Coaching Efficiency and Team Performance: An Examination of Texas Class 5A High School Football

Submitted by Scott J. Callan, Ph.D. and Janet M. Thomas, Ph.D.

Scott J. Callan is a professor in the Department of Economics at Bentley University. Janet M. Thomas is an Emeritus Professor of Economics at Bentley University.


In this research, we contribute to the literature on amateur sports competition by empirically estimating a production frontier for a sample of Texas high school football programs. Modeling a production frontier in this context allows us to empirically isolate the influence of offensive and defensive inputs on a team’s overall performance. In so doing, we are able to predict a measure of relative production efficiency for each team. Research-based estimates indicate that, on average, Texas high school football teams play well below potential, which in turn is linked to coaching inefficiency. Each team’s predicted efficiency level is then used in a salary regression and is found to be an indirect determinant of a head coach’s salary.

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Examining the Relationships between Task Cohesion, Self-Efficacy, and Competitive Trait Anxiety in College Team Sports

Submitted by Ali Aycan Ph.D.

Ali Aycan, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Sport Management at the Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey.                   


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between task cohesion, self-efficacy, and competitive trait anxiety in college team sports, as well as the relationship between these variables and some demographic features of the college athletes (e.g., age, gender, and sport age).  The sample consisted of 230 athletes (156 males, 74 females) from 12 different college sports teams.  The data were obtained using the Group Environment Questionnaire(GEQ), the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), and the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT).  Results showed that there are significant differences between male and female groups in competitive trait anxiety and self-efficacy perceptions (p<.01).  The ages of collegiate athletes and sport ages were related in a significantly negative way with perceptions of competitive trait anxiety and GI-Task.  Also, these three variables have either positive or negative correlations in the study.

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Effects of Circuit Resistance Training on Body Composition and Bone Status in Young Males

Submitted by Yilmaz Ucan

Dr. Ucan is the chairman of the AIBU Sports Club and is responsible for the university fitness and health center.


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of circuit type resistance training on body composition and bone status in young males.  Twenty eight moderately active male volunteers were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of circuit resistance training (CRT) (n=15; 24.3±1.4 years) or control (C) (n=13; 24.8±2.1 years).  Total body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), bone mineral content, and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.  At the end of the 12-week training period, there was a decrease (p<.05) in the CRT group %BF (-1.63%), FM (-1.03kg), an increase in FFM (1.46kg), and no change (p>.05) in body weight or BMD.  In C, no significant (p>.05) changes were observed.  CRT bone mineral density values were significantly (p<.05) higher (.003g/cm2) after the 12 week training period versus the control group values (-.005g/cm2).

Results suggest that 12 weeks of circuit resistance training in moderately active young males had a positive effect on body composition and bone status, with no effect on body weight.  Additional studies may identify effects of circuit resistance training on body composition and bone mineral density in women and aging.

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Winning by Deemphasizing Winning: Establishing Climates for Moral Development in Sports

Submitted by Luke Nielsen

Luke Nielsen is an educator and strength and conditioning coach at Saint Ansgar High School in Saint Ansgar, Iowa. He received his Master of Sports Science degree from the United States Sports Academy, and is currently pursuing a terminal degree through the Academy.


Purpose: This article was adapted from an unpublished essay previously submitted by the author as a course requirement for SAB 634: Ethics in Sports at the United States Sports Academy in Daphne, Alabama. The essay is intended to provide coaches and athletics administrators—specifically those operating within the frameworks of high school, club, and non-profit-generating collegiate programs—with a sound functional overview of existing research related to the influence of the program climate on the moral development of athletes and to offer suggestions for the implementation of research-supported techniques aimed at eliciting high levels of positive moral development. Methods: A broad range of existing literature related to the moral development of athletes was compiled, examined, analyzed, and disseminated. Results: The examined research findings suggest that moral development is rooted in emotional contexts and develops from a high level of externalization toward autonomy. Furthermore, existing research clearly supports a strong positive correlation between the social environment, the motivational orientation of athletes, and moral development. Specifically, coaches who model and support autonomous moral behaviors maintain the most positive influence on the healthy moral development of athletes; and athletes possessing high task-ego goal orientations tend to have the highest levels of moral functioning. Conclusions: Due to their inherently emotional constructs and the progressive development of skills toward autonomy associated with sports, athletics serve as an ideal environment for moral development. By deemphasizing winning as an end goal in order to support task goal orientation and healthy competition, sports programs can effectively promote positive moral development. Applications in Sports: Athletics organizations that claim to exist for the developmental benefit of the participating athletes—specifically non-revenue generating athletics entities—must examine and implement sound research-supported strategies associated with the moral development of athletes. By developing an understanding of the concepts identified and incorporating the practices prescribed within this essay, coaches and athletics administrators may establish sports programs that effectively promote positive moral development.

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A Case Study of a Successful Men’s NCAA Division I Distance Running Coach: To what extent is Decision-making Humanistic?

Submitted by Seth E. Jenny and Glenn F. Hushman

Seth E. Jenny, Ph.D., is an assistant professor within the Department of Physical Education, Sport and Human Performance at Winthrop University. He is a certified USA Track and Field coach and American College of Sports Medicine Health-Fitness Specialist. Glenn F. Hushman, Ph.D., is an assistant professor within the Department of Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences at the University of New Mexico. There he teaches undergraduate and graduate physical education teacher education courses.


A coaching philosophy is a set of values that guide a coach’s behavior in practical instructional situations, and in overall human relationships. The humanistic coaching philosophy is an athlete-centered, collaborative, and non-manipulative process between athlete and coach, taking into account individual athlete differences and abilities, with the hopes of eventually developing a self-confident and self-regulated athlete. The aim of this case study was to investigate the coaching philosophy and methods of a successful men’s NCAA distance running coach and explore to what extent the stated coaching philosophy and coaching methods of the coach are humanistic. After data collection of coach and athlete interviews, training session observations, and artifact collection, the primary theme of coach/athlete decision-making emerged. Findings indicated that the coach’s stated philosophy and methods were humanistic in regards to having open collaborative decision-making with athletes in most areas of the program (e.g., weekly running mileage, warm-up and cool-down routines, etc.), but dictatorial methods were employed in planning interval and tempo workouts independent from athletes. This corresponded to perceptions of dependency in which the majority of athletes felt dependent on the coach for planning training schedules and effectively implementing interval and tempo workouts into a training plan. A major implication from these findings include that in areas where coaches are authoritative, athletes may not develop feelings of competence which could impact athletes’ abilities to self-regulate independently from the coach. This research was performed and submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Science from the University of New Mexico.

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