the NFL is often referred to as a “copycat league” – i.e. when something works, all other teams work quickly to replicate it – the impact that Roethlisberger has had upon other league and team management philosophies is rather profound.

This paper is an updated version of a poster presentation I authored for the 7th Sport Marketing Association (SMA) Conference (2009).

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2018-11-19T08:46:09-05:00May 8th, 2014|Contemporary Sports Issues, Sports Management, Sports Marketing|Comments Off on The Roethlisberger Effect: Steelers Fans and the Marketing of a Regional Superhero

Disordered Eating, Eating Attitudes, and Reasons for Exercise among Male High School Cross Country Runners

Submitted by Guy Wadas, MS, Southern Utah University and Mark DeBeliso, PhD, Southern Utah University

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE:  This study investigated the prevalence of disordered eating behaviors among male high school cross country runners.  The study identified behaviors and feelings about being an athlete, and determined relationships between motivations to exercise and disordered eating behaviors.  METHODS:  Sixty-eight male high school cross country runners from 12 high schools in one urban school district completed three questionnaire packets on one occasion pre-season.  The EAT-26 questionnaire was used to determine prevalence of disordered eating.  The ATHLETE questionnaire was used to determine psychological factors for relationships with disordered eating.  The EMI-2 was used to determine motivations to exercise and the relationship to disordered eating.  EAT-26 scores and data from the EMI-2 and ATHLETE questionnaires were analyzed via a Pearson Correlation Coefficient.  RESULTS:  A modest positive relationship existed between exercising for disordered eating behaviors versus exercising for weight management (r = 0.31: p < 0.05), the Your Body in Sports subscale (which measured drive for thinness and performance) (r = 0.36: p < 0.05), and the Feelings about Performance subscale (or Performance Perfectionism) (r = 0.26: p < 0.05).  CONCLUSIONS:  Risk factors associated with eating disorders exist in high school male cross country runners.  Underreporting and lack of recognition of disordered eating may affect prevalence rates.  Recommendations include a longitudinal study of male high school runners across the school year to determine relationships with the timing of questionnaire administration.  APPLICATIONS IN SPORT:  Disordered eating behaviors should be acknowledged as more than a “female only” issue.  Parents, teachers, coaches, and athletic trainers may be better able to understand and help male athletes with disordered eating behaviors or an active eating disorder.

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2016-10-12T15:13:04-05:00April 28th, 2014|Contemporary Sports Issues, General, Sports Exercise Science|Comments Off on Disordered Eating, Eating Attitudes, and Reasons for Exercise among Male High School Cross Country Runners

Caffeine Improves Sprint-Distance Performance among Division II Collegiate Swimmers

Submitted by David F. Vanata, Ph.D., RD, CSSD, LD; Nick Mazzino, B.S.;Robert Bergosh, Ph.D. and Paul Graham, B.S. of Ashland University in Ashland, Ohio.

ABSTRACT

Caffeine has been identified as a possible ergogenic aid for athletic performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on sprint-distance swim trials. Caffeine dosages of 3 milligrams per kilogram (mg.kg-1) of body weight and placebos were administered via vegan capsules to 30 Division II collegiate swimmers, (60.0% males, n=18), in a single blind, crossover study design. Capsules were administered 30-minutes prior to completing a 50-yard time trial using electronic touch-pads. Urine samples were collected and analyzed via High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine the amount of caffeine excreted in the urine. Significant improvements were observed between caffeine and placebo time trials, M=27.27 seconds, SD=3.65 vs. M=27.51 seconds, SD=3.74, t(29)=2.81, p=.009, respectively. Overall, 70.0% of all swimmers improved 50-yard swim times (n=21), with 61.1% (n=11) of males improving and 83.3% (n=10) of females. There was a significant difference between urinary caffeine levels after ingesting the placebo vs. the caffeine capsules, M=.733 micrograms per milliliter (mg.ml-1), SD=1.29 vs. M=2.69 mg.ml-1, SD=2.02, t(29)= -5.34, p<.001, respectively. Following supplementation, female swimmers excreted significantly more urinary caffeine than males, M=3.59 mg.ml-1, SD=2.23 vs. M=2.09 mg.ml-1, SD=1.68, t(28)= -2.11, p=.044, respectively.

Overall, caffeine supplementation was found to significantly improve time trials of trained colligate swimmers. Additional studies are needed to identify factors associated with the variation of urinary caffeine excretion values observed between female and male athletes.

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2016-10-12T15:11:34-05:00April 25th, 2014|Contemporary Sports Issues, General, Sports Exercise Science|Comments Off on Caffeine Improves Sprint-Distance Performance among Division II Collegiate Swimmers

Athlete Burnout: Is the Type of Sport a Factor?

Submitted by  Shelley L. Holden, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL; Christopher M. Keshock, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL; Brooke E. Forester University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL; Steven F. Pugh, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL and Steven F. Pugh, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL.

Abstract

Athletes sometimes become disenchanted with sport participation and stop competing at what might have been the pinnacle of their sport careers.  Prior research has determined that athletes are likely to burnout if they are participating in sport for reasons other than sport attraction. However, prior research has not studied female athletes’ comparative levels of burnout among various sports.  The purpose of this study was to determine the level of burnout in female collegiate athletes based on their sport of choice. Participants were 108 female collegiate athletes at a Division I university in the Southeastern United States. Ages ranged from 19 to 24 (M= 19.8). Burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The instrument is divided into three subscales that include: Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalization (DP), and Personal Accomplishment (PA). MBI scores on the subscales were used to classify participants as (1) low burnout (2) moderate burnout, or (3) high level of burnout.  Results indicated female basketball athletes had the highest level of burnout in the areas of EE (M=27.2) and DP (M=8.5) which are classified as high (1) for EE and moderate (2) for DP. The volleyball players had the lowest sense of PA (M= 37.5) from their sport which correlates with a high (3) level of burnout. Participants on the track and field team experienced the lowest level of EE (M=12.7) which is classified as low burnout (1). Softball experienced the lowest level of DP (M=3.4) which is also classified as low (1), and tennis had the highest sense of PA (M=26.3) which means they were classified as having a low (1) level of burnout. Potential and current student athletes must be better educated in the area of stress and stress management. Further, they need to be better prepared for the demands of Division I collegiate athletics. Moreover, collegiate athletic departments should examine the programs offered to freshman athletes to include a course(s)/presentation(s) on stress and stress management to reduce the potential effects of burnout and avoid athletes quitting their sport.  Finally, these efforts might be more intense in those sports where athletes indicated higher levels of burnout.

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2018-10-25T10:22:16-05:00April 25th, 2014|Contemporary Sports Issues|Comments Off on Athlete Burnout: Is the Type of Sport a Factor?

Unraveling team sponsorship in World Cup: What are the influencing factors?

Submitted by Cindy Lee* & Gonzalo Bravo

ABSTRACT

There are three parties involved in a simple sponsorship mechanism: the sponsor, the sponsored event or team, and the consumers (fans). However, this structure becomes more complicated in some cases where sub-sponsors exist such as in international sporting events. In these cases, would an overarching event influence sub-sponsorship such as team sponsorship?  Based on this question, this study aims to investigate the influence of overarching brand on team sponsorship effect, along with consumers’ attitudes toward team sponsors, team identification, and patriotism.

This study was conducted in the context of the 2010 World Cup with the United States team as a target subject. A total of 455 usable surveys were collected from the students at a Division I university two weeks prior to the 2010 World Cup. The results of multiple regression showed that only identification with the US National team (β= .54) and attitude toward the sponsoring companies (β= .28) were significant predictors (F(4,450) = 128.43, p < .00, R2=.53), explaining 53 percent of intention to purchase sponsors’ product. Interestingly, the attitude toward the World Cup and patriotism were not influencing factors on respondents’ intention to purchase sponsors’ products.
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2015-10-30T13:26:07-05:00April 24th, 2014|Contemporary Sports Issues, General, Sports Management, Sports Marketing|Comments Off on Unraveling team sponsorship in World Cup: What are the influencing factors?